Publications by authors named "Shihao Zhang"

55 Publications

Visualization of mass transfer in mixing processes in high solid anaerobic digestion using Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) technique.

Waste Manag 2021 Apr 29;127:121-129. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Laboratory of Reactions and Process Engineering, Université de Lorraine, CNRS, 1, rue Grandville, BP 20451, 54001 Nancy Cedex, France. Electronic address:

High solid anaerobic digestion (HSAD) is a promising technology for the treatment of organic waste. Mixing process in HSAD is quite difficult with long mixing time, poor homogenization, significant short-circuiting and stagnant zones. However, the mass transfer in mixing process in HSAD has not been visualized due to the lack of a proper method. In this study, a novel approach for experimentally quantifying the mass transfer in HSAD's mixing process was proposed in a mixing tank equipped with multistage impellers by means of the Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) technique. Flow field was investigated for better illustrating the mass transfer, thus Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) technique were conducted for flow field measurement. The obtained results revealed that the feedstock tended to accumulate around the impeller in the HSAD system, especially near the 1st stage. The tracer diffused rapidly around the 1st impeller in t = 10 s, but the diffusion around the 2nd impeller was quite tough even after 4 h 08 min 23 s. And prolonging mixing time could not significantly improve the flow pattern along with the mixing. In this study, new insight was thrown into the visualization of the mass transfer in mixing process within a HSAD reactor. The visualization of mass transfer in the mixing process in HSAD could offer reference information to the study of the mixing process of HSAD even in full-scale.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2021.04.038DOI Listing
April 2021

Incorporating redox-sensitive nanogels into bioabsorbable nanofibrous membrane to acquire ROS-balance capacity for skin regeneration.

Bioact Mater 2021 Oct 21;6(10):3461-3472. Epub 2021 Mar 21.

The Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering, Engineering Research Center for Biomedical Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, 200237, China.

Facing the high incidence of skin diseases, it is urgent to develop functional materials with high bioactivity for wound healing, where reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in the wound healing process mainly adjustment of immune response and neovasculation. In this study, we developed a kind of bioabsorbable materials with ROS-mediation capacity for skin disease therapy. Firstly, redox-sensitive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-acrylic acid) (PNA) nanogels were synthesized by radical emulsion polymerization method using a disulfide molecule as crosslinker. The resulting nanogels were then incorporated into the nanofibrous membrane of poly(-lactic acid) (PLLA) airbrushing approach to offer bioabsorbable membrane with redox-sensitive ROS-balance capacity. biological evaluation indicated that the PNA-contained bioabsorbable membrane improved cell adhesion and proliferation compared to the native PLLA membrane. study using mouse wound skin model demonstrated that PNA-doped nanofibrous membranes could promote the wound healing process, where the disulfide bonds in them were able to adjust the ROS level in the wound skin for mediation of redox potential to achieve higher wound healing efficacy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bioactmat.2021.03.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7988352PMC
October 2021

Comparative analysis of laparoscopic proximal gastrectomy plus semi-embedded valve anastomosis with laparoscopic total gastrectomy for adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction: a single-center retrospective cohort study.

World J Surg Oncol 2021 Feb 15;19(1):50. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Gastrointestinal Surgery, The Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang City, Hebei Province, China.

Background: We invented a new antireflux anastomosis method for use in proximal gastrectomy for adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction (AEG) and named it semi-embedded valve anastomosis (SEV). This study was conducted to compare and analyze the short-term efficacy and long-term prognosis of this anastomosis reconstruction method versus laparoscopic total gastrectomy (LTG).

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the general data and surgical outcomes of patients with AEG who underwent three united laparoscopic proximal gastrectomy plus semi-embedded valve anastomosis (TULPG-SEV, N = 20) and LTG (N = 20) at our hospital from January 2015 to September 2017 and investigated the incidence of postoperative reflux esophagitis and postoperative nutritional status between the two groups. Survival analysis was also performed.

Results: The operative time (178.25 ± 15.41 vs 196.5 ± 21.16 min) and the gastrointestinal reconstruction time (19.3 ± 2.53 vs 34.65 ± 4.88 min) of the TULPG-SEV group were significantly less than that of the LTG group. There was no difference in intraoperative blood loss, length of hospital stay, and postoperative complications. There was no difference in the scores on the postoperative reflux disease questionnaires (RDQs) conducted 1 month (P = 0.501), 3 months (P = 0.238), and 6 months (P = 0.655) after surgery between the TULPG-SEV group and LTG group. Gastroscopy revealed 2 cases of reflux esophagitis (grade B or higher) in each group. The postoperative hemoglobin level was better in the TULPG-SEV group than in the LTG group, and the difference was most noticeable at 1 month after surgery (P = 0.024) and 3 months after surgery (P = 0.029). The levels of albumin and total protein were not significantly different between the groups. There were more patients with weight loss over 5 kg after surgery in the LTG group than in the TULPG-SEV group (P = 0.043). There was no significant difference in the 3-year overall survival rate between the two groups (P = 0.356).

Conclusion: SEV has a certain antireflux effect and can reduce the anastomosis time. Proximal gastrectomy may be better than total gastrectomy for maintaining postoperative hemoglobin levels and reducing weight loss.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12957-021-02163-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7885399PMC
February 2021

Investigation on the role of the free radicals and the controlled degradation of chitosan under solution plasma process based on radical scavengers.

Carbohydr Polym 2021 Apr 26;257:117567. Epub 2020 Dec 26.

