Publications by authors named "Shikha Singh"

87 Publications

Contextual and individual factors associated with knowledge, awareness and attitude on liver diseases: A large-scale Asian study.

J Viral Hepat 2021 Nov 24. Epub 2021 Nov 24.

Kantar Health, Singapore, Singapore.

There are limited data to provide better understanding of the knowledge/awareness of general population towards liver health in Asia. We sought to identify the knowledge gaps and attitudes towards liver health and liver diseases as well as evaluate associated individual-level and macro-level factors based on contextual analysis. An online survey assessing knowledge, awareness and attitudes towards liver health and disease was conducted among 7500 respondents across 11 countries/territories in Asia. A liver index was created to measure the respondents' knowledge level and the degree of awareness and attitudes. Multilevel logistic regression was performed to identify individual factors and contextual effects that were associated with liver index. The overall liver index (0-100-point scale) was 62.4 with 6 countries/territories' liver indices greater than this. In the multilevel model, the inclusion of geographical information could explain for 9.6% of the variation. Residing in a country/territory with higher HBV prevalence (80% IOR: 1.20-2.79) or higher HCV death rate (80% IOR: 1.35-3.13) increased the individual probability of obtaining a high overall liver index. Individual factors like age, gender, education, household income, disease history and health screening behaviour were also associated with liver index (all p-values<0.001). The overall liver index was positively associated with the two macro-level factors viz. HBV prevalence and HCV death rate. There is a need to formulate policies especially in regions of lower HBV prevalence and HCV death rate to further improve the knowledge, awareness and attitudes of the general public towards liver diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jvh.13636DOI Listing
November 2021

Cryo-EM structure of human GPR158 receptor coupled to the RGS7-Gβ5 signaling complex.

Science 2021 Nov 18:eabl4732. Epub 2021 Nov 18.

Department of Neuroscience, The Scripps Research Institute, Jupiter, FL 33458, USA.

[Figure: see text].
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November 2021

Ambipolar Charge Transport Properties of Naphthophenanthridine Discotic Liquid Crystals.

J Phys Chem B 2021 Sep 6;125(36):10364-10372. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Soft Condensed Matter Group, Raman Research Institute, C.V.Raman Avenue, Bengaluru 560080, India.

A series of novel naphthophenanthridine derivatives are synthesized via N-annulation of hexabutoxytriphenylene-1-amine with various aliphatic aldehydes through the Pictet-Spengler reaction. The synthesized derivatives have been found to self-assemble into a columnar hexagonal mesophase over a wide temperature range, as validated through polarized optical microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction experiments. The photophysical properties of these compounds were studied using UV-visible and emission spectroscopy. The synthesized compounds exhibit ambipolar charge transport, showing temperature-independent electron and hole mobility on the order of 3 × 10 cm/V s, as evaluated by the time-of-flight technique. These novel N-annulated derivatives can be of immense potential toward semiconducting applications of self-assembling supramolecular systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpcb.1c06009DOI Listing
September 2021

Unmet needs in non-metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer from the Japanese patient perspective: a discrete choice experiment.

BMJ Open 2021 08 16;11(8):e052471. Epub 2021 Aug 16.

Market Access Oncology, Bayer Yakuhin, Ltd, Osaka, Japan

Objectives: With novel antiandrogen treatments of varying clinical benefits and risks becoming available, this study investigates how patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) value differences in treatment characteristics.

Design: Cross-sectional observational study.

Setting: A discrete choice experiment was conducted. Patients chose between two hypothetical non-metastatic CRPC (nmCRPC) treatments defined by six attributes: risk of fatigue, falls or fracture, cognitive impairment, hypertension, rashes as side effects to treatment and extension of time until cancer-related pain occurs.

Participants: A total of 137 adult male patients with CRPC with no prior experience with chemotherapy and with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group status 0-1 were recruited. Patients were excluded if they participated in an investigational programme outside of routine clinical practice, had a clinically relevant medical or psychiatric condition, or diagnosis of visceral/other metastases not related to the prostate, or were otherwise deemed ineligible by the referring physician.

Primary Outcome Measures: Relative preference weights and relative importance of the attributes was estimated by hierarchical Bayesian logistic regression.

Results: Among the treatment attributes, 'risk of cognitive impairment as a side effect of treatment' was the most important attribute (relative importance (RI) (95% CI): 27.47% (24.80% to 30.14%)), followed by 'extension of time until cancer-related pain occurs' (RI (95% CI): 17.87% (15.49% to 20.25%)) and the 'risk of falls or fracture' (RI (95% CI): 15.99% (14.73% to 17.25%)). The 'risk of hypertension as a side effect of treatment' (RI (95% CI): 13.77% (12.73% to 14.81%)) had similar RI as 'risk of rashes as a side effect of treatment' (RI (95% CI): 13.17% (12.15% to 14.19%)), followed by the 'risk of fatigue as a side effect of treatment' (RI (95% CI): 11.74% (10.75% to 12.73%)).

Conclusions: Patients consider the risk of cognitive impairment as a side effect of treatment as the most important attribute in nmCRPC, followed by the extension of time until cancer-related pain occurs, and the risk of falls and fracture. These features should be considered in treatment decision making for nmCRPC in Japan.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2021-052471DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8370498PMC
August 2021

Identification of tomato root growth regulatory genes and transcription factors through comparative transcriptomic profiling of different tissues.

Physiol Mol Biol Plants 2021 Jun 7;27(6):1173-1189. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Plant Gene Expression Lab, Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, CSIR-National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow, 226001 India.

