Publications by authors named "Shilpa Naik"

19 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Impact of HIV status on systemic inflammation during pregnancy.

AIDS 2021 Jul 8. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Department of Epidemiology, Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health, New York, USA Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, USA Department of Biostatistics, Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health, New York, USA Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Byramjee Jeejeebhoy Government Medical College, Pune, India Byramjee-Jeejeebhoy Government Medical college-Johns Hopkins University Clinical Research Site, Pune, India Instituto Goncalo Moniz, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Salvador, Brazil Multinational Organization Network Sponsoring Translational and Epidemiological Research, (MONSTER) Initiative, Salvador, Brazil Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, Brazil Curso de Medicina, Faculdade de Tecnologia e Ciências, Salvador, Brazil Universidade Salvador (UNIFACS), Laureate Universities, Salvador, Brazil Escola Bahiana de Medicina e Saúde Pública (EBMSP), Salvador, Brazil National Institutes of Health, National Institute for Research in Tuberculosis, International Center for Excellence in Research, Chennai, India Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, USA.

Objective: There are limited studies on the association of HIV infection with systemic inflammation during pregnancy.

Design: A cohort study (N = 220) of pregnant women with HIV (N = 70) (all on antiretroviral therapy) and without HIV (N = 150) were enrolled from an antenatal clinic in Pune, India.

Methods: The following systemic inflammatory markers were measured in plasma samples using immunoassays: soluble CD163 (sCD163), soluble CD14 (sCD14), intestinal fatty acid-binding protein (I-FABP), C-reactive protein (CRP), alpha 1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), interferon-β (IFNβ), interferon-γ (IFNγ), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-13, IL-17A and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα). Generalized estimating equation (GEE) and linear regression models were used to assess the association of HIV status with each inflammatory marker during pregnancy and by trimester, respectively.

Results: Pregnant women with HIV had higher levels of markers for gut barrier dysfunction (I-FABP), monocyte activation (sCD14) and markers of systemic inflammation (IL-6 and TNFα), but surprisingly lower levels of AGP, an acute phase protein, compared to pregnant women without HIV, with some trimester-specific differences.

Conclusions: Our data show that women with HIV had higher levels of markers of gut barrier dysfunction, monocyte activation and systemic inflammation. These markers, some of which are associated with preterm birth, might help explain the increase in adverse birth outcomes in women with HIV and could suggest targets for potential interventions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAD.0000000000003016DOI Listing
July 2021

Detection of genital tuberculosis among women with infertility using best clinical practices in India: An implementation study.

Indian J Tuberc 2021 Jan 11;68(1):85-91. Epub 2020 Aug 11.

Byramjee Jeejeebhoy Government Medical College/Johns Hopkins Clinical Trials Unit, Pune, Maharashtra, India.

Background: Diagnosis of genital tuberculosis (TB) as a cause of infertility still remains a diagnostic dilemma for clinicians, as no standard guidelines exist. The recently proposed best practices for genital TB diagnosis have not been evaluated yet in India.

Objectives: To implement best practices to diagnose and treat likely genital TB as a cause of infertility.

Methods: Between April 2016 and June 2018, consenting women seen at a tertiary hospital infertility clinic were assessed by thorough TB related clinical history, ultrasonography, tuberculin skin test (TST), and ESR. Those with suspected genital TB underwent laparohysteroscopy. Clinical and laboratory characteristics were compared between likely (microbiologically confirmed or probable TB) and unlikely (possible and no genital TB) genital TB. Fertility outcome was assessed among women initiated on anti-TB treatment (ATT).

Results: Of 185 women seeking infertility care, likely genital TB was identified among 29 (15.7%) women, with 6 (21%) confirmed and 23 (79%) probable genital TB. Compared to unlikely genital TB cases, the likely genital TB group were found to have past history of TB (p < 0.001); positive TST (p = 0.002) and elevated ESR (p = 0.001). Among the likely genital TB group, all 6 confirmed genital TB were started on ATT and 2 (33.3%) conceived. Of 5 probable genital TB started on ATT, 3 (60%) conceived.