College of Food Science, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang, 110866, China. Electronic address:

This study investigated the role of various active species (OH, O, and HO) under solution plasma process (SPP) degradation based on the influence of different radical scavengers on the degradation effect and ESR spectra. The structures of oligochitosan with different radical scavengers were characterized by FT-IR, H NMR, and XRD analysis. The results indicated that OH, O, and HO played important roles in SPP degradation. The degradation effect of the O was even higher than that of the OH. The physical effects (e.g. UV light and shockwaves) of SPP method or Fenton's reaction might contribute to the degradation treatment. Furthermore, the different scavengers could adjust the degradation effect of the corresponding free radicals. FT-IR, H NMR, and XRD analysis revealed that the primary chemical structure of chitosan was not changed by the scavengers. This study found that the controlled degradation by addition of a radical scavenger is feasible. Therefore, this study provided a straightforward analysis of the role of the free radicals and the controlled degradation of chitosan under SPP treatment, which will be beneficial to further develop SPP techniques for chitosan degradation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2020.117567DOI Listing
April 2021

Metabolic regulation of telomere silencing by SESAME complex-catalyzed H3T11 phosphorylation.

Nat Commun 2021 01 26;12(1):594. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

State Key Laboratory of Biocatalysis and Enzyme Engineering, College of Life Sciences, Hubei University, Wuhan, Hubei, 430062, China.

Telomeres are organized into a heterochromatin structure and maintenance of silent heterochromatin is required for chromosome stability. How telomere heterochromatin is dynamically regulated in response to stimuli remains unknown. Pyruvate kinase Pyk1 forms a complex named SESAME (Serine-responsive SAM-containing Metabolic Enzyme complex) to regulate gene expression by phosphorylating histone H3T11 (H3pT11). Here, we identify a function of SESAME in regulating telomere heterochromatin structure. SESAME phosphorylates H3T11 at telomeres, which maintains SIR (silent information regulator) complex occupancy at telomeres and protects Sir2 from degradation by autophagy. Moreover, SESAME-catalyzed H3pT11 directly represses autophagy-related gene expression to further prevent autophagy-mediated Sir2 degradation. By promoting H3pT11, serine increases Sir2 protein levels and enhances telomere silencing. Loss of H3pT11 leads to reduced Sir2 and compromised telomere silencing during chronological aging. Together, our study provides insights into dynamic regulation of silent heterochromatin by histone modifications and autophagy in response to cell metabolism and aging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20711-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7838282PMC
January 2021

Circular RNA 0001313 Knockdown Suppresses Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cell Proliferation and Invasion via the microRNA-452/HMGB3/ERK/MAPK Axis.

Int J Gen Med 2020 10;13:1495-1507. Epub 2020 Dec 10.

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Ganzhou People's Hospital, Ganzhou 341000, Jiangxi, People's Republic of China.

Background: Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) seriously endangers human health. Circular RNAs (circRNAs) regulate diverse types of cancers, including NSCLC. This study investigated the possible mechanism of in NSCLC.

Materials And Methods: expression in NSCLC tissues was measured, and its correlation with clinicopathological features was analyzed. The binding relationships among , microRNA (miR)-452 and were tested. The gain and loss of functions were performed to examine NSCLC cell malignant behaviors. After overexpression, ERK/MAPK pathway-related protein levels were detected. Subsequently, the rescue experiment was further performed using an ERK/MAPK pathway inhibitor PD98059.

Results: Abnormally elevated and decreased in NSCLC cells were observed. silencing or overexpression significantly reduced NSCLC cell proliferation and invasion. competitively bound to to upregulate , thus promoting NSCLC cell growth. overexpression activated the ERK/MAPK pathway to contribute to NSCLC development.

Conclusion: We highlighted that silencing of blunted the ERK/MAPK pathway via the axis, thereby inhibiting NSCLC cell proliferation and invasion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJGM.S272996DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7735797PMC
December 2020

Self-Assembly Based Cancer Therapy Strategy.

J Biomed Nanotechnol 2020 Jul;16(7):997-1017

Nanotechnology has been widely applied in tumor imaging, diagnostic and therapy. Beside the prefabricated nanomaterials, constructing nanostructures in living cells through self-assemble provides an alternative strategy to treat cancer. self-assembly renders the conversion of compatible small molecules into assembled nanostructures with toxicity, and is expected to outperform the prefabricated nanotechnologies as the small molecules diffuse faster than their assembly form. Attributed to the specific tumor environment such as low pH, high ROS, high enzyme expression and so on, self-assembly could differentiate cancer cells from normal ones with high selectivity. The self-assembly based caner therapy has made considerable progress in the last decade with confirmed advantages such as high capacity, minimal drug resistance, high accumulation, enhanced retention and so on. This review summarized the self-assembly of nanostructures induced by the stimuli like pH, ROS, enzyme, metal ion, localized concentration, biominerization and their utilization in cancer therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1166/jbn.2020.2962DOI Listing
July 2020

Visualizing Tailored Spin Phenomena in a Reduced-Dimensional Topological Superlattice.

Adv Mater 2020 Dec 3;32(49):e2005315. Epub 2020 Nov 3.

Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190, China.