Tomato is an economically important vegetable crop and a model for development and stress response studies. Although studied extensively for understanding fruit ripening and pathogen responses, its role as a model for root development remains less explored. In this study, an Illumina-based comparative differential transcriptomic analysis of tomato root with different aerial tissues was carried out to identify genes that are predominantly expressed during root growth. Sequential comparisons revealed ~ 15,000 commonly expressed genes and ~ 3000 genes of several classes that were mainly expressed or regulated in roots. These included 1069 transcription factors (TFs) of which 100 were differentially regulated. Prominent amongst these were members of families encoding Zn finger, MYB, ARM, bHLH, AP2/ERF, WRKY and NAC proteins. A large number of kinases, phosphatases and F-box proteins were also expressed in the root transcriptome. The major hormones regulating root growth were represented by the auxin, ethylene, JA, ABA and GA pathways with root-specific expression of certain components. Genes encoding carbon metabolism and photosynthetic components showed reduced expression while several protease inhibitors were amongst the most highly expressed. Overall, the study sheds light on genes governing root growth in tomato and provides a resource for manipulation of root growth for plant improvement.

Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s12298-021-01015-0.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12298-021-01015-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8212336PMC
June 2021

Kinetin mitigates Cd-induced damagesto growth, photosynthesis and PS II photochemistry of Trigonella seedlings by up-regulating ascorbate-glutathione cycle.

PLoS One 2021 22;16(6):e0249230. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Department of Plant Physiology, Slovak University of Agriculture, Nitra, Slovakia.

Cytokinins (CKs) plays a key role in plant adaptation over a range of different stress conditions. Here, we analyze the effects of a cytokinin (i.e., kinetin, KN) on the growth, photosynthesis (rate of O2 evolution), PS II photochemistry and AsA-GSH cycle in Trigonella seedlings grown under cadmium (Cd) stress. Trigonella seeds were sown in soil amended with 0, 3 and 9 mg Cd kg-1 soil, and after 15 days resultant seedlings were sprayed with three doses of KN, i.e.,10 μM (low, KNL), 50 μM (medium, KNM) and 100 μM (high, KNH); subsequent experiments were performed after 15 days of KN application, i.e., 30 days after sowing. Cadmium toxicity induced oxidative damage as shown by decreased seedling growth and photosynthetic pigment production (Chl a, Chl b and Car), rates of O2-evolution, and photochemistry of PS II of Trigonella seedlings, all accompanied by an increase in H2O2 accumulation. Supplementation with doses of KN at KNL and KNM significantly improved the growth and photosynthetic activity by reducing H2O2 accumulation through the up-regulation AsA-GSH cycle. Notably, KNL and KNM doses stimulated the rate of enzyme activities of APX, GR and DHAR, involved in the AsA-GSH cycle thereby efficiently regulates the level of AsA and GSH in Trigonella grown under Cd stress. The study concludes that KN can mitigate the damaging effects of Cd stress on plant growth by maintaining the redox status (>ratios: AsA/DHA and GSH/GSSG) of cells through the regulation of AsA-GSH cycle at 10 and 50 μM KN under Cd stress conditions. At 100 μM KN, the down-regulation of AsA-GSH cycle did not support the growth and PS II activity of the test seedlings.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0249230PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8219128PMC
November 2021

Soil organic carbon cycling in response to simulated soil moisture variation under field conditions.

Sci Rep 2021 05 25;11(1):10841. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Biosystems Engineering and Soil Science, University of Tennessee, 2506 E.J Chapman Drive, Knoxville, TN, 37996, USA.

The combination of extended dry periods and high intensity rainfall, common in the southeastern US, leads to greater variability in soil moisture and consequently increases uncertainty to microbial processes pertinent to soil carbon (C) mineralization. However, field-based findings on soil moisture sensitivity to soil C cycling are very limited. Therefore, a field experiment was conducted in 2018 and 2019 on a soybean (Glycine max L.) cropland in the southeastern US with three soil moisture treatments: drought (simulated using rainout-shelter from June to October in each year), rainfed (natural precipitation), and irrigated (irrigation and precipitation). Soil respiration was measured weekly from May to November in both years. Soil samples were collected multiple times each year from 0-5, 5-15, and 15-30 cm depths to determine microbial biomass C (MBC), extractable organic C (EOC), hydrolytic enzyme activities, and fungal abundance. The cumulative respiration under drought compared to other treatments was lower by 32% to 33% in 2018 and 38% to 45% in 2019. Increased MBC, EOC, and fungal abundance were observed under drought than other treatments. Specific enzyme activity indicated fewer metabolically active microbes under drought treatment compared to rainfed and irrigated treatments. Also, maintenance of enzyme pool was observed under drought condition. These results provide critical insights on microbial metabolism in response to soil moisture variation and how that influences different pools of soil C under field conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-90359-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8149407PMC
May 2021

Comparative analysis of flexural strength of abraded and polished porcelain surfaces - an in vitro study.