Conclusion: Approximately 1/6th of women seeking infertility care met the criteria for likely genital TB. Conception among over-half of treated probable genital TB cases provides preliminary evidence that best clinical practices can be utilized, but needs further confirmatory studies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijtb.2020.08.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7921546PMC
January 2021

Systemic Inflammation in Pregnant Women With Latent Tuberculosis Infection.

Front Immunol 2020 27;11:587617. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Department of Epidemiology, Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health, New York, NY, United States.

Background: Recent studies in adults have characterized differences in systemic inflammation between adults with and without latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI+ . LTBI-). Potential differences in systemic inflammation by LTBI status has not been assess in pregnant women.

Methods: We conducted a cohort study of 155 LTBI+ and 65 LTBI- pregnant women, stratified by HIV status, attending an antenatal clinic in Pune, India. LTBI status was assessed by interferon gamma release assay. Plasma was used to measure systemic inflammation markers using immunoassays: IFN, CRP, AGP, I-FABP, IFN, IL-1, soluble CD14 (sCD14), sCD163, TNF, IL-6, IL-17a and IL-13. Linear regression models were fit to test the association of LTBI status with each inflammation marker. We also conducted an exploratory analysis using logistic regression to test the association of inflammatory markers with TB progression.

Results: Study population was a median age of 23 (Interquartile range: 21-27), 28% undernourished (mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) <23 cm), 12% were vegetarian, 10% with gestational diabetes and 32% with HIV. In multivariable models, LTBI+ women had significantly lower levels of third trimester AGP, IL1β, sCD163, IL-6 and IL-17a. Interestingly, in exploratory analysis, LTBI+ TB progressors had significantly higher levels of IL1, IL-6 and IL-13 in multivariable models compared to LTBI+ non-progressors.

Conclusions: Our data shows a distinct systemic immune profile in LTBI+ pregnant women compared to LTBI- women. Data from our exploratory analysis suggest that LTBI+ TB progressors do not have this immune profile, suggesting negative association of this profile with TB progression. If other studies confirm these differences by LTBI status and show a causal relationship with TB progression, this immune profile could identify subsets of LTBI+ pregnant women at high risk for TB progression and who can be targeted for preventative therapy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.587617DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7873478PMC
July 2021

Genetic gain for rice yield in rainfed environments in India.

Field Crops Res 2021 Jan;260:107977

Universitaet Hohenheim, Biostatistics Unit, 70593, Stuttgart, Germany.

The complexity of genotype × environment interactions under drought reduces heritability, which determines the effectiveness of selection for drought tolerance and development of drought tolerant varieties. Genetic progress measured through changes in yield performance over time is important in determining the efficiency of breeding programmes in which test cultivars are replaced each year on the assumption that the new cultivars will surpass the older cultivars. The goal of our study was to determine the annual rate of genetic gain for rice grain yield in a drought-prone rainfed system in a series of multi-environment trials conducted from 2005 to 2014 under the Drought Breeding Network of Indian sites in collaboration with the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI). Our results show a positive trend in grain yield with an annual genetic yield increase of about 0.68 % under irrigated control, 0.87 % under moderate reproductive stage drought stress and 1.9 % under severe reproductive stage drought stress due to breeding efforts. The study also demonstrates the effectiveness of direct selection for grain yield under both irrigated control as well as managed drought stress screening to improve yield in typical rainfed systems. IRRI's drought breeding programme has exhibited a significant positive trend in genetic gain for grain yield over the years under both drought stress as well as favorable irrigated control conditions. Several drought tolerant varieties released from the programme have outperformed the currently grown varieties under varied conditions in the rainfed environments on farmers' fields.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2020.107977DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7722510PMC
January 2021

Validation of New Interactive Nutrition Assistant - Diet in India Study of Health (NINA-DISH) FFQ with multiple 24-h dietary recalls among pregnant women in Pune, India.

