Publications by authors named "Shimaa Afify"

12 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Anxiety, depression and coping strategies among chronic medical patients with coronavirus disease-2019: a multicenter follow-up cohort study.

J Ment Health 2021 Sep 30:1-9. Epub 2021 Sep 30.

Endemic medicine department, Faculty of Medicine, Helwan University, Helwan, Egypt.

Background: Studies have shown that COVID-19 patients experience high levels of anxiety, depression, and stress during the pandemic. Patients adopt different coping strategies to reduce their psychological distress.

Aim: To compare the immediate and long-term psychological impact of COVID-19 disease on patients with and without chronic medical illnesses (CMI) and identify coping styles of both groups during the peak of COVID-19 disease in Egypt.

Methods: This is a cohort follow-up study, that included an online survey consisting of General Health Questionnaire-12, Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale, Beck Depression Inventory and Brief-COPE scale. The Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Checklist was completed after 6 months. Questionnaires were distributed to adult patients with a confirmed diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 virus infection during their quarantine in Egypt.

Results: There was no significant difference between the two groups regarding anxiety and depression during the acute infection. Patients without CMI relied significantly on the use of informational support to cope with COVID-19 disease. Patients with CMI continued to show significant depressive symptoms after 6 months without significant PTSD symptoms.

Conclusions: COVID-19 has similar immediate psychological impact on patients with and without CMI. However, patients with CMI continue to show depression on long-term follow-up.
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September 2021

Safety and efficacy of sofosbuvir/ledipasvir and sofosbuvir/daclatasvir in the treatment of hepatitis C in patients with decompensated cirrhosis.

Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 Sep 21. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Endemic Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Helwan University, Cairo Tropical medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University, Alexandria Endemic Medicine and Hepatology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University Department of Internal Medicine, Al-Azhar University Tropical Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo Department of community medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University Hepatogastroenterology Department, National Hepatology & Tropical Medicine Research Institute, Cairo Gastroenterology Department, Damietta Cardiology and Gastroenterology Center, Damietta Hepatology and Gastroenterology Department, AGOZA Police Hospital, Cairo Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine Department, National Liver Institute, Menoufia University, Menoufia, Egypt Hepatology and gastroenterology department, national liver institute.Menoufia University, Egypt.

Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related decompensated cirrhosis is a severe life-threatening illness. The safety of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) has opened a gate of hope for that subgroup of patients who were previously contraindicated for interferon therapy.

Objective: We aimed at the investigation of the safety and efficacy of different DAAs regimens in the treatment of HCV-related decompensated cirrhosis patients, to determine sustained virological response (SVR)12 rates and to analyze the factors associated with response.

Methods: A retrospective, single-center study including HCV-related decompensated cirrhosis patients who received DAAs. Demographic, laboratory and clinical data were analyzed. The SVR12 rate was the primary outcome measure. Secondary outcomes included the predictors of response, changes in the baseline model for end-stage liver disease and child-turcotte-pugh (CTP) scores, and fibroindices (APRI and fibrosis-4 index) at 12 weeks after treatment.

Results: In total, 145 eligible patients (141 with CTP class B and 4 with class C) were enrolled in this study. SVR12 was achieved by 88.06% (118/134) of efficacy population on different DAAs regimens, Treatment was discontinued in 11 patients because of severe side effects without any deaths. Younger age showed a significant positive association with SVR12.

Conclusions: DAAs can be used for the treatment of HCV-related decompensated liver disease, with acceptable SVR12 rates and safety profiles.
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September 2021

Predictors of severity and development of critical illness of Egyptian COVID-19 patients: A multicenter study.

PLoS One 2021 23;16(9):e0256203. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Gastroenterology & Infectious Diseases Department, Ahmed Maher Teaching Hospital, Cairo, Egypt.

Objectives: We conducted the present multicenter, retrospective study to assess the epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, and radiological characteristics associated with critical illness among patients with COVID-19 from Egypt.

Methods: The present study was a multicenter, retrospective study that retrieved the data of all Egyptian cases with confirmed COVID-19 admitted to hospitals affiliated to the General Organization for Teaching Hospitals and Institutes (GOTHI) through the period from March to July 2020. The diagnosis of COVID-19 was based on a positive reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) laboratory test.