Emergent topological insulators (TIs) and their design are in high demand for manipulating and transmitting spin information toward ultralow-power-consumption spintronic applications. Here, distinct topological states with tailored spin properties can be achieved in a single reduced-dimensional TI-superlattice, (Bi /Bi Se )-(Bi /Bi Se ) or (□/Bi Se )-(Bi /Bi Se ) (N is the repeating unit, □ represents an empty layer) by controlling the termination via molecular beam epitaxy. The Bi -terminated superlattice exhibits a single Dirac cone with a spin momentum splitting ≈0.5 Å , producing a pronounced inverse Edelstein effect with a coherence length up to 1.26 nm. In contrast, the Bi Se -terminated superlattice is identified as a dual TI protected by coexisting time reversal and mirror symmetries, showing an unexpectedly long spin lifetime up to 1 ns. The work elucidates the key role of dimensionality and dual topological phases in selecting desired spin properties, suggesting a promise route for engineering topological superlattices for high-performance TI-spintronic devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202005315DOI Listing
December 2020

Investigation of hydrodynamics in high solid anaerobic digestion by particle image velocimetry and computational fluid dynamics: Role of mixing on flow field and dead zone reduction.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Jan 18;319:124130. Epub 2020 Sep 18.

Laboratory of Reactions and Process Engineering, Université de Lorraine, CNRS, 1, rue Grandville, BP 20451, 54001 Nancy cedex, France. Electronic address:

High solid anaerobic digestion (HSAD) was a potential organic waste treatment. Compared with low solid anaerobic digestion, it had the advantages of small footprint, less digestate, and low heating energy. However, HSAD's methane production is poor, mainly due to the complex hydrodynamics. In this study, computational fluid dynamics were utilized for HSAD's hydrodynamics investigation at 14.3% solid content and compared to the particle image velocimetry measurement. Then, effects of mixing on hydrodynamics were investigated. The results indicated that the diameter of impeller was critical for the radial mixing, and the distance between the impellers dictated the axial mixing. Besides, rotating speed affected flow velocities significantly, but displayed less effect on expanding the mixing range. Furthermore, HSAD's treating capacity could be increased at large extent by optimizing mixing. The visualization of the hydrodynamics in this study could potentially offer conceptual basis for HSAD's design in practical engineering.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2020.124130DOI Listing
January 2021

AGE challenge: Angle Closure Glaucoma Evaluation in Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography.

Med Image Anal 2020 12 26;66:101798. Epub 2020 Aug 26.

Intelligent Healthcare Unit, Baidu, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Angle closure glaucoma (ACG) is a more aggressive disease than open-angle glaucoma, where the abnormal anatomical structures of the anterior chamber angle (ACA) may cause an elevated intraocular pressure and gradually lead to glaucomatous optic neuropathy and eventually to visual impairment and blindness. Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography (AS-OCT) imaging provides a fast and contactless way to discriminate angle closure from open angle. Although many medical image analysis algorithms have been developed for glaucoma diagnosis, only a few studies have focused on AS-OCT imaging. In particular, there is no public AS-OCT dataset available for evaluating the existing methods in a uniform way, which limits progress in the development of automated techniques for angle closure detection and assessment. To address this, we organized the Angle closure Glaucoma Evaluation challenge (AGE), held in conjunction with MICCAI 2019. The AGE challenge consisted of two tasks: scleral spur localization and angle closure classification. For this challenge, we released a large dataset of 4800 annotated AS-OCT images from 199 patients, and also proposed an evaluation framework to benchmark and compare different models. During the AGE challenge, over 200 teams registered online, and more than 1100 results were submitted for online evaluation. Finally, eight teams participated in the onsite challenge. In this paper, we summarize these eight onsite challenge methods and analyze their corresponding results for the two tasks. We further discuss limitations and future directions. In the AGE challenge, the top-performing approach had an average Euclidean Distance of 10 pixels (10 µm) in scleral spur localization, while in the task of angle closure classification, all the algorithms achieved satisfactory performances, with two best obtaining an accuracy rate of 100%. These artificial intelligence techniques have the potential to promote new developments in AS-OCT image analysis and image-based angle closure glaucoma assessment in particular.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.media.2020.101798DOI Listing
December 2020

Tunable narrowband shortwave-infrared absorber made of a nanodisk-based metasurface and a phase-change material GeSbTe layer.

Appl Opt 2020 Jul;59(21):6309-6314

A tunable absorber made of a nanodisk-based metasurface is proposed to realize a narrowband shortwave-infrared (SWIR) perfect absorption. By introducing a phase-change material (GST) layer, we produce a selective and active control of the optical response. It is found that the narrowband absorption of 99.9% can be achieved for amorphous GST (aGST) with a modulation depth of 54.6% at 1931 nm, which is attributed to the strong electric dipole resonance in the germanium nanodisks. Moreover, under the aGST state, the full width at half-maximum of 22 nm can be acquired for a normal TM-polarized wave, and such a nanodisk-based absorber enables a tunable operating wavelength by adjusting the geometrical parameters to realize the spectral selectivity. In addition, the nanodisk-based metasurface nanostructure, combined with a dielectric Bragg reflector with alternately stacked and layers, can realize the SWIR dual-band absorption for aGST and single-band absorption for crystalline GST through the adjustment of electric and magnetic resonances. The designed absorbers have the potential applications in tunable absorption filter, thermal sensing, and optical signal processing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.395046DOI Listing
July 2020

Biomechanical Comparison of Stand-Alone and Bilateral Pedicle Screw Fixation for Oblique Lumbar Interbody Fusion Surgery-A Finite Element Analysis.