Br J Nutr 2021 Oct 28;126(8):1247-1256. Epub 2020 Dec 28.

Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY10032, USA.

Adequate dietary intake is critical to prevent adverse pregnancy outcomes. India has a high burden of maternal and child morbidity and mortality, but there is a lack of adequate tools to assess dietary intake. We validate an FFQ, New Interactive Nutrition Assistant - Diet in India Study of Health (NINA-DISH), among pregnant women living with and without HIV in Pune, India. Women were selected from a cohort study investigating immune responses to HIV and latent tuberculosis during pregnancy. The FFQ was administered during the third trimester and validated against multiple 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDR) collected in second and third trimesters. Data for analysis were available from fifty-eight women out of seventy enrolled into this sub-study, after excluding those with incomplete data or implausible energy intake. The median (Q1, Q3) age of study participants was 23 (20, 25) years. Median (Q1, Q3) daily energy intakes were 10 552 (8000, 11 958) and 10 673 (8510, 13 962) kJ by 24-HDR and FFQ, respectively, with FFQ overestimating nutrient intake. Pearson correlations between log-transformed estimates from FFQ and 24-HDR for energy, protein, carbohydrate, fat, Fe and Zn were 0·47, 0·48, 0·45, 0·33, 0·4 and 0·54, respectively. Energy-adjusted and de-attenuated correlations ranged from 0·41 (saturated fat) to 0·73 (Na). The highest misclassification into extreme tertiles was observed for fat (22 %), saturated fat (21 %) and Na (21 %). Bias existed at higher intake levels as observed by Bland-Altman plots. In conclusion, NINA-DISH is a valid and feasible tool for estimating dietary intakes among urban pregnant women in Western India.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114520005188DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8236492PMC
October 2021

Association of Vegetable and Animal Flesh Intake with Inflammation in Pregnant Women from India.

Nutrients 2020 Dec 8;12(12). Epub 2020 Dec 8.

Department of Epidemiology, Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health, New York, NY 10032, USA.

In pregnant women, studies are lacking on the relationship of vegetable and animal flesh (poultry, red meat and seafood) intake with inflammation, especially in low- and middle-income countries. We conducted a cohort study of pregnant women receiving antenatal care at BJ Medical College in Pune, India. The dietary intake of pregnant women was queried in the third trimester using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Twelve inflammatory markers were measured in plasma samples using immunoassays. Only 12% of the study population were vegetarians, although animal flesh intake levels were lower compared to Western populations. In multivariable models, higher intakes of total vegetables were associated with lower levels of the T-helper (Th) 17 cytokine interleukin (IL)-17a ( = 0.03) and the monocyte/macrophage activation marker soluble CD163 (sCD163) ( = 0.02). Additionally, higher intakes of poultry were negatively associated with intestinal fatty-acid binding protein (I-FABP) levels ( = 0.01), a marker of intestinal barrier dysfunction and Th2 cytokine IL-13 ( = 0.03), and higher seafood was associated with lower IL-13 ( = 0.005). Our data from pregnant women in India suggest that a higher quality diet emphasizing vegetables and with some animal flesh is associated with lower inflammation. Future studies should confirm these findings and test if modulating vegetables and animal flesh intake could impact specific aspects of immunity and perinatal health.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12123767DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7762525PMC
December 2020

Quantitative assessment of olfactory dysfunction accurately detects asymptomatic COVID-19 carriers.

EClinicalMedicine 2020 Nov 16;28:100575. Epub 2020 Oct 16.

Indian Institute of Science Education and Research (IISER), Pune, Maharashtra, 411008, India.

Background: COVID-19 threatens the global community because a large fraction of infected people are asymptomatic, yet can effectively transmit SARS-CoV-2. Finding and isolating these silent carriers is a crucial step in confining the spread of the disease. A sudden loss of the sense of smell has been self-reported by COVID-19 patients across different countries, consistent with expression of the molecular factors mediating SARS-CoV-2 uptake into human olfactory epithelial supporting cells. However, precise quantification of olfactory loss in asymptomatic COVID-19 carriers is missing to date.