J Med Life 2021 Jan-Mar;14(1):61-67

Department of Restorative and Prosthetics Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, Dar Al Uloom University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Typically, prosthodontists adjust ceramic restorations glazed surface by grinding prior to insertion. Such alterations of surfaces are necessary for the correction of occlusal interferences. We aimed to evaluate and compare the change in flexural strength of ceramic surfaces after re-glazing and polishing. This study included 40 samples of ceramic blocks that were fabricated and glazed, and then fired in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations. The sample was randomly divided into four groups of 10 samples each. The first group was the control group with unaltered glazed samples. The second group was abraded with an extra-fine diamond bur followed by re-glazing, and the other two groups were polished with two commercially available polishing kits after abrading them with an extra-fine diamond bur. The samples were tested for their flexural strength using a universal testing machine. On the application of the F test on the means of all the groups, a value greater than 0.05 was found, which meant that there is no statistically significant difference in flexural strength values between the groups (P-value>0.05). Since the flexural strength values of the polished group were comparable to the other groups, polishing can be used instead of re-glazing for ceramic restorations. This reduces an additional clinical appointment for the patient and saves working time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.25122/jml-2020-0085DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7982250PMC
April 2021

Public awareness and knowledge of liver health and diseases in Singapore.

J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 Aug 30;36(8):2292-2302. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Kantar Health, Singapore.

Background And Aim: Despite efforts in controlling and managing liver diseases, significant health issues remain. This study aims to evaluate the degree of public awareness and knowledge regarding liver health and diseases in Singapore.

Methods: A cross-sectional, self-reported, web-based questionnaire was administered to 500 adult individuals. Questionnaire items pertained to knowledge and awareness of overall liver health, liver diseases and their associated risk factors.

Results: Sixty-four percent of respondents were ≥35 years old and 54.0% were male. While majority agreed that regular screening was important for liver health (91.2%), only 65.4% attended health screening within recent 2 years. Hepatitis B had more awareness than hepatitis C among the respondents. About 70% agreed the consequences of viral hepatitis included liver cirrhosis, failure, and/or cancer. Yet, only 15% knew hepatitis C is not preventable by vaccination and more than half mistaken hepatitis B and C are transmissible via contaminated or raw seafood. Despite 75% being aware of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, many were not aware of the related risk factors and complications. Awareness of specific screening and diagnostic tests for liver health was poor as one-fifth correctly identified the diagnostic tests for viral hepatitis. Preferences for doctor's consultation, TV, or newspapers (online) as information channels contrasted those currently used in the public health education efforts.

Conclusions: The levels of understanding of liver diseases, risk factors, and potential complications are suboptimal among the Singapore public. More public education efforts aligned with respondents' information-seeking preferences could facilitate addressing misperceptions and increase knowledge about liver diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jgh.15496DOI Listing
August 2021

Understanding Treatment Strategies and Preferences in Nonmetastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer From the Japanese Physician Perspective.

JCO Glob Oncol 2021 02;7:302-310

Market Access Oncology, Bayer Yakuhin, Ltd, Tokyo, Japan.

Purpose: Sixteen percent (16%) of patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) show no bone metastasis at diagnosis. However, 33% will become metastatic within 2 years. The goal of treatment in patients with nonmetastatic CRPC (nmCRPC), therefore, is to delay symptomatic metastases without undue toxicity. With novel antiandrogen treatments of different strengths and limitations available, physician preferences for nmCRPC treatment in Japan should be understood.

Methods: A discrete choice experiment was conducted. Physicians chose between two hypothetical treatments in nmCRPC defined by six attributes: risk of fatigue, falls or fracture, cognitive impairment, hypertension, rashes as side effects of treatment, and extension of time until cancer-related pain occurs. Relative preference weights and relative importance were estimated by hierarchical Bayesian logistic regression. Physicians were also asked to make treatment decisions based on four hypothetical patient profiles to understand the most important factors driving decision making.

Results: A total of 151 physicians completed the survey. Extension of time until cancer-related pain occurs was the most important attribute (relative importance, 32.3%; CI, 31.3% to 33.3%). Based on summed preference weights across all attributes, preferences for hypothetical treatment profiles I, II, and III were compared. A hypothetical treatment profile with better safety though shorter extension time was preferred (I: mean [standard deviation] = 1.7 [1.6 to 2.1]) over treatment profiles with lower safety but longer extension time (II: -2.7 [-2.8 to -2.6] and III: -0.2 [-0.3 to -0.1]). Treatment characteristics were more important factors for physicians' decision making than patient characteristics in prescribing treatment.

Conclusion: Physicians preferred a treatment with better safety profile, and treatment characteristics were the most important factors for decision making. This might have implications in physicians' decision making for nmCRPC treatment in the future in Japan.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/GO.20.00358DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8081502PMC
February 2021

Toxicity mechanism of Cu ion individually and in combination with Zn ion in characterizing the molecular changes of Staphylococcus aureus studied using FTIR coupled with chemometric analysis.

J Biol Phys 2020 12 25;46(4):395-414. Epub 2020 Nov 25.

Department of Physics, Dr. Ambedkar Government Arts College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, 600039, India.

Copper and zinc have a high binding affinity with a Staphylococcus aureus bacterial community. This causes a change in the biomolecular composition of S. aureus. Our study aims at understanding the resistance mechanism of Cu and Zn either or in various combinations using FTIR and chemometric techniques. Zn toxicity resulted in a significant change in lipid content (3100-2800 cm) compared to Cu. A significant decrease in protein content is observed for Cu treatment in the amide region. The bio-concentration factor shows a higher value for Cu compared to Zn. The increase in band area of carbohydrates moieties 1059 cm shows the secretion of EPS due to Cu toxicity. A significant change in nucleic acid compositions was noted in the region1200-900 cm due to Zn treatment. Secondary structural change in protein shows β sheet formation. The result of the finding shows Cu has greater toxicity than Zn. Further toxicity effects were greatly enhanced for metal mixtures ratio (Cu:2Zn). This shows Zn exhibits synergism effect with Cu. The obtained ROC (receiver operating characteristic) curve area gives good reliability of the experiments. The study attempts to understand the mechanism of toxicity removal of Cu and Zn metal mixtures by bacterial population using FTIR coupled with chemometric techniques. Graphical abstract.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10867-020-09560-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7719146PMC
December 2020

ABC-F translation factors: from antibiotic resistance to immune response.