World Neurosurg 2020 09 2;141:e204-e212. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Department of Anatomy, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Background: The most common complication of oblique lumbar interbody fusion (OLIF) is endplate fracture/subsidence. The mechanics of endplate fracture in OLIF surgery are still unclear. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the biomechanical stability in patients undergoing OLIF surgery with stand-alone (SA) and bilateral pedicle screw fixation (BPSF) methods.

Methods: A finite element model of the L1-L5 spinal unit was established and validated. Using the validated model technique, L4-L5 functional surgical models corresponding to the SA and BPSF methods were created. Simulations using the models were performed to investigate OLIF surgery. A 500-N compression force was applied to the superior surface of the model to represent the upper body weight, and a 7.5-Nm moment was applied to simulate the 6 movement directions of the lumbar spinal model: flexion and extension, right and left lateral bending, and right and left axial rotation. Finite element models were developed to compare the biomechanics of the SA and BPSF groups.

Results: Compared with the range of motion of the intact lumbar model, that of the SA model was decreased by 79.6% in flexion, 54.5% in extension, 57.2% in lateral bending, and 50.0% in axial rotation. The BPSF model was decreased by 86.7% in flexion, 77.3% in extension, 76.2% in lateral bending, and 75.0% in axial rotation. Compared with the BPSF model, the maximum stresses of the L4 inferior endplate and L5 superior endplate were greatly increased in the SA model. The L4 inferior endplate stress was increased to 49.7 MPa in extension, and the L5 superior endplate stress was increased to 47.7 MPa in flexion, close to the yield stress of the lamellar bone (60 MPa).

Conclusions: OLIF surgery with BPSF could reduce the maximum stresses on the endplate, which might reduce the incidence of cage subsidence. OLIF surgery with the SA method produced more stress compared with BPSF, especially in extension and flexion, which might be a potential risk factor for cage subsidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2020.05.245DOI Listing
September 2020

sp. nov., a moderate halophile isolated from saline soil in Northwest China.

Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2020 Jun 15;70(6):3701-3710. Epub 2020 May 15.

Key Laboratory of Leather Chemistry and Engineering (Sichuan University), Ministry of Education, Chengdu 610065, PR China.

A moderately halophilic strain, designated SCU50, was recovered from a saline soil sample and characterized by a polyphasic approach. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain SCU50 belonged to the genus and was most closely related to TP2-8 (98.1 % similarity) and XH-63 (97.7 %). Genomic average nucleotide identity and digital DNA-DNA hybridization analyses confirmed the separate species status of the new isolate relative to other recognized species. The genome size was about 5.09 Mbp and the DNA G+C content was 36.7 mol%. The strain grew optimally at 10-15 % (w/v) NaCl, pH 6.5-7.5 and 25-30 °C. It contained anteiso-C, iso-C and anteiso-C as the dominant fatty acids and menaquinone-7 as the major respiratory quinone. The polar lipid profile was examined and found to comprise diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, one unidentified phospholipid and one unidentified lipid. The cell-wall peptidoglycan type was A1γ based on -diaminopimelic acid. Combining the data from phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, genomic and phylogenetic characterization, it was concluded that strain SCU50 should be assigned as representing a novel species within the genus . Thus, a novel taxon named sp. nov. was first established, with SCU50 (=CGMCC 1.17336=KCTC 43107) as the type strain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/ijsem.0.004224DOI Listing
June 2020

[Analysis of variation and evolution of SARS-CoV-2 genome].

Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao 2020 Feb;40(2):152-158

Biosafety Level-3 Laboratory, School of Public Health, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515, China.

Objective: To analyze the evolution and variation of SARS-CoV-2 during the epidemic starting at the end of 2019.

Methods: We downloaded the full-length genome sequence of SARS-CoV-2 from the databases of GISAID and NCBI. Using the software for bioinformatics including MEGA-X, BEAST, and TempEst, we constructed the genomic evolution tree, inferred the time evolution signal of the virus, calculated the tMRCA time of the virus and analyzed the selection pressure of the virus during evolution.

Results: The phylogenetic tree showed that SARS-CoV-2 belonged to the Sarbecovirus subgenus of β Coronavirus genus together with bat coronavirus BetaCoV/bat/Yunnan/RaTG13/2013, bat-SL-CoVZC45, bat-SL-CoVZXC21 and SARS-CoV. The genomic sequences of SARS-CoV-2 isolated from the ongoing epidemic showed a weak time evolution signal with an average tMRCA time of 73 days (95% CI: 38.9-119.3 days). No positive time evolution signal was found between SARS-CoV-2 and BetaCoV/bat/Yunnan/RaTG13/2013, but the former virus had a strong positive temporal evolution relationship with bat-SL-CoVZC45 and SARS-CoV. The major cause for mutations of SARS-CoV-2 was the pressure of purification selection during the epidemic.

Conclusions: SARS-CoV-2 may have emerged as early as November, 2019, originating most likely from bat-associated coronavirus. This finding may provide evidence for tracing the sources and evolution of the virus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12122/j.issn.1673-4254.2020.02.02DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7086142PMC
February 2020

Ornithinibacillus caprae sp. nov., a moderate halophile isolated from the hides of a white goat.

Arch Microbiol 2020 Aug 19;202(6):1469-1476. Epub 2020 Mar 19.

College of Biomass Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, People's Republic of China.