Results: This retrospective study included 2724 COVID-19 patients, of whom 423 (15.52%) were critically ill. Approximately 45.86% of the critical group aged above 60 years, compared to 39.59% in the non-critical group (p = 0.016). Multivariate analysis showed that many factors were predictors of critically illness, including age >60 years (OR = 1.30, 95% CI [1.05, 1.61], p = 0.014), low oxygen saturation (OR = 0.93, 95% CI [0.91, 0.95], p<0.001), low Glasgow coma scale (OR = 0.75, 95% CI [0.67, 0.84], p<0.001), diabetes (OR = 1.62, 95% CI [1.26, 2.08], p<0.001), cancer (OR = 2.47, 95% CI [1.41, 4.35], p = 0.002), and serum ferritin (OR = 1.004, 95% CI [1.0003, 1.008], p = 0.031).

Conclusion: In the present report, we demonstrated that many factors are associated with COVID-19 critical illness, including older age groups, fatigue, elevated temperature, increased pulse, lower oxygen saturation, the preexistence of diabetes, malignancies, cardiovascular disease, renal diseases, and pulmonary disease. Moreover, elevated serum levels of ALT, AST, and ferritin are associated with worse outcomes. Further studies are required to identify independent predictors of mortality for patients with COVID-19.
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October 2021

Weekend and evening planned colonoscopy activity: a safe and effective way to meet demands.

Endosc Int Open 2021 Jul 17;9(7):E1026-E1031. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Endoscopy unit, Sheffield Teaching Hospitals, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.

Colonoscopy is the "gold standard" investigation for assessment of the large bowel that detects and prevents colorectal cancer, as well as non-neoplastic conditions. The Joint Advisory Group (JAG) on Gastrointestinal Endoscopy recommends monitoring key performance indicators such as cecal intubation rate (CIR) and adenoma detection rate (ADR). We aimed to investigate the quality of colonoscopies carried out during evening and Saturday lists in our unit and compare them against JAG standards of quality for colonoscopies. We retrospectively collected and analyzed demographical and procedure-related data for non-screening colonoscopies performed between January 2016 and November 2018. Evenings and Saturdays were defined as the out-of-hour (OOH) period. We compared the outcomes of the procedures done in these against the working hours of the weekdays. We also wanted to explore whether the outcomes were different among certain endoscopists. Other factors that could affect the KPIs, such as endoscopist experience and bowel preparation, were also analyzed. There were a total of 17634 colonoscopies carried out; 56.9 % of the patients (n = 10041) < 70 years old. Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) of weekday, evening, and Saturday colonoscopies regarding the CIR and ADR met the JAG standards as they were above 93 % and 24 %, respectively. Advanced colonoscopists had better KPIs when compared to the non-advanced colonoscopists, with CIR at 97.6 % vs. 93.2 % and ADR at 40.8 % vs. 26 %, respectively. JAG standards were maintained during colonoscopies done on weekdays, evenings, and Saturdays. Advanced colonoscopists had higher CIR and ADRs.
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July 2021

Gastrointestinal manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus and coronavirus disease 2019: Understanding the intersecting regions between the two epidemics.

Arab J Gastroenterol 2021 Jun 26;22(2):75-87. Epub 2021 May 26.

Endemic Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

In March 2020, the World Health Organization declared coronavirus disease (COVID-19) a pandemic. As of February 2021, there were 107 million COVID-19 cases worldwide. As a comparison, there are approximately 38 million people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV) worldwide. The coexistence of both epidemics, and the syndemic effect of both viruses could lead to a delirious impact both at individual and community levels. Many intersecting points were found between severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of COVID-19, and HIV; among which, gastrointestinal (GI) manifestations are the most notable. GI manifestations represent a common clinical presentation in both HIV and SARS-CoV-2. The emergence of GI symptoms as a result of SARS-CoV-2 infection provides a new dynamic to COVID-19 diagnosis, management, and infection control measures, and adds an additional diagnostic challenge in case of coinfection with HIV. The presence of GI manifestations in PLHIV during the COVID-19 pandemic could be referred to HIV enteropathy, presence of opportunistic infection, adverse effect of antiretrovirals, or coinfection with COVID-19. Thus, it is important to exclude SARS-CoV-2 in patients who present with new-onset GI manifestations, especially in PLHIV, to avoid the risk of disease transmission during endoscopic interventions. Structural similarities between both viruses adds a valuable intersecting point, which has mutual benefits in the management of both viruses. These similarities led to the hypothesis that antiretrovirals such as lopinavir/Rironavir have a role in the management of COVID-19, which was the target of our search strategy using the available evidence. These similarities may also facilitate the development of an efficient HIV vaccine in the future using the advances in COVID-19 vaccine development.
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June 2021