FEBS Lett 2021 03 4;595(6):675-706. Epub 2020 Dec 4.

UMR 8261, CNRS, Université de Paris, Institut de Biologie Physico-Chimique, Paris, France.

Energy-dependent translational throttle A (EttA) from Escherichia coli is a paradigmatic ABC-F protein that controls the first step in polypeptide elongation on the ribosome according to the cellular energy status. Biochemical and structural studies have established that ABC-F proteins generally function as translation factors that modulate the conformation of the peptidyl transferase center upon binding to the ribosomal tRNA exit site. These factors, present in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes but not in archaea, use related molecular mechanisms to modulate protein synthesis for heterogenous purposes, ranging from antibiotic resistance and rescue of stalled ribosomes to modulation of the mammalian immune response. Here, we review the canonical studies characterizing the phylogeny, regulation, ribosome interactions, and mechanisms of action of the bacterial ABC-F proteins, and discuss the implications of these studies for the molecular function of eukaryotic ABC-F proteins, including the three human family members.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1873-3468.13984DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8609467PMC
March 2021

Comparison of Estrogen and Progesterone Receptor Status in Tumor Mass and Axillary Lymph Node Metastasis in Patients with Carcinoma Breast.

Int J Appl Basic Med Res 2020 Apr-Jun;10(2):117-121. Epub 2020 Apr 2.

Department of Pathology, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Datta Meghe Institute of Medical Sciences, Deemed to be University, Wardha, Maharashtra, India.

Introduction: Breast malignancy is a hormone-dependent tumor. The hormone receptor status in the primary tumor is required while taking decision for starting adjuvant therapy. The estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) status is also an important prognostic marker.

Materials And Methods: All modified radical mastectomy cases with axillary lymph node dissection were taken. H and E staining was done. All lymph node-positive breast cancer cases were subjected to immunohistochemistry using ER and PR antibodies.

Results: In the study of 60 cases, the level of concordance between the primary tumor and the metastatic lymph node was 98.33% for ER and 96.66% for PR.

Conclusion: There exists a positive correlation between the hormone receptor status of the primary tumor and the paired axillary lymph nodes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijabmr.IJABMR_349_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7289207PMC
April 2020

Intercropping kura clover with prairie cordgrass mitigates soil greenhouse gas fluxes.

Sci Rep 2020 04 30;10(1):7334. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

Department of Agronomy, Horticulture and Plant Science, South Dakota State University, Brookings, South Dakota, USA.

Prairie cordgrass (PCG) (Spartina pectinata Link) has a high tolerance to soil salinity and waterlogging, therefore, it can thrive on marginal lands. Optimizing the nitrogen (N) input is crucial to achieving desirable biomass production of PCG without negatively impacting the environment. Thus, this study was based on the hypothesis that the use of legumes such as kura clover (Trifolium ambiguum M. Bieb.) (KC) as an intercrop with PCG can provide extra N to the crop reducing the additional N fertilizer and mitigating soil surface greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Specific objective of the study was to assess the impact of PCG managed with different N rates [0 kg N ha (PCG-0N), 75 kg N ha (PCG-75N), 150 kg N ha (PCG-150N), and 225 kg N ha (PCG-255N)], and PCG intercropped with KC (PCG-KC) on GHG fluxes and biomass yield. The experimental site was established in 2010 in South Dakota under a marginally yielding cropland. The GHG fluxes were measured from 2014 through 2018 growing seasons using the static chamber. Net global warming potential (GWP) was calculated. Data showed that cumulative CH and CO fluxes were similar for all the treatments over the study period. However, the PCG-KC, PCG-0N, and PCG-75N recorded lower cumulative NO fluxes (384, 402, and 499 g N ha, respectively) than the PCG-150N (644 g N ha) and PCG-255N (697 g N ha). The PCG-KC produced 85% and 39% higher yield than the PCG-0N in 2016 and 2017, respectively, and similar yield to the other treatments (PCG-75N, PCG-150N, and PCG-255N) in these years. Net GWP was 52% lower for the PCG-KC (112.38 kg CO-eq ha) compared to the PCG-225N (227.78 kg CO-eq ha), but similar to other treatments. Soil total N was 15%% and 13% higher under PCG-KC (3.7 g kg) than that under PCG-0N (3.2 g kg) and PCG-75N (3.3 g kg), respectively. This study concludes that intercropping prairie cordgrass with kura clover can enhance biomass yield and reduce fertilizer-derived NO emissions and net global warming potential.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-64182-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7193570PMC
April 2020

Effect of Chitin Nanocrystals on Crystallization and Properties of Poly(lactic acid)-Based Nanocomposites.

Polymers (Basel) 2020 Mar 24;12(3). Epub 2020 Mar 24.

Division of Materials Science, Luleå University of Technology, SE-97 187 Luleå, Sweden.