A novel Gram-stain-positive, motile, moderate halophile, strain L9, was isolated from hides of white goat in China. The isolate grew optimally at 30 °C, at pH 7 and with 5-10% (w/v) NaCl. The predominant menaquinone was MK-7, and the major cellular fatty acids were identified as iso-C and anteiso-C. The peptidoglycan amino acid type was determined to be A4β, containing L-ornithine and D-aspartic as diagnostic amino acids. The phospholipids were dominated by diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, one unidentified aminophospholipid and two unidentified phospholipids. Genome sequencing resulted in a genome size of 4.0 Mbp and a DNA G + C content of 35.9 mol%. Phylogenetic trees based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences showed the isolate to be closely related to Oceanobacillus limi H9B (98.2% similarity) and Ornithinibacillus halophilus G8B (97.5% similarity). The ANI and dDDH values between strain L9 and the closely related species were 69.8-76.1% and 13.0-20.5%, respectively. On the basis of the data presented, strain L9 represents a novel species of the genus Ornithinibacillus, for which the name Ornithinibacillus caprae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is L9 (= KCTC 43176 = CGMCC 1.17659).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00203-020-01855-6DOI Listing
August 2020

C19orf66 interrupts Zika virus replication by inducing lysosomal degradation of viral NS3.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2020 03 9;14(3):e0008083. Epub 2020 Mar 9.

Key Laboratory of Tropical Disease Control (Sun Yat-sen University), Ministry of Education, Guangzhou, China.

The rapidly emerging human health crisis associated with the Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic and its link to severe complications highlights the growing need to identify the mechanisms by which ZIKV accesses hosts. Interferon response protects host cells against viral infection, while the cellular factors that mediate this defense are the products of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs). Although hundreds of ISGs have been identified, only a few have been characterized for their antiviral potential, target specificity and mechanisms of action. In this work, we focused our investigation on the possible antiviral effect of a novel ISG, C19orf66 in response to ZIKV infection and the associated mechanisms. We found that ZIKV infection could induce C19orf66 expression in ZIKV-permissive cells, and such an overexpression of C19orf66 remarkably suppressed ZIKV replication. Conversely, the depletion of C19orf66 led to a significant increase in viral replication. Furthermore, C19orf66 was found to interact and co-localize with ZIKV nonstructural protein 3 (NS3), thus inducing NS3 degradation via a lysosome-dependent pathway. Taken together, this study identified C19orf66 as a novel ISG that exerts antiviral effects against ZIKV by specifically degrading a viral nonstructural protein. These findings uncovered an intriguing mechanism of C19orf66 that targeting NS3 protein of ZIKV, providing clues for understanding the actions of innate immunity, and affording the possible availability of new drug targets that can be used for therapeutic intervention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0008083DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7082052PMC
March 2020

Effect of Heavy Metal Contamination in the Environment on Antioxidant Function in Wumeng Semi-fine Wool Sheep in Southwest China.

Biol Trace Elem Res 2020 Dec 19;198(2):505-514. Epub 2020 Feb 19.

School of Karst Science, Guizhou Normal University/State Engineering Technology Institute for Karst Desertification Control, Guiyang, 550001, China.

Many environmental accidents have led to worldwide heavy metal pollution, raising concern about heavy metal toxicity in Southwest China. To study the effects of Cd and Pb in the environment on antioxidant function in Wumeng semi-fine wool sheep, contents of Cu, Zn, Mn, Mo, Fe, Se, Cd, and Pb were measured in irrigation water, soil, herbage, and animal tissues. Hematological and biochemical parameters were also determined. The concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb in affected samples of irrigation water, soil, herbage, and tissues were significantly higher than those in the control (P < 0.01). There was no significant difference in other element contents between affected pastures and control areas. The occurrence of anemia affected Wumeng semi-fine wool sheep. The activities of SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px in affected animals were significantly decreased than those in the control (P < 0.01). Content of MDA in serum in affected animals was significantly increased than that in control (P < 0.01). Serum T-AOC in affected animal was significantly lower than that in control (P < 0.01). Consequently, it is suggested that heavy metal contamination in natural habitat caused serious harm to antioxidant function in Wumeng semi-fine wool sheep.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12011-020-02081-3DOI Listing
December 2020

Glycolysis regulates gene expression by promoting the crosstalk between H3K4 trimethylation and H3K14 acetylation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

J Genet Genomics 2019 12 11;46(12):561-574. Epub 2019 Dec 11.

State Key Laboratory of Biocatalysis and Enzyme Engineering, College of Life Sciences, Hubei University, Wuhan, Hubei, 430062, China. Electronic address:

Cells need to coordinate gene expression with their metabolic states to maintain cell homeostasis and growth. However, how cells transduce nutrient availability to appropriate gene expression response via histone modifications remains largely unknown. Here, we report that glucose specifically induces histone H3K4 trimethylation (H3K4me3), an evolutionarily conserved histone covalent modification associated with active gene transcription, and that glycolytic enzymes and metabolites are required for this induction. Although glycolysis supplies S-adenosylmethionine for histone methyltransferase Set1 to catalyze H3K4me3, glucose induces H3K4me3 primarily by inhibiting histone demethylase Jhd2-catalyzed H3K4 demethylation. Glycolysis provides acetyl-CoA to stimulate histone acetyltransferase Gcn5 to acetylate H3K14, which then inhibits the binding of Jhd2 to chromatin to increase H3K4me3. By repressing Jhd2-mediated H3K4 demethylation, glycolytic enzymes regulate gene expression and cell survival during chronological aging. Thus, our results elucidate how cells reprogram their gene expression programs in response to glucose availability via histone modifications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jgg.2019.11.007DOI Listing
December 2019

Ultrastrong π-Bonded Interface as Ductile Plastic Flow Channel in Nanostructured Diamond.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2020 Jan 13;12(3):4135-4142. Epub 2020 Jan 13.