Liver transplantation in the era of COVID-19.

Arab J Gastroenterol 2020 Jun 12;21(2):69-75. Epub 2020 May 12.

Internal Medicine Department, Hepatogastroenterology Unit, Kasr Al-Ainy School Of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Liver transplantation is considered the ultimate solution for patients with end-stage chronic liver disease or acute liver failure. Patients with liver transplant need special care starting from preoperative preparation, surgical intervention ending with postoperative care. Transplanted patients have to receive immunosuppressive therapy to prevent rejection. Such a state of immune suppression could predispose to different types of infections in liver transplant recipients. Currently, the world is suffering a pandemic caused by a new strain of the coronavirus family called COVID-19. Certain infection control precautions are needed to protect immunocompromised and vulnerable patients, including liver transplant candidates and recipients from acquiring COVID-19 infection. Restricting non-transplant elective surgical procedures, managing transplant patients in separate outpatient clinics, and in-patient wards can prevent transmission of infection both to patients and healthcare workers. Telemedicine can help in the triage of patients to screen for symptoms of COVID-19 before their regular appointment. Management of immunosuppressive therapy and drug-drug interactions in liver transplant recipients infected with COVID-19 should be cautiously practiced to prevent rejection and effectively treat the underlying infection. In this report, we are trying to summarize available evidence about different aspects of the management of liver transplant candidates and recipients in the era of COVID-19.
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June 2020

Egyptian liver library: An indexed database for liver disease evidence in Egypt.

Arab J Gastroenterol 2019 Jun 4;20(2):109-113. Epub 2019 Jun 4.

Endemic Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Helwan University, Cairo, Egypt.

Liver diseases are among the most challenging health care problems worldwide. In Egypt, we established different care programs to combat liver diseases including schistosomiasis and viral hepatitides. A lot of research work addressing liver diseases in Egypt have been published with special focus on these two major fields. Other liver disease seems to be neglected although present and contributing to the liver disease burden in Egypt. In this report we reviewed the available evidence published from Egypt and elucidate areas of weakness and future research needs. Our search for Egyptian liver disease evidence retrieved 4683 articles, 67% of them were relevant to the topic. Out of the relevant articles; 1646/3265 (50.4%) were discussing clinical science, 1131 (34.7%) were discussing basic science and 488 (14.9%) were discussing both basic and clinical sciences. Cairo university (16.8%, n = 513) and Mansoura university (9.3%, n = 285) had the largest number of publications related to liver disease in Egypt respectively. The most commonly reported diseases were hepatitis C in 719/3361 articles (21.4%), parasitic liver infestations in 663 articles (19.7%), hepatocellular carcinoma in 544 articles (16.2%), liver fibrosis or cirrhosis in 537 articles (16%), and drug induced liver injury in 516 articles (15.4%). Most of the reviewed articles (36%) were discussing treatment of chronic liver diseases (n = 1201) followed by diagnostics (28%, n = 940), pathogenesis and pathophysiology (21%, n = 706). This review will direct attention to areas with less research like hepatitis B related liver disease, HIV/HCV co-infections, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) to encourage future research in these topics. In conclusion; our results ring a bell inviting the development of a roadmap for liver research in Egypt targeting to put future policies to cover areas of weakness in liver research with an ultimate goal of tackling liver disease and its overwhelming socioeconomic burden in our developing country.
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June 2019

High success rates for the use of ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir containing regimens in treatment of naïve and experienced chronic hepatitis C genotype 4: Real world results.