The crystalline phase of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) has crucial effects on its own properties and nanocomposites. In this study, the isothermal crystallization of PLA, triethyl citrate-plasticized PLA (PLA-TEC), and its nanocomposite with chitin nanocrystals (PLA-TEC-ChNC) at different temperatures and times was investigated, and the resulting properties of the materials were characterized. Both PLA and PLA-TEC showed extremely low crystallinity at isothermal temperatures of 135, 130, 125 °C and times of 5 or 15 min. In contrast, the addition of 1 wt % of ChNCs significantly improved the crystallinity of PLA under the same conditions owing to the nucleation effect of the ChNCs. The samples were also crystallized at 110 °C to reach their maximal crystallinity, and PLA-TEC-ChNC achieved 48% crystallinity within 5 min, while PLA and PLA-TEC required 40 min to reach a similar level. Moreover, X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the addition of ChNCs resulted in smaller crystallite sizes, which further influenced the barrier properties and hydrolytic degradation of the PLA. The nanocomposites had considerably lower barrier properties and underwent faster degradation compared to PLA-TEC110. These results confirm that the addition of ChNCs in PLA leads to promising properties for packaging applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym12030726DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7183044PMC
March 2020

Attitudes & beliefs that influence healthy eating behaviours among mothers of young children in Singapore: A cross-sectional study.

Appetite 2020 05 13;148:104555. Epub 2019 Dec 13.

FrieslandCampina, Stationsplein 4, 3818, LE Amersfoort, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Background: Many countries recommend parental involvement to enhance the effectiveness of healthy lifestyle interventions focusing on behavioural modifications that encourage weight management in children. Our study investigates to what extent the different constructs of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) are influencing healthy eating behaviour among mothers of pre-school and primary school children in Singapore.

Methods: A total of 716 mothers of pre-schoolers, 3-6 years old (N = 358) and primary school students, 7-12 years old (N = 358) were administered a survey to assess healthy eating behaviour using the TPB constructs. Bivariate correlations among TPB constructs were calculated and tested using Pearson's correlation. Multivariate generalized regression was performed to examine the associations between TPB constructs and healthy eating behaviour.

Results: More than 80% of children consumed less than the daily recommended servings of at least 1 glass of dairy,2 servings of fruit and 2 servings of vegetables per day advised by the Singapore Health Board. More primary school children consumed less dairy per day compared to pre-school children (48.9% vs 26.3%; p < 0.001). Primary school children's healthy eating behaviours were correlated with mother's perceived behavioural control (PBC) such as adequate discipline (β = 0.40; p = 0.001), self-efficacy (β = 0.35; p = 0.01) and a lower barrier that healthy food does not satisfy hunger (β = -1.16; p < 0.001). Barriers that significantly reduced pre-school children's healthy food intake were lack of motivation among mothers (β = -1.13; p < 0.001) and children (β = -0.49; p = 0.02), lack of satiety (β = -1.06; p = 0.02), difficulty in changing child's eating habits (β = -0.58; p = 0.03), lack of family support (β = -0.62; p = 0.03).

Conclusions: Findings from this study provides a formative foundation for future research and exploration of plausible interventions around improving mother's PBC, self-efficacy and reducing barriers, which could increase mother's engagement in improving their children's healthy eating behaviours in Singapore.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2019.104555DOI Listing
May 2020

Doxorubicin loaded pH responsive biodegradable ABA-type Amphiphilic PEG-b-aliphatic Polyketal-b-PEG block copolymer for therapy against aggressive murine lymphoma.

Nanomedicine 2020 02 17;24:102128. Epub 2019 Nov 17.

Immunobiology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India. Electronic address:

A novel ABA-type polyethylene glycol (PEG)-b-polyketal (PK)-b-PEG block copolymer was synthesized via click reactions between the monoazido-monomethoxy-PEG and dialkyne terminated aliphatic polyketal with no carboxylic/amide linkages. Formation of the novel block copolymer was confirmed by H NMR, GPC, TGA, and DSC studies. The formed copolymer has shown faster degradation at acidic pH. Self-assembly of this block copolymer (average size 6.2 nm) was assessed by fluorescence study using pyrene as a probe. Doxorubicin loaded block copolymeric micelles (69.9 nm) have shown pH dependent elevated drug release at pH 6.4, indicating its potential as a pH responsive nano-carrier for anticancer therapy. The nano-sized copolymer demonstrated tumoricidal activities against the lymphoma of murine and human origin with significant levels of growth inhibition and apoptosis. Therapy with doxorubicin loaded copolymer reduced the tumor size and augmented the life span of the tumor bearing animals with improved histopathological parameters, compared with the untreated control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nano.2019.102128DOI Listing
February 2020

Endo-gastric Teratoma - A Rare Cause of Upper GI Bleeding in an Infant!

Indian J Pediatr 2020 04 11;87(4):323. Epub 2019 Nov 11.

Department of Pediatrics, ABVIMS & Dr.Ram Manohar Lohia Hospital, New Delhi, 110001, Delhi, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12098-019-03097-xDOI Listing
April 2020

Potential of breastmilk in stem cell research.

Cell Tissue Bank 2019 Dec 12;20(4):467-488. Epub 2019 Oct 12.

Centre for Biotechnology, Siksha 'O' Anusandhan (Deemed to be University), Kalinga Nagar, Ghatikia, Bhubaneswar, 751 003, India.