School of Materials Science and Engineering , Beihang University , Beijing 100191 , P. R. China.

A combinational effect of nanostructured crystallites and π-bonded interfaces is much attractive in solving the conflict between strength/hardness and toughness to design extrinsically superhard materials with enhanced fracture toughness and/or other properties such as tunable electronic properties. In the present work, taking the experimentally observed π-bonded interfaces in nanostructured diamond as the prototype, we theoretically investigated their stabilities, electronic structures, and mechanical strengths with special consideration of the size effect of nanocrystallites or nanolayers. It is unprecedentedly found that the π-bonded interfaces exhibit tunable electronic semiconducting properties, superior fracture toughness, and anomalously large creep-like plasticity at the cost of minor losses in strength/hardness; such unique combination is uncovered to be attributed to the ductile bridging effect of the sp bonds across the π-bonded interface that dominates the localized plastic flow channel. As the length scale of nanocrystallites/nanolayers is lower than a critical value, however, the first failure occurring inside nanocrystallites/nanolayers features softening and embrittling. These findings not only provide a novel insight into the unique strengthening and toughening origin observed in ultrahard nanostructured diamonds consisting of nanotwins, nanocomposites, and nanocrystallites but also highlight a unique pathway by combining the nanostructured crystallites and the strongly bonded interface to design the novel superhard materials with superior toughness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.9b19725DOI Listing
January 2020

Cd accumulation, biomass and yield of rice are varied with silicon application at different growth phases under high concentration cadmium-contaminated soil.

Chemosphere 2020 Mar 15;242:125128. Epub 2019 Oct 15.

College of Agronomy, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, 510642, PR China. Electronic address:

Many reports suggest that exogenous Si addition could reduce Cd translocation to aerial part and make grain safe for rice production. But it remains unclear whether its supplementation during different growth phases can differentially impact Cd uptake in rice. Here, Positive effects of Si applied at different growth phases on biomass and yield of rice were observed. Dry weight of shoot including stem, leaf and grain was enhanced significantly by 15% when Si added at transplanting stage. Grain-yields supplied with Si at transplanting, jointing and heading stages were increased obviously by 14%, 11% and 12%, respectively. Higher percentage of filled spikelet and lower unfilled spikelet number per panicle were found when Si supplied at jointing stage. The increases of Cd accumulation in rice plants by Si application were mainly manifested in roots. Compared to CK, Cd accumulation in root when Si applied at transplanting and tillering stages were elevated by 75% and 64%, respectively. While Cd accumulation in aboveground tissues were all declined by Si addition. Bioconcentration and translocation factors were decreased significantly when Si added at jointing stage. In addition, higher soil pH, lowest available Cd-concentration in soil and Cd concentration in xylem sap at 15d after flowering were found when the Si was applied at jointing stage. Overall, Si application at transplanting would be more beneficial to the growth of rice and increased Cd content in root, while Si supplied at jointing would be more favorable for grain filling and reducing Cd accumulation in shoot.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.125128DOI Listing
March 2020

A generalized solid strengthening rule for biocompatible Zn-based alloys, a comparison with Mg-based alloys.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2019 Oct 8;21(40):22629-22638. Epub 2019 Oct 8.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191, P. R. China. and Center for Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (International Research Institute for Multidisciplinary Science) and Key Laboratory of High-Temperature Structural Materials & Coatings Technology (Ministry of Industry and Information Technology), Beihang University, Beijing 100191, P. R. China.

Solid solution strengthening has been widely used in designing various high-performance biocompatible Mg-based alloys, but its transferability to other biocompatible metals such as Zn-based alloys is questionable or nearly absent. In the present study, an ab initio informed Peierls-Nabarro model and Leyson et al.'s strengthening model are used for a systematic investigation on solute strengthening in Zn-based alloys, which is compared with the widely studied Mg-based alloys. Although an inverse relationship was revealed between volume misfit ε and chemical misfit ε for both Zn-based and Mg-based alloys, most solutes would however result in positive ε and negative ε for Zn-based alloys, differing from Mg-based alloys. With ε and ε as two key descriptors, a generalized scaling diagram is finally drawn for a fast evaluation of solid solution strengthening in Zn-based alloys, indicating that the alkaline-earth and rare earth elements are better strengtheners for Zn-based alloys, which provides a general rule in designing novel biocompatible materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9cp04106kDOI Listing
October 2019

Role of the transcriptional coactivators YAP/TAZ in liver cancer.

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2019 12 3;61:64-71. Epub 2019 Aug 3.

State Key Laboratory of Cellular Stress Biology, Innovation Center for Cell Signaling Network, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361102, China. Electronic address:

Liver cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in particular, is one of the deadliest cancers worldwide. Although the etiologies for liver oncogenesis are relatively well defined, the exact mechanisms leading to cancer development remain elusive. The Hippo signaling pathway, an evolutionarily conserved signaling module, plays critical roles in organ size control and tumorigenesis. The aberrant activation of the transcriptional coactivator YAP or TAZ, downstream effectors of the Hippo signaling pathway, has been implicated in several human cancers including HCC. YAP/TAZ therefore have emerged as an attractive target for cancer therapeutics. In this review, we summarize the recent findings regarding the role of YAP/TAZ in HCC development, and discuss the multifarious mechanisms regulating their activities and their potential contribution to human liver tumorigenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceb.2019.07.006DOI Listing
December 2019

Zika virus antagonizes interferon response in patients and disrupts RIG-I-MAVS interaction through its CARD-TM domains.