Methods: To quantify olfactory functions in asymptomatic COVID-19 patients, we designed an olfactory-action meter that determines detectability indices at different odor concentrations and an olfactory matching accuracy score using monomolecular odors. The optimization of test parameters allowed us to reliably and accurately assess olfactory deficits in a patient within 20 minutes.

Findings: Measurement of detection indices at low concentrations revealed a 50% reduction in asymptomatic COVID-19 carriers. Further, patients with better detection scores showed significantly reduced olfactory matching accuracies compared to normal healthy subjects. Our quantification of olfactory loss, considering all parameters, identified 82% of the asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 carriers with olfactory deficits. However, on subjective evaluation, only 15% of the patients noticed a compromised ability to smell.

Interpretation: Compromised olfactory fitness can serve as a strong basis for identifying asymptomatic COVID-19 patients. Detailed design specifications and protocols provided here should enable the development of a sensitive, fast, and economical screening strategy that can be administered to large populations to prevent the rapid spread of COVID-19.

Funding: This work was supported by the DBT - Wellcome Trust India Alliance intermediate grant (IA/I/14/1/501,306 to N.A.) and UGC NET Fellowship (A.B.). All the funding sources played no roles in the study.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eclinm.2020.100575DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7562772PMC
November 2020

Effects of Pregnancy and Isoniazid Preventive Therapy on M. tuberculosis Interferon Gamma Response Assays in Women with HIV.

Clin Infect Dis 2020 Jul 28. Epub 2020 Jul 28.

Departments of Medicine and International Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD.

Background: Pregnancy is accompanied by immune suppression. We hypothesized that M. tuberculosis-specific inflammatory responses used to identify latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) lose positivity during pregnancy. We also hypothesized that isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) may revert LTBI diagnoses because of its sterilizing activity.

Methods: 944 women with HIV participating in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study comparing 28 weeks of IPT antepartum versus postpartum, were tested by QuantiFERON-gold-in-tube (QGIT) antepartum and by QGIT and tuberculin skin test (TST) at delivery and postpartum. Serial QGIT positivity was assessed by logistic regression using generalized estimating equations.

Results: From entry to delivery, 68 (24%) of 284 QGIT-positive women (24%) reverted to QGIT-negative or indeterminate. Of these, 42 (62%) recovered QGIT positivity postpartum. The loss of QGIT positivity during pregnancy was explained by decreased IFNγ production in response to TB antigen and/or mitogen. At delivery, QGIT identified 205 and TST 113 women with LTBI. Corresponding numbers postpartum were 229 and 122 women. QGIT and TST kappa agreement coefficients were 0.4 and 0.5, respectively. Among QGIT-positive women antepartum or at delivery, 34 (12%) reverted to QGIT-negative after IPT. There were no differences between women who initiated IPT antepartum or postpartum.

Conclusions: Decreased IFNγ responses in pregnancy reduced QGIT positivity, suggesting that this test cannot reliably rule out LTBI during pregnancy. TST was less affected by pregnancy, but had lower positivity compared to QGIT at all time points. IPT was associated with loss of QGIT positivity, the potential clinical consequences of which need to be investigated.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa1083DOI Listing
July 2020

An In-Vitro Comparative Evaluation of Pre-treatment With Nano-Silver Fluoride on Inhibiting Secondary Caries at Tooth Restoration Interface.

Cureus 2020 May 2;12(5):e7934. Epub 2020 May 2.

Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, D.Y. Patil University School of Dentistry, Mumbai, IND.