Breastmilk is a dynamic, multi-faceted, and complex fluid containing a plethora of biochemical and cellular components that execute developmental effects or differentiation program, providing nourishment and immunity to newborns. Recently, it was reported that breastmilk contains a heterogeneous population of naïve cells, including pluripotent stem cells, multipotent stem cells, immune cells, and non-immune cells. The stem cells derived from breastmilk possess immune privilege and non-tumorigenic properties. Thus, breastmilk may represent an ideal source of stem cells collected by non-perceive procedure than other available sources. Thus, this "maternally originating natural regenerative medicine" may have innumerable applications in clinical biology, cosmetics, and pharmacokinetics. This review describes the efficient integrated cellular system of mammary glands, the impressive stem cell hierarchy of breastmilk, and their possible implications in translational research and therapeutics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10561-019-09791-6DOI Listing
December 2019

ABC-F proteins in mRNA translation and antibiotic resistance.

Res Microbiol 2019 Nov - Dec;170(8):435-447. Epub 2019 Sep 26.

UMR 8261, CNRS, Université de Paris, Institut de Biologie Physico-Chimique, 75005, Paris, France. Electronic address:

The ATP binding cassette protein superfamily comprises ATPase enzymes which are, for the most part, involved in transmembrane transport. Within this superfamily however, some protein families have other functions unrelated to transport. One example is the ABC-F family, which comprises an extremely diverse set of cytoplasmic proteins. All of the proteins in the ABC-F family characterized to date act on the ribosome and are translation factors. Their common function is ATP-dependent modulation of the stereochemistry of the peptidyl transferase center (PTC) in the ribosome coupled to changes in its global conformation and P-site tRNA binding geometry. In this review, we give an overview of the function, structure, and theories for the mechanisms-of-action of microbial proteins in the ABC-F family, including those involved in mediating resistance to ribosome-binding antibiotics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.resmic.2019.09.005DOI Listing
January 2020

Genome-wide identification and interactome analysis of members of two-component system in Banana.

BMC Genomics 2019 Aug 27;20(1):674. Epub 2019 Aug 27.

CSIR-National Botanical Research Institute (CSIR-NBRI), Rana Pratap Marg, Lucknow, 226001, India.

Background: Ethylene signal transduction in plants is conducted by the two-component system (TCS) which consists of histidine kinase (HK), histidine phosphotransferase (HPT) and response regulators (RRs). This system plays an important role in signal transduction during various cellular processes, including fruit ripening and response to multiple environmental cues. Though members of TCS have been identified in a few plants, no detailed analysis has been carried out in banana.

Results: Through genome-wide analysis, we identified a total of 80 (25 HK, 10 HPT and 45 RR) and 72 (25 HK, 5 HPT and 42 RR) TCS genes in Musa acuminata and Musa balbisiana respectively. The analysis of identified genes revealed that most of the genes are highly conserved however; there are subtle divergences among various members. Comparative expression analysis revealed an involvement of a set of TCS members during banana fruit ripening. Co-expression network analysis identified a working TCS module with direct interactions of HK-HPT and RR members. The molecular dynamics analysis of TCS module showed a significant change in structural trajectories of TCS proteins in the presence of ethylene. Analysis suggests possible interactions between the HK-HPTs and RRs as well as other members leading to banana fruit ripening.

Conclusions: In this study, we identified and compared the members of TCS gene family in two banana species and showed their diversity, within groups on the basis of whole-genome duplication events. Our analysis showed that during banana fruit ripening TCS module plays a crucial role. We also demonstrated a possible interaction mechanism of TCS proteins in the presence and absence of ethylene by molecular dynamics simulations. These findings will help in understanding the functional mechanism of TCS proteins in plants in different conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12864-019-6050-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6712864PMC
August 2019

Factors associated with reluctance to initiate or continue oral antihyperglycemic agent (OAHA) treatments in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in Japan: An observational patient-reported study.

Diabetes Metab Syndr 2019 Mar - Apr;13(2):1201-1207. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

MSD K.K, Japan.

Background: Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is undertreated in Japan. We sought to understand the potential factors associated with reluctance to initiate/continue oral antihyperglycemic agents (OAHA) treatment in Japan.

Methods: A two-phase study was conducted which included cognitive interviews in the first phase (N = 12) to ensure retrieval from memory of relevant information to respond to questions. The second phase included recruitment of respondents from an internet re-contact survey (N = 560) using NHWS or other Lightspeed panels. Patients' self-reported measures were collected to identify the potential barriers to T2DM treatment initiation or continuation. All measured variables were summarized descriptively using means and standard deviations for continuous variables, and frequencies and percentages for categorical variables.

Results: A total of 560 respondents were assessed. Of those who were drug-naïve and ever been recommended prescription medication, only 17.3% were satisfied with how physicians presented the treatment options compared to current users or those who discontinued treatment (47.2% and 47.6% respectively). More than 50% of respondents did not realize neuropathic pain and end organ damage as potential consequences of untreated T2DM. 34.8% and 47.6% of drug-naïve and T2DM respondents who discontinued treatment were likely to start/restart treatment after realizing potential complications. Among those who discontinued treatment, 23.1% were extremely dissatisfied with their dosing frequency and less than 15% reported that their physicians discussed the importance of staying on medication long-term.

Conclusion: The potential barriers addressed in this study should be considered when planning intervention strategies targeted at T2DM patients to promote their treatment in Japan.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dsx.2019.01.034DOI Listing
December 2019

Development of a colloidal gold strip-based immunochromatographic assay for rapid detection of Fusarium oxysporum in ginger.

J Sci Food Agric 2019 Nov 4;99(14):6155-6166. Epub 2019 Sep 4.

Department of Monoclonal Antibody, Rama Devi Women's University, Bhubaneswar, India.