Cell Biosci 2019 7;9:46. Epub 2019 Jun 7.

1Key Laboratory of Tropical Disease Control (Sun Yat-sen University), Ministry of Education, Guangzhou, 510080 China.

Background: The emerging threat to global health associated with the Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemics and its link to severe complications highlights a growing need to better understand the pathogenic mechanisms of ZIKV. Accumulating evidence for a critical role of type I interferon (IFN-I) in protecting hosts from ZIKV infection lies in the findings that ZIKV has evolved various strategies to subvert the host defense line by counteracting the early IFN induction or subsequent IFN signaling. Yet, mechanisms underlying the counter-IFN capability of ZIKV and its proteins, which might contribute to the well-recognized broad cellular tropisms and persistence of ZIKV, remain incompletely understood.

Results: Using RNA sequencing-based transcriptional profiling of whole blood cells isolated from patients acutely infected by ZIKV, we found that transcriptional signature programs of antiviral interferon-stimulated genes and innate immune sensors in ZIKV-infected patients remained inactive as compared to those of healthy donors, suggesting that ZIKV was able to suppress the induction of IFN-I during the natural infection process in humans. Furthermore, by analyzing the molecular interaction in a ZIKV NS4A-overexpression system, or in the context of actual ZIKV infection, we identified that ZIKV NS4A directly bound MAVS and thereby interrupted the RIG-I/MAVS interaction through the CARD-TM domains, leading to attenuated production of IFN-I.

Conclusions: Our findings collectively revealed that ZIKV NS4A targeted MAVS and contributed to ZIKV immune evasion through abrogating MAVS-mediated IFN production. These findings obtained from patient studies have added new knowledge and molecular details to our understanding regarding how ZIKV mediates suppression of the IFN-I system and may provide a new basis for the future development of anti-ZIKV strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13578-019-0308-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6555941PMC
June 2019

DART: Distribution Aware Retinal Transform for Event-Based Cameras.

IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell 2020 11 27;42(11):2767-2780. Epub 2019 May 27.

We introduce a generic visual descriptor, termed as distribution aware retinal transform (DART), that encodes the structural context using log-polar grids for event cameras. The DART descriptor is applied to four different problems, namely object classification, tracking, detection and feature matching: (1) The DART features are directly employed as local descriptors in a bag-of-words classification framework and testing is carried out on four standard event-based object datasets (N-MNIST, MNIST-DVS, CIFAR10-DVS, NCaltech-101); (2) Extending the classification system, tracking is demonstrated using two key novelties: (i) Statistical bootstrapping is leveraged with online learning for overcoming the low-sample problem during the one-shot learning of the tracker, (ii) Cyclical shifts are induced in the log-polar domain of the DART descriptor to achieve robustness to object scale and rotation variations; (3) To solve the long-term object tracking problem, an object detector is designed using the principle of cluster majority voting. The detection scheme is then combined with the tracker to result in a high intersection-over-union score with augmented ground truth annotations on the publicly available event camera dataset; (4) Finally, the event context encoded by DART greatly simplifies the feature correspondence problem, especially for spatio-temporal slices far apart in time, which has not been explicitly tackled in the event-based vision domain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TPAMI.2019.2919301DOI Listing
November 2020

Experimental observation of classical analogy of topological entanglement entropy.

Nat Commun 2019 04 5;10(1):1557. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Key Laboratory of advanced optoelectronic quantum architecture and measurements of Ministry of Education, School of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology, 100081, Beijing, China.

Long-range entanglement is an important aspect of the topological orders, so efficient methods to characterize the long-range entanglement are often needed. In this regard, topological entanglement entropy (TEE) is often used for such a purpose but the experimental observation of TEE in a topological order remains a challenge. Here, we propose a scheme to observe TEE in the topological order by constructing specific minimum entropy states (MESs). We then experimentally construct the classical microwave analogs of the MESs and simulate the nontrivial topological order with the TEE in Kitaev toric code, which is in agreement with theoretical predictions. We also experimentally simulate the transition from Z topologically ordered state to topologically trivial state.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-09584-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6450868PMC
April 2019

FGF15 Activates Hippo Signaling to Suppress Bile Acid Metabolism and Liver Tumorigenesis.

Dev Cell 2019 02 7;48(4):460-474.e9. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

State Key Laboratory of Cellular Stress Biology, Innovation Center for Cell Signaling Network, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361102, China; Cancer Research Center of Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361102, China. Electronic address:

The external factors that modulate Hippo signaling remain elusive. Here, we report that FGF15 activates Hippo signaling to suppress bile acid metabolism, liver overgrowth, and tumorigenesis. FGF15 is induced by FXR in ileal enterocytes in response to increased amounts of intestinal bile. We found that circulating enterohepatic FGF15 stimulates hepatic receptor FGFR4 to recruit and phosphorylate NF2, which relieves the inhibitory effect of Raf on the Hippo kinases Mst1/2, thereby switching FGFR4's role from pro-oncogenic to anti-tumor signaling. The activated Mst1/2 subsequently phosphorylates and stabilizes SHP to downregulate the key bile acid-synthesis enzyme Cyp7a1 expression, thereby limiting bile acid synthesis. In contrast, Mst1/2 deficiency impairs bile acid metabolism and remarkably increases Cyp7a1 expression and bile acid production. Importantly, pharmacological depletion of intestinal bile abrogates Mst1/2-mutant-driven liver overgrowth and oncogenesis. Therefore, FGF15-Hippo signaling along the gut-liver axis acts as a sensor of bile acid availability to restrain liver size and tumorigenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.devcel.2018.12.021DOI Listing
February 2019

Improved Convolutional Pose Machines for Human Pose Estimation Using Image Sensor Data.