Introduction and aim Dental caries is the global burden worldwide and has a negative effect on the quality of life. Restorative materials in pediatric dentistry have shown satisfactory properties; however, the highest failures are still reported due to the occurrence of secondary caries. The article aims to assess the effectiveness of pre-treatment with nano-silver fluoride (NSF) in inhibiting secondary caries at the tooth restoration interface. Materials and methods Forty tooth specimens were prepared from 20 newly extracted human premolar teeth by sectioning the tooth mesiodistally. Class V cavities were prepared on each specimen at enamel dentin junction. Specimens were randomly distributed into four groups (n=10): 1) glass ionomer cement (GIC) restoration, 2) composite restoration 3) NSF pre-treatment + GIC restoration, 4) NSF pre-treatment + composite restoration. After sterilization, specimens were subjected to artificial caries formation by pH cycling method for 14 days. Specimens were sectioned and mounted to evaluate the demineralization by using the Vickers microhardness test. Outer lesion depth was measured at the tooth restoration interface on digital radiographs. Data was analyzed using Student unpaired t-test, one-way ANOVA, and Tukey honestly significant difference (HSD) post hoc test. Results The mean microhardness value of pre-treated GIC and composite group with NSF was more than the non-treated NSF group, with a significant difference at the enamel, indicating lesser demineralization. Outer lesion depth was lesser in the pre-treated group showing better tooth restoration integrity with a statistically significant difference between the groups. Conclusion Pre-treatment with NSF is beneficial in increasing the resistance of GIC and composite resin restoration to secondary caries formation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.7934DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7265756PMC
May 2020

Genotype × environment interactions for grain iron and zinc content in rice.

J Sci Food Agric 2020 Aug 19;100(11):4150-4164. Epub 2020 May 19.

Rice Breeding Platform, International Rice Research Institute, Metro Manila, Philippines.

Background: Nutrient deficiency in humans, especially in children and lactating women, is a major concern. Increasing the micronutrient concentration in staple crops like rice is one way to overcome this. The micronutrient content in rice, especially the iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) content, is highly variable. The identification of rice genotypes in which there are naturally high Fe and Zn concentrations across environments is an important target towards the production of biofortified rice.

Results: Phenotypic correlations between grain Fe and Zn content were positive and significant in all environments but a significant negative association was observed between grain yield and grain Fe and Zn. Promising breeding lines with higher Zn or Fe content, or both, were: IR 82475-110-2-2-1-2 (Zn: 20.24-37.33 mg kg ; Fe: 7.47-14.65 mg kg ); IR 83294-66-2-2-3-2 (Zn: 22-37-41.97 mg kg ; Fe: 9.43-17.16); IR 83668-35-2-2-2 (Zn: 27.15-42.73 mg kg ; Fe: 6.01-14.71); IR 68144-2B-2-2-3-1-166 (Zn: 23.53-40.30 mg kg ; Fe: 10.53-17.80 mg kg ) and RP Bio 5478-185M7 (Zn: 22.60-40.07 mg kg ; Fe: 7.64-14.73 mg kg ). Among these, IR82475-110-2-2-1-2 (Zn: 20.24-37.33 mg kg ; Fe: 7.47-14.65 mg kg ) is also high yielding with 3.75 t ha . Kelhrie Cha (Zn: 17.76-36.45 mg kg ; Fe: 7.17-14.77 mg kg ), Dzuluorhe (Zn: 17.48-39.68 mg kg ; Fe: 7.89-19.90 mg kg ), Nedu (Zn: 18.97-43.55 mg kg Fe: 8.01-19.51 mg kg ), Kuhusoi-Ri-Sareku (Zn: 17.37-44.14 mg kg ; Fe: 8.99-14.30 mg kg ) and Mima (Zn: 17.10-45.64 mg kg ; Fe: 9.97-17.40 mg kg ) were traditional donor genotypes that possessed both high grain Fe and high Zn content.

Conclusion: Significant genotype × location (G × L) effects were observed in all traits except Fe. Genetic variance was significant and was considerably larger than the variance of G × L for grain Zn and Fe content traits, except grain yield. The G × L × year variance component was significant in all cases. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.10454DOI Listing
August 2020

Intensified Short Symptom Screening Program for Dengue Infection during Pregnancy, India.