J Med Virol 2019 Apr 5. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Department of Endemic Medicine and Hepatology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Introduction And Aims: Treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 4 patient with fixed dose combination of ombitasvir-paritaprevir-ritonavir plus ribavirin (OBV/rPTV/RBV) has been proven efficacy and safety in many clinical trials. The current study reports the efficacy and safety of OBV/rPTV/RBV (for treatment-naïve), and OBV/rPTV/RBV/sofosbuvir (SOF) (for treatment-experienced), in chronic HCV genotype 4 patients in real life settings.

Methods: Prospective cohort study including all adult chronic HCV genotype 4 patients who were scheduled to receive OBV/rPTV/RBV ± SOF for 12 or 24 weeks in New Cairo Viral Hepatitis Treatment Center. The primary efficacy endpoint was a virologic response at posttreatment week 12 (SVR12). Changes in hematological parameters, liver biochemical profile and fibrosis-4 index (FIB-4), as well as clinical and laboratory adverse events (AEs) across follow up visits (week 4, end of treatment [EOT], and SVR12), were recorded.

Results: Our study included 325 patients (age; 47.63 ± 12.63 years, 55.38% [n = 180] men). Most of the included patients (89.85%, n = 292) were treatment naïve and only 7% (n = 23) had liver cirrhosis. Overall, SVR12 was attained by 98.44% (316 of 321) of the patients; 97.15% (307 of 316) of patients who received 12 weeks of OBV/rPTV/RBV ± SOF and 100% (9 of 9) of patients who received 24 weeks of OBV/rPTV/RBV as assessed by modified intention to treat analysis. There was a significant improvement of baseline alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, hemoglobin, FIB-4 at SVR12 (P < 0.05). The most common reported AEs were anemia (n = 106), fatigue (n = 41) and elevated indirect bilirubin (n = 37).

Conclusion: OBV/rPTV/RBV (±SOF) is a highly effective therapy for chronic HCV patients in real life settings.
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April 2019

Clinical impact of serum α-fetoprotein and its relation on changes in liver fibrosis in hepatitis C virus patients receiving direct-acting antivirals.

Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2019 Sep;31(9):1129-1134

Department of Endemic Medicine and Hepatology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University.

Background: α-Fetoprotein (AFP) is used widely as a serological marker for hepatocellular carcinoma. However, the AFP value is elevated in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients without hepatocellular carcinoma. Yet, data on the impact of direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) therapy on AFP levels after viral eradication are still lacking.

Aim: The aim of this study was to elucidate the changes in the serum AFP level in chronic hepatitis C patients treated with DAA-based therapy and their relation to response and liver fibrosis parameters.

Patients And Methods: A total of 456 chronic HCV patients who received different DAAs-based treatment regimens were enrolled. Laboratory data including serum AFP, transient elastography values, and fibrosis scores were recorded at baseline and sustained virological response at 24 weeks after treatment (SVR24). The outcome was the changes in the AFP level from baseline to SVR24 and its relation to changes in liver fibrosis parameters at SVR24 using Spearman's rank correlation test.

Results: Overall, 96.9% of enrolled patients were responders. A statistically significant improvement in serum transaminases, albumin, transient elastography values, and fibrosis scores at SVR24 was reported. The AFP level was significantly decreased from a median (interquartile range) of 6 (3.2-10.8) ng/ml before DAAs to 4 (2.3-6) ng/ml at SVR24 (P < 0.0001). Only 22.6% of patients showed an increase in the AFP level after treatment. On multivariate analysis, the only independent baseline variable associated with an increase in the AFP level after treatment was baseline AFP (odds ratio: 0.95, 95% confidence interval: 0.91-0.99, P = 0.02). There is a significant correlation between changes in AFP and liver fibrosis parameters at SVR24.

Conclusion: DAAs-based regimens are a highly efficient antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis C patients that resulted in improvements in the serum AFP level.
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September 2019

An account of the real-life hepatitis C management in a single specialized viral hepatitis treatment centre in Egypt: results of treating 7042 patients with 7 different direct acting antiviral regimens.

Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 2018 Dec 24;12(12):1265-1272. Epub 2018 May 24.

c Endemic Medicine and Hepato-Gastroenterology Department, Faculty of Medicine , Cairo University , Cairo , Egypt.

Background: A large Egyptian treatment program for HCV was launched in2014 after the introduction of direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs). This program depended mainly on establishing specialized independent centres for HCV treatment. These centres represent the major strengths in the Egyptian model of care, as they provide integrated care for HCV patients and have enabled Egypt to treat more than one million patients in 3 years. The New Cairo Viral Hepatitis Treatment Center (NCVHTC) is an example of these specialized centres.

Methods: The Egyptian experience in the management of HCV was evaluated by analysing the data of real-life HCV management in the NCVHTC from 2014 to 2017. Results of different treatment regimens in addition to their strengths, limitations and areas for improvement are discussed in this report.

Results: A total of 7042 HCV patients have been evaluated for treatment in the NCVHTC. Among them, 5517 patients received treatment by seven different DAA regimens with excellent results.

Conclusions: All regimens were highly effective at treating HCV in a real-life setting, apart from SOF/RBV, which was the least effective. A nationwide screening program and enhancing the follow-up of treated patients are the main missing pillars in the Egyptian model.
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December 2018

After successful hepatitis C virus antiviral therapy: It looks that normal alanine aminotransferase level is not the normal.

J Clin Lab Anal 2018 Mar 28;32(3). Epub 2017 Jul 28.

Endemic Medicine and Hepatogastroenterology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Background: Normal serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels differ with age, gender, and body mass index. Adjusting the upper limits of normal (ULN) for ALT needs further research in different populations. Aim of this work was to monitor the effect of successful chronic hepatitis C (CHC) treatment on the ALT levels in patients with normal pretreatment ALT.

Methods: Data of 1160 CHC patients with persistent pretreatment normal liver enzymes were retrospectively analyzed. Treatment response to direct acting antiviral agents (DAAs) therapy was recorded. Changes in ALT levels before and after treatment were analyzed by patients' demographic, laboratory, and radiologic characteristics. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) of ALT after treatment were used to generate a new ALT ULN.

Results: Males were 568 (49%) and females 592 (51%) with a mean age of 50.7 years. After treatment, mean (±SD) of ALT levels significantly decreased from (26.3±7.8) to (19.1±10.9). This reduction was more significant in interferon-free than interferon-based regimens. ROC curve analyses suggested a new ALT ULN cut off (26.4 IU/L) in the treated patients (sensitivity=78.6%, specificity=83.8%, AUROC=0.89. This cutoff dropped to 14.7 IU/L in cirrhotic patients (sensitivity=77.4%, specificity=44.7%, AUROC=0.612). The identified cutoffs were 16.3 IU/L (sensitivity=66.7%, specificity=47.5%, AUROC=0.499) and 15.5 IU/L (sensitivity=76.5%, specificity=51.3%, AUROC=0.576) in males and females, respectively.

Conclusion: The current ALT ULN needs readjustment to identify new normal cutoffs in CHC patients. Posttreatment cutoffs differ according to gender, pretreatment liver affection, and treatment regimen.
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March 2018

Herpes Zoster reactivation in patients with chronic hepatitis C under treatment with directly acting antiviral agents: A case series.

Arab J Gastroenterol 2017 Mar 18;18(1):39-41. Epub 2017 Mar 18.

Endemic Hepatogastroenterology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

We report a series of cutaneous Herpes Zoster (HZ) reactivation cases in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection treated with directly acting antiviral (DAA) agents. Five cases were detected among 2133 treated patients with DAAs at one of the specialized viral hepatitis treatment centers in Egypt. A control group including 2300 age and sex matched HCV patients who were previously treated with pegylated interferon and ribavirin did not show any HZ reactivation reports while on treatment. None of cases had an evidence of immunosuppression or a risk factor for HZ reactivation. The DAAs used regimens were sofosbuvir/daclatasvir in 4 cases and sofosbuvir/simeprevir in one case. HCV clearance with antiviral therapy may bring immune changes causing reactivation of other latent viral infections like HZ. A high index of clinical suspicion may be needed to guarantee early and prompt management of such cases.
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March 2017