Background: Rhizome rot, caused primarily by Fusarium oxysporum, is one of the most destructive diseases leading to significant loss in ginger worldwide. The loss can be greatly reduced by proper disease management practices steered by accurate and early diagnosis of pathogens. Pathogen detection at an early stage of infection can also reduce the incidence of disease epidemics. Classical methods are often time consuming, relying on culturing the putative pathogens and the availability of expert taxonomic skills for accurate identification, which leads to the delayed application of control measures. The development of a simple, rapid, sensitive and cost-effective point-of-care diagnostic tool is thus one of the major research priorities for rhizome rot.

Results: The 65 kDa, immunoreactive protein band was selected as a diagnostic marker and was subjected to MS analysis followed by blastp. Based on blast result, a synthetic antigenic peptide was synthesized, and used to generate pAbs. The peptide-specific antibodies were used to develop a colloidal gold immunochromatographic assay (ICA). The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of ICA were 92.59%, 81.25%, and 90%, respectively. The ICA has a visual detection limit of 2.122 μg mL for infected rhizome samples and 5.065 μg mL for leaf samples with optimal detection time within 5 min. Moreover, the ICA also detected early stage infected samples, of which 71.42% (50/70) were true positives.

Conclusion: Findings from this study indicated that the assay can be utilized as a tool for the investigation of rhizome rot infection in field samples. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.9859DOI Listing
November 2019

Treatment of Buffalo () Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Embryos with MicroRNA-29b Mimic Improves Their Quality, Reduces DNA Methylation, and Changes Gene Expression Without Affecting Their Developmental Competence.

Cell Reprogram 2019 08 14;21(4):210-219. Epub 2019 Jun 14.

Animal Biotechnology Center, ICAR-National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, India.

microRNA-29b (miR-29b) plays an important role in controlling DNA methylation in cells. We investigated its role during early embryonic development in buffalo embryos produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) and fertilization (IVF). miR-29b expression was highest at the 2-cell stage, decreased ( < 0.001) at the 4-cell stage, and remained low thereafter at the 8-cell, morula, and blastocyst stages, showing a similar pattern in cloned and IVF embryos. Treatment of reconstructed embryos with miR-29b mimic for 1 hour after 1 hour of electrofusion increased ( < 0.05) the total cell number and decreased ( < 0.05) the levels of apoptosis and DNA methylation compared with controls. It also increased ( < 0.05) the ratio of inner cell mass:trophectoderm cell numbers of blastocysts compared with controls to the levels observed in IVF blastocysts. However, the blastocyst rate was not affected by treatment with miR-29b mimic (29.0% ± 2.0% vs. 27.0% ± 2.0% for controls). The treatment decreased ( < 0.001) the expression of epigenetic-related genes, and , but not , and increased ( < 0.05) that of pluripotency- (, , and ) and development-related genes (FGF4 and ) in blastocysts compared with controls. Our results suggest that miR-29b mimic treatment of reconstructed embryos improves the quality, reduces the level of apoptosis and DNA methylation, and changes gene expression in SCNT blastocysts without affecting the blastocyst rate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/cell.2019.0007DOI Listing
August 2019

Sortase-click strategy for defined protein conjugation on a heptavalent cyclodextrin scaffold.

PLoS One 2019 24;14(5):e0217369. Epub 2019 May 24.

National Institute of Immunology, Delhi, India.

Multivalent proteins or protein dendrimers are useful for clinical and biotechnological applications. However, assembly of chemically defined protein dendrimers is a challenging endeavor. In the past, majority of protein dendrimers have been developed on branched lysine scaffolds and are usually limited to a valency of two to four. The naturally occurring cyclodextrin (CD) scaffold composed of 6-8 glucose units offers the possibility of expanding the valency. Here we have adapted a chemoenzymatic-click strategy for displaying heptavalent peptides and large proteins on the β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) scaffold. We demonstrate that recombinant proteins (engineered with a LPXTG pentapeptide motif at the carboxy terminus), labeled with an alkyne moiety by sortase-mediated ligation, can be easily clicked on to the azide-derivatized β-cyclodextrin through the Huisgen cycloaddition reaction yielding a well-defined heptavalent display of proteins.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0217369PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6534326PMC
January 2020

An Comparative Evaluation of Antimicrobial Efficacy of Propolis, Morinda Citrifolia Juice, Sodium Hypochlorite and Chlorhexidine on and .

J Contemp Dent Pract 2019 Jan 1;20(1):40-45. Epub 2019 Jan 1.

Department of Surgical and Diagnostics Sciences, Dar Al Uloom University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Aim: To evaluate the antimicrobial effectiveness of Propolis, Morinda citrifolia juice, Sodium hypochlorite and Chlorhexidine on () and ( ), as endodontic irrigants.

Materials And Methods: Four clinical isolates and one standard ATCC sample (29212) of and ATCC sample (90028) of C. albicans were inoculated into 5ml of peptone water each and incubated at 37° C for 3 to 4 hours to attain the turbidity corresponding to 0.5 McFarland standard CFU. We followed Disc and well diffusion Kirby-Bauer method to attain the zones of inhibition.

Results: Overall comparison of reagents revealed a significant difference among zones of inhibition. The standard concentration of 5% sodium hypochlorite, 2% chlorhexidine, 10% Propolis and 100% Morinda citrifolia juice illustrated the maximum inhibition zone for both test organisms.