Emerg Infect Dis 2020 04;26(4):738-743

Mosquitoborne diseases (e.g., malaria, dengue, and chikungunya) are endemic to India and pose diagnostic challenges during pregnancy. We evaluated an intensified short symptom screening program in India to diagnose dengue during pregnancy. During October 2017-January 2018, we screened pregnant women during antenatal surveillance for symptoms of mosquitoborne diseases (fever only, fever with conjunctivitis, fever with rash, or all 3 symptoms) within the previous 15 days. Of 5,843 pregnant women screened, 52 were enrolled and tested for dengue, chikungunya, and Zika viruses by using a Trioplex real-time reverse transcription PCR. Of 49 who had complete results, 7 (14%) were dengue positive. Of these ocular pain was seen in 4 (57%) and conjunctivitis in 7 (100%). Intensified symptom screening using conjunctivitis, in addition to rash, in pregnant women with fever might improve dengue case detection and can be included in routine symptom screening during pregnancy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2604.191476DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7101120PMC
April 2020

Association between HIV antiretroviral therapy and preterm birth based on antenatal ultrasound gestational age determination: a comparative analysis.

AIDS 2019 12;33(15):2403-2413

aDivision of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina bHarvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Center for Biostatistics in AIDS Research, Boston, Massachusetts, USA cCentre for AIDS Research in South Africa and Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Clinical Medicine, University of KwaZulu Natal, Durban, South Africa dByramiee Jeejeebhoy Government Medical College, Pune, India eMakerere University, Kampala, Uganda fWits Reproductive Health and HIV Institute, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa gDepartment of Pathology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland hDivision of Global Women's Health, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.

Objective: To evaluate the association between HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART) and preterm birth (PTB), when defined by gold standard antenatal ultrasound versus newborn exam.

Design: A secondary analysis of the PROMISE 1077BF/1077FF randomized controlled trial, which compared antiretroviral strategies to reduce perinatal HIV transmission and improve maternal health. The trial used newborn exam (i.e. New Ballard Score, NBS) to assess gestational age. This analysis included liveborn singleton pregnancies with both newborn exam and ultrasound data. The primary exposure was the trial's antiretroviral strategies: zidovudine with intrapartum nevirapine ('ZDV alone'); zidovudine/lamivudine/lopinavir-ritonavir ('ZDV-based ART'); or tenofovir/emtricitabine/lopinavir-ritonavir ('TDF-based ART'). The primary outcome was PTB less than 37 and less than 34 weeks based on the gold standard of ultrasound dating. We evaluated the association between antiretroviral strategy and PTB. We fit multivariable logistic regression models, adjusting for maternal characteristics, obstetric history, and HIV disease severity.

Results: Among 720 assessed pregnant women, PTB less than 37 weeks was 15.4% by NBS and 18.3% by ultrasound. The NBS was specific but not sensitive for PTB less than 37 weeks (92.0% and 48.5%). Women receiving ZDV-based and TDF-based ART had significantly higher odds of PTB less than 37 by ultrasound compared with ZDV alone (adjusted odds ratios: 1.68; 95% confidence interval 1.10-2.57, and 2.71; 95% confidence interval 1.39-5.29), as well as for PTB less than 34 weeks. These results held for ultrasounds performed less than 24 weeks, and were generally consistent with prior analyses from the PROMISE trial using the NBS.

Conclusion: Women starting HIV ART in pregnancy remained at higher risk of PTB when determined by ultrasound, consistent with prior data using newborn exam. However, newborn exam misclassified cases of PTB compared with gold standard ultrasound.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAD.0000000000002367DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7293898PMC
December 2019

Comparing the accuracy of cone-beam computed tomography and electronic apex locator for root canal length determination in primary teeth.

J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent 2019 Apr-Jun;37(2):157-161

Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, D Y Patil Deemed to be University School of Dentistry, Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.

Aims: The aims of this study were to assess the accuracy of electronic apex locator (CanalPro™) and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in determination of working length in primary teeth compared to direct visual length.

Subjects And Methods: Ninety-nine primary teeth (207 root canals) were subjected to CBCT scan for assessment of working length. All root canals were then measured using CanalPro™ Apex Locator. Actual length of root canal was measured using direct visual method which was kept as control.