Sensors (Basel) 2019 Feb 10;19(3). Epub 2019 Feb 10.

Guangxi Key Laboratory of Trusted Software, Guilin University of Electronic Technology, Guilin 541004, China.

In recent years, increasing human data comes from image sensors. In this paper, a novel approach combining convolutional pose machines (CPMs) with GoogLeNet is proposed for human pose estimation using image sensor data. The first stage of the CPMs directly generates a response map of each human skeleton's key points from images, in which we introduce some layers from the GoogLeNet. On the one hand, the improved model uses deeper network layers and more complex network structures to enhance the ability of low level feature extraction. On the other hand, the improved model applies a fine-tuning strategy, which benefits the estimation accuracy. Moreover, we introduce the inception structure to greatly reduce parameters of the model, which reduces the convergence time significantly. Extensive experiments on several datasets show that the improved model outperforms most mainstream models in accuracy and training time. The prediction efficiency of the improved model is improved by 1.023 times compared with the CPMs. At the same time, the training time of the improved model is reduced 3.414 times. This paper presents a new idea for future research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s19030718DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6386920PMC
February 2019

Quantum-inspired microwave signal processing for implementing unitary transforms.

Opt Express 2019 Jan;27(2):436-460

Inspired by photonic one-way quantum computation, we describe a microwave signal processing method for implementing unitary transforms based on measuring the cebits encoded in the "classical microwave graph state (CMGS)." Here the terms "cebit" and "CMGS" defined in our system are classical analogies of a qubit and certain target quantum graph states in quantum physics respectively, which can exhibit some similar behaviors and resultants. The constructions of 4- and 16-cebit CMGSs as examples are discussed in detail and specific tomography methods are introduced to characterize their qualities. By performing operations on these CMGSs, we implement some basic 2 × 2, 4 × 4, and specific generalized unitary transforms, and obtain output results with high fidelities. Furthermore, we also demonstrate that a simulation of an efficient Grover's search algorithm, which has been executed in one-way quantum computing schemes, can be directly realized via a certain 4-cebit CMGS. Due to the excellent parallel efficiency and credible outcomes in the proposal, this quantum-inspired method may provide benefits for exploring new ways to microwave information processing, or in turn as an alternative tool for simulating particular quantum systems to some extent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.27.000436DOI Listing
January 2019

Classically high-dimensional correlation: simulation of high-dimensional entanglement.

Opt Express 2018 Nov;26(24):31413-31429

Classical correlation, akin to the entanglement of quantum states, has been proven to bear a great promise in classical and quantum systems, such as enhancing measurement precision and characterizing quantum channels. Despite numerous successful applications of such correlation, it is strictly limited to two orthogonal bases and fails to further extend its dimensionality in practice. Here, we report a classically high-dimensional correlation, which is mathematically equivalent to its quantum counterparts and can be used to simulate the violations of the high-dimensional Bell inequalities. Moreover, we also show theoretically that quantum channels with high-dimensional quantum states can be characterized robustly using our scheme when a one-sided channel is perturbed by a turbulent atmosphere. This means that our results not only provide new physical insights into the notion of classical correlation, but also show potential applications in high-dimensional quantum information processing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.26.031413DOI Listing
November 2018

A synergetic stabilization and strengthening strategy for two-dimensional ordered hybrid transition metal carbides.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2018 Dec;20(47):29684-29692

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191, P. R. China.

Two-dimensional (2D) transition metal carbides (MXenes) exhibit excellent thermodynamic stability and remarkable mechanical strength and flexibility, as well as rich functionality, which attract considerable interest due to their potential application for high-performance flexible and stretchable devices. However, premature phonon instability of some non-hybrid MXenes was recently found to intrinsically limit their strength and flexibility, evoking passionate curiosity in pursuing an effective solution for more impressive mechanical properties. In this work, on the basis of an alloying strengthening mechanism, a combinational strategy is proposed to build ordered hybrid M2''M'C2O2 (M'' = Mo, W; M' = Ti, Zr, Hf) with remarkable dynamic stability and superior mechanical properties by hindering the premature phonon instability originating from the outer transition metals. By means of comprehensive screening, symmetrical-Mo2TiC2O2 is interestingly found to possess excellent stability at equilibrium and outstanding tolerance to phonon instability during straining compared to its Ti counterpart, being attributed to the character of the robust Mo-dz2 and O-pz hybridization. Although similar optical phonon soft modes appear in Ti3C2O2 and Mo2TiC2O2 under multiple loadings, the latter is much stiffer during straining. An in-depth analysis of deformed electronic structures reveals that a strain-induced increasing density of states in the vicinity of the Fermi level mainly composed of Mo-dz2 states facilitates the fatal phonon softening in Mo2TiC2O2 under biaxial tension, while differing from the mechanical instability in Ti3C2O2 triggered by a Peierls transition. Our findings provide a novel stabilization and strengthening strategy for 2D materials, and pave a new way for searching for 2D material candidates in designing flexible devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c8cp06458jDOI Listing
December 2018