Publications by authors named "Shila Shahbazian"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Recent Advances of Functional Proteomics in Gastrointestinal Cancers- a Path towards the Identification of Candidate Diagnostic, Prognostic, and Therapeutic Molecular Biomarkers.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Nov 12;21(22). Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Department of Clinical Medicine, Macquarie University, Macquarie Park, NSW 2113, Australia.

Gastrointestinal (GI) cancer remains one of the common causes of morbidity and mortality. A high number of cases are diagnosed at an advanced stage, leading to a poor survival rate. This is primarily attributed to the lack of reliable diagnostic biomarkers and limited treatment options. Therefore, more sensitive, specific biomarkers and curative treatments are desirable. Functional proteomics as a research area in the proteomic field aims to elucidate the biological function of unknown proteins and unravel the cellular mechanisms at the molecular level. Phosphoproteomic and glycoproteomic studies have emerged as two efficient functional proteomics approaches used to identify diagnostic biomarkers, therapeutic targets, the molecular basis of disease and mechanisms underlying drug resistance in GI cancers. In this review, we present an overview on how functional proteomics may contribute to the understanding of GI cancers, namely colorectal, gastric, hepatocellular carcinoma and pancreatic cancers. Moreover, we have summarized recent methodological developments in phosphoproteomics and glycoproteomics for GI cancer studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21228532DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7697099PMC
November 2020

Polysialic acid in the rat brainstem and thoracolumbar spinal cord: Distribution, cellular location, and comparison with mouse.

J Comp Neurol 2021 03 4;529(4):811-827. Epub 2020 Aug 4.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Polysialic acid (polySia), a homopolymer of α2,8-linked glycans, is a posttranslational modification on a few glycoproteins, most commonly in the brain, on the neural cell adhesion molecule. Most research in the adult central nervous system has focused on its expression in higher brain regions, where its distribution coincides with regions known to exhibit high levels of synaptic plasticity. In contrast, scant attention has been paid to the expression of polySia in the hindbrain. The main aims of the study were to examine the distribution of polySia immunoreactivity in the brainstem and thoracolumbar spinal cord, to compare the distribution of polySia revealed by two commercial antibodies commonly used for its investigation, and to compare labeling in the rat and mouse. We present a comprehensive atlas of polySia immunoreactivity: we report that polySia labeling is particularly dense in the dorsal tegmentum, medial vestibular nuclei and lateral parabrachial nucleus, and in brainstem regions associated with autonomic function, including the dorsal vagal complex, A5, rostral ventral medulla, A1, and midline raphe, as well as sympathetic preganglionic neurons in the spinal cord and central targets of primary sensory afferents (nucleus of the solitary tract, spinal trigeminal nucleus, and dorsal horn [DH]). Ultrastructural examination showed labeling was present predominantly on the plasma membrane/within the extracellular space/in or on astrocytes. Labeling throughout the brainstem and spinal cord were very similar for the two antibodies and was eliminated by the polySia-specific sialidase, Endo-NF. Similar patterns of distribution were found in rat and mouse brainstem with differences evident in DH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cne.24982DOI Listing
March 2021

Polysialic Acid Regulates Sympathetic Outflow by Facilitating Information Transfer within the Nucleus of the Solitary Tract.

J Neurosci 2017 07 2;37(27):6558-6574. Epub 2017 Jun 2.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, 2109 New South Wales, Australia,

Expression of the large extracellular glycan, polysialic acid (polySia), is restricted in the adult, to brain regions exhibiting high levels of plasticity or remodeling, including the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, and the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS). The NTS, located in the dorsal brainstem, receives constant viscerosensory afferent traffic as well as input from central regions controlling sympathetic nerve activity, respiration, gastrointestinal functions, hormonal release, and behavior. Our aims were to determine the ultrastructural location of polySia in the NTS and the functional effects of enzymatic removal of polySia, both and polySia immunoreactivity was found throughout the adult rat NTS. Electron microscopy demonstrated polySia at sites that influence neurotransmission: the extracellular space, fine astrocytic processes, and neuronal terminals. Removing polySia from the NTS had functional consequences. Whole-cell electrophysiological recordings revealed altered intrinsic membrane properties, enhancing voltage-gated K currents and increasing intracellular Ca Viscerosensory afferent processing was also disrupted, dampening low-frequency excitatory input and potentiating high-frequency sustained currents at second-order neurons. Removal of polySia in the NTS of anesthetized rats increased sympathetic nerve activity, whereas functionally related enzymes that do not alter polySia expression had little effect. These data indicate that polySia is required for the normal transmission of information through the NTS and that changes in its expression alter sympathetic outflow. polySia is abundant in multiple but discrete brain regions, including sensory nuclei, in both the adult rat and human, where it may regulate neuronal function by mechanisms identified here. All cells are coated in glycans (sugars) existing predominantly as glycolipids, proteoglycans, or glycoproteins formed by the most complex form of posttranslational modification, glycosylation. How these glycans influence brain function is only now beginning to be elucidated. The adult nucleus of the solitary tract has abundant polysialic acid (polySia) and is a major site of integration, receiving viscerosensory information which controls critical homeostatic functions. Our data reveal that polySia is a determinant of neuronal behavior and excitatory transmission in the nucleus of the solitary tract, regulating sympathetic nerve activity. polySia is abundantly expressed at distinct brain sites in adult, including major sensory nuclei, suggesting that sensory transmission may also be influenced via mechanisms described here. These findings hint at the importance of elucidating how other glycans influence neural function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0200-17.2017DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6596603PMC
July 2017

Manipulating root water supply elicits major shifts in the shoot proteome.

J Proteome Res 2014 Feb 3;13(2):517-26. Epub 2013 Dec 3.

Australian School of Advanced Medicine, Faculty of Human Sciences, Macquarie University , Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Substantial reductions in yield caused by drought stress can occur when parts of the root system experience water deficit even though other parts have sufficient access to soil water. To identify proteins associated to drought signaling, rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. IR64.) plants were transplanted into plastic pots with an internal wall dividing each pot into two equal compartments, allowing for equal distribution of soil and the root system between these compartments. The following treatments were applied: either both compartments were watered daily ("wet" roots), or water was withheld from both compartments ("dry" roots), or water was withheld from only one of the two compartments in each pot ("wet" and "dry" roots). The substantial differences in physiological parameters of different growth conditions were accompanied by differential changes in protein abundances. Label-free quantitative shotgun proteomics have resulted in identification of 1383 reproducible proteins across all three conditions. Differentially expressed proteins were categorized within 17 functional groups. The patterns observed were interesting in that in some categories such as protein metabolism and oxidation-reduction, substantial numbers of proteins were most abundant when leaves were receiving signals from "wet" and "dry" roots. In yet other categories such as transport, several key transporters were surprisingly abundant in leaves supported by partially or completely droughted root systems, especially plasma membrane and vacuolar transporters. Stress-related proteins behaved very consistently by increasing in droughted plants but notably some proteins were most abundant when roots of the same plant were growing in both wet and dry soils. Changes in carbohydrate-processing proteins were consistent with the passive accumulation of soluble sugars in shoots under drought, with hydrolysis of sucrose and starch synthesis both enhanced. These results suggest that drought signals are complex interactions and not simply the additive effect of water supply to the roots.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/pr400696uDOI Listing
February 2014
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