Statistical Analysis Used: One-way ANOVA and Tukey's honestly significant difference tests were performed using the Statistical Packages for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16.

Results: Overall estimated mean values obtained using three methods show that CBCT method was more accurate than the apex locator in determining the working length in primary teeth. However, these values were statistically insignificant.

Conclusions: CanalPro™ Apex Locator can be used in primary teeth to accurately determine the working length. Nevertheless, a preexisting CBCT can always be used for determination of the working length in the primary teeth.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/1319-2442.261334DOI Listing
November 2019

Ovarian mass - tuberculosis or malignancy? Need for early intensified evaluation.

EXCLI J 2018 14;17:914-915. Epub 2018 Sep 14.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Byramjee Jeejeebhoy Government Medical College and Sassoon General Hospitals, Jay Prakash Narayan Road, Pune-01, India.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.17179/excli2018-1640DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6295639PMC
September 2018

Screening and diagnosis of gestational diabetes in India: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Acta Diabetol 2018 Jun 26;55(6):613-625. Epub 2018 Mar 26.

Departments of Medicine and OB-GYN, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY, USA.

Aims: Although diabetes is rapidly increasing in India, there is no national consensus on best practices for screening, diagnosis, and management of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). The goal of this study was to systematically review the literature for studies reporting the prevalence and screening and diagnostic methods for gestational diabetes in India.

Methods: We searched MEDLINE, Embase, and POPLINE for studies on screening for GDM in India. We included English-language full reports and conference abstracts of cross-sectional studies, prospective, and retrospective cohorts that reported the screening method and prevalence of GDM. We performed descriptive analysis on all studies and meta-analysis, meta-regression, and subgroup meta-analysis on studies with medium or low risk of bias.

Results: We included 64 studies reporting 90 prevalence estimates. Prevalence estimates ranged from 0 to 41.9%. Subset meta-analyses showed that the IADPSG diagnostic criteria found significantly more GDM cases (prevalence = 19.19% [15.5, 23.6], p < 0.05) than the WHO 1999 criteria (10.13% [8.17, 12.50]) and DIPSI criteria (7.37% [5.2, 10.16]). Studies that compared the IADPSG and WHO 1999 criteria showed poor positive agreement (33-79%). Studies specifying time of GDM diagnosis showed that patients (11-60%) develop GDM as early as the first trimester, but many GDM cases (16-40%) are missed if screened only at first visit.

Conclusions: In India, prevalence estimates of GDM vary substantially by diagnostic criteria. When evaluating screening and diagnostic criteria for GDM, providers should consider their patients' needs and correlate screening criteria with pregnancy outcomes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00592-018-1131-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5999405PMC
June 2018

Gender-based violence screening methods preferred by women visiting a public hospital in Pune, India.

BMC Womens Health 2018 01 15;18(1):19. Epub 2018 Jan 15.

Johns Hopkins University, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, USA.

Background: Gender-based violence (GBV) is a major global public health concern and is a risk factor for adverse health outcomes. Early identification of GBV is crucial for improved health outcomes. Interactions with health care providers may provide a unique opportunity for routine GBV screening, if a safe, confidential environment can be established.

Methods: Between November 2014 and February 2015, a cross-sectional, observational study was conducted where women were interviewed about their opinions concerning GBV screening in a tertiary health care setting in Pune, India. Trained counsellors interviewed 300 women at different out-patient and in-patient departments using a semi-structured questionnaire.

Results: Twenty-three percent of these women reported experiencing GBV in their life. However, 90% of women said they had never been asked about GBV in a health care setting. Seventy-two percent expressed willingness to be asked about GBV by their health care providers, with the preferred provider being nurses or counsellors. More than half (53%) women reported face-to-face interview as the most preferred method for screening. There were no major differences in these preferences by GBV history status.