Conclusion: All four reagents had an antimicrobial effect on the microorganisms tested. Sodium hypochlorite and Chlorhexidine were more effectual than Propolis and Morinda citrifolia juice and there was increased antimicrobial efficacy with increasing concentrations.

Clinical Significance: A study for finding safe herbal agents that can be used as endodontic irrigants revealed that Propolis, Morinda citrifolia juice has antibiotic properties and can replace routinely used agents thereby limiting the side effects.
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January 2019

Highly selective fluorescence 'turn off' sensing of picric acid and efficient cell labelling by water-soluble luminescent anthracene-bridged poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidone).

Analyst 2019 May;144(11):3620-3634

Department of Chemistry, Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, 221005, India.

A novel, water-soluble, luminescent anthracene-bridged AA-type bi-arm poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) (ATC-PNVP) was synthesized using a click reaction between alkyne-terminated PNVP and 9,10-bis(azidomethyl)anthracene. The resultant anthracene-bridged PNVP (ATC-PNVP) was characterized using 1H NMR, FTIR, UV-Vis, and fluorescence spectroscopic methods and GPC analysis. ATC-PNVP showed effective fluorescence properties in an aqueous medium. It showed highly selective "turn off" sensing behaviour towards picric acid, a common nitro-aromatic explosive, with a wide linear range of detection of 0.01-0.3 mM and LOD value of 0.006 mM in water. ATC-PNVP-based paper sensors also showed very effective detection of picric acid in the concentration range 0.001-1.0 mM. Its binding with bovine serum albumin (BSA) was studied using steady-state, synchronous and 3D fluorescence spectroscopy and this study showed effective quenching of the intrinsic fluorescence of BSA and occurrence of a FRET-type interaction. Furthermore, this luminescent ATC-PNVP was efficiently used as a fluorescence microscopy labelling agent in NIH-3T3 and HeLa cells, and showed greater uptake and hence better fluorescent labelling in the cytosols of the tested cells than free 9,10-bis(azidomethyl) anthracene. The cell viability study also showed a very good biocompatible and non-toxic nature of ATC-PNVP at lower working concentrations towards each of the types of cells tested.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c8an02417kDOI Listing
May 2019

Comparison of Fracture Resistance of Heat Cure Resins Polymerized by Conventional and Microwave Methods after Immersion in Artificial Saliva.

J Contemp Dent Pract 2019 Jan 1;20(1):71-77. Epub 2019 Jan 1.

Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Peoples College of Dnetal Sciences and Research Cente, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India.

Aim: To assess and compare the impact and flexural strength of heat cure acrylic resin polymerized by microwave and conventional methods after immersion in artificial saliva for 2 days, 60 days, 90 days and 120 days.

Materials And Methods: The present study was carried out on 160 specimens. They were categorized into two groups. Each group consisted of 80 specimens, polymerized either by conventional or microwave methods. All the specimens were immersed in artificial saliva, for varying periods of 2 days, 60 days, 90 days and 120 days. Flexural strength was measured by a universal testing machine and impact strength by Izod impact test. Analysis of the results was done by Statistical Package for the Social Services version 20 (IBM Corp. Released 2011. IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, SPSS version 20.0. Armonk, NY: USA, IBM Corp) for Windows software.

Results: Conventionally cured resin had the highest flexural and impact strength values after 2 days of immersion in artificial saliva. There was a significant decrease in strength as the number of days of immersion increased (p < 0.001).

Conclusion: Conventional acrylic resin polymerized in a water bath exhibited better flexural, and impact strength values than microwave cured the resin. All the samples cured by both methods showed a significant reduction in strength when immersed for a period of 60-90 days and thereafter became static over 120 days.

Clinical Significance: As dentures are exposed to moist environment constantly and with time, their strength gets reduced. Prosthodontists should have adequate knowledge regarding the physical properties of materials used for denture preparation and also the pros and cons of different polymerization methods. In our study, conventional acrylic resin polymerized in a micro-wave method exhibited lesser strength values, but they were clinically acceptable; so, this method can be used for curing dentures.
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January 2019

Assessment of acute toxicity and biochemical responses to chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin and their combination exposed earthworm, .

Toxicol Rep 2019 30;6:288-297. Epub 2019 Mar 30.

Biochemistry Laboratory, Department of Zoology, University of Allahabad, Allahabad, 211002, India.

Recurrent application of chemical pesticides in the agricultural fields have adverse impact on flora and fauna of soil ecosystem. Earthworms immensely contribute in increasing the fertility of soil. They may act as a bioindicator for the ecotoxicological analysis of pesticide induced soil pollution. Earthworms, were exposed to different concentrations of pesticides chlorpyrifos (OP), cypermethrin (a pyrethroid) and their combination for 48 h by paper contact toxicity method. The LC for commercial grade of chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin and combined pesticides were determined as 0.165, 0.066 and 0.020 μg/cm, respectively. To assess the sub-lethal effect of these pesticides, were exposed to 5% and 10% of LC of the pesticides for 48 h. Variation in morpho-behavioural changes such as coiling, clitellar swelling, mucus release, bleeding and body fragmentation in earthworms were observed after exposure of both pesticides and their combination. Various biochemical estimations such as specific activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione -S-transferase (GST); levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were carried out in different body segments. Significant changes in these stress markers were observed at low and high sub-acute concentration of pesticides exposed earthworm, . Such changes indicate potential health risk to if exposed to the high concentrations of these pesticides accumulated in soil.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxrep.2019.03.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6447753PMC
March 2019
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