Conclusions: Our study provides evidence for preferred GBV screening methods and optimal provider engagement as perceived by women attending a public hospital.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12905-018-0515-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5769341PMC
January 2018

Molecular Mapping of QTLs Associated with Lodging Resistance in Dry Direct-Seeded Rice ( L.).

Front Plant Sci 2017 21;8:1431. Epub 2017 Aug 21.

International Rice Research Institute, South Asia Hub, International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT)Patancheru, India.

Dry direct-seeded rice (DSR) is an alternative crop establishment method with less water and labor requirement through mechanization. It provides better opportunities for a second crop during the cropping season and therefore, a feasible alternative system to transplanted lowland rice. However, lodging is one of the major constraints in attaining high yield in DSR. Identification of QTLs for lodging resistance and their subsequent use in improving varieties under DSR will be an efficient breeding strategy to address the problem. In order to map the QTLs associated with lodging resistance, a set of 253 BCF lines derived from a backcross between Swarna and Moroberekan were evaluated in two consecutive years. A total of 12 QTLs associated with lodging resistance traits [culm length (), culm diameter (), and culm strength ()] were mapped on chromosomes 1, 2, 6, and 7 using 193 polymorphic SNP markers. Two major and consistent effect QTLs, namely (with of 10%) and (with of 14%) on chromosome 1 with id1003559 being the peak SNP marker (flanking markers; id1001973-id1006772) were identified as a common genomic region associated with important lodging resistance traits. analysis revealed the presence of Gibberellic Acid 3 beta-hydroxylase along with 34 other putative candidate genes in the marker interval region of id1001973-id1006772. The positive alleles for culm length, culm diameter, and culm strength were contributed by the upland adaptive parent Moroberekan. Our results identified significant positive correlation between lodging related traits (culm length diameter and strength) and grain yield under DSR, indicating the role of lodging resistant traits in grain yield improvement under DSR. Deployment of the identified alleles influencing the culm strength and culm diameter in marker assisted introgression program may facilitate the lodging resistance under DSR.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2017.01431DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5567065PMC
August 2017

A rare case of criminal abortion with retained foreign body in uterus for 2 years.

J Obstet Gynaecol India 2014 Aug 1;64(4):295-6. Epub 2013 May 1.

Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Sassoon Hospital, B.J. Medical College, Pune, India.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13224-012-0247-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4126953PMC
August 2014

Levels of Tektin 2 and CatSper 2 in normozoospermic and oligoasthenozoospermic men and its association with motility, fertilization rate, embryo quality and pregnancy rate.

J Assist Reprod Genet 2013 Apr 22;30(4):513-23. Epub 2013 Mar 22.

Jaslok Hospital, 15, Dr G Deshmukh Marg, Mumbai - 26, India.

Purpose: To compare the expression profiles of Tektin 2 and CatSper 2 motility proteins in the spermatozoa of normozoospermic and oligoasthenozoospermic men and determine its correlation with sperm motility, fertilization rate, embryo quality and pregnancy rate.

Methods: Tektin 2 and CatSper 2 protein expression was studied using Western Blotting and immunofluorescence. Tektin 2 and CatSper 2 protein levels were quantified by ELISA.

Results: Oligoasthenozoospermic men were found to have lower fertilization rates, poor embryo quality and lower pregnancy rates as compared to normozoospermic men. The levels of Tektin 2 and CatSper 2 are significantly lower in spermatozoa of oligoasthenozoospermic men as compared to normozoospermic controls; the levels were also lower in immotile fraction as compared to motile fraction of spermatozoa obtained from normozoospermic individuals. The levels of Tektin 2 and CatSper 2 were higher in individuals demonstrating sperm motility >60 % as compared to sperm motility <30 %. Tektin 2 but not CatSper 2 levels were positively associated with fertilization rate, embryo quality and pregnancy rate.

Conclusion: Levels of Tektin 2 and CatSper 2 proteins are positively associated with sperm motility parameters. Measurements of Tektin 2 levels can be correlated with the clinical outcome of ICSI.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10815-013-9972-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3644123PMC
April 2013
-->