Publications by authors named "Shigeru Sato"

250 Publications

Changes in the predicted function of the rumen bacterial community of Japanese Black beef cattle during the fattening stages according to Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analyses.

J Vet Med Sci 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Cooperative Department of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Agriculture, Iwate University.

We investigated changes in the predicted functions of the rumen bacterial community in Japanese Black beef cattle during fattening. Nine cattle were fed a high-concentrate diet during the early, middle, and late fattening stages consecutively (10-14, 15-22, and 23-30 months of age, respectively). The rumen fluid and solid samples collected at each stage were subjected to sequencing analyses. The sequencing results were clustered and classified into operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Representative sequences and a raw counting table for each OTU were submitted to the Piphillin website. The predicted functions were revealed by the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database as the ratio of the total sequence. In the early stage, "Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites" was significantly higher in the fluid fraction than in the solid fraction. "Two-component system" in the middle stage was significantly lower and "Purine metabolism" in the late stage was significantly higher in the fluid fraction than those in the solid fraction. The fluid fraction was significantly correlated with acetic acid, propionic acid, and bacterial metabolism, such as "Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites" and "Sugar metabolism." Moreover, the solid fraction was correlated with "Purine metabolism" and "Biosynthesis of secondary metabolism." These results suggest that the rumen bacterial community in Japanese Black beef cattle adapts to changes in rumen conditions by altering their functions in response to a long-term high-grain diet.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1292/jvms.21-0121DOI Listing
June 2021

Liver transcriptome response to periparturient hormonal and metabolic changes depends on the postpartum occurrence of subacute ruminal acidosis in Holstein cows.

Physiol Genomics 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Graduate School of Veterinary Sciences, grid.411792.8Iwate University, Japan.

We investigated changes in rumen fermentation, peripheral blood metabolites and hormones, and hepatic transcriptomic dynamics in Holstein cows with and those without subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) during the periparturient period. Sixteen multiparous Holstein cows were categorized in the SARA (n-=-8) or non-SARA (n-=-8) groups depending on whether they developed SARA during the 2 weeks after parturition. Reticulo-ruminal pH was measured continuously throughout the study. Rumen fluid, blood, and liver tissue samples were collected at 3 weeks prepartum and 2 and 6 weeks postpartum, with an additional blood sample collected at 0 and 4 weeks postpartum. The 1-h mean pH was depressed postpartum in both groups, whereas depression was more severe in the SARA group simultaneously with significantly longer duration of time (for pH <5.6 and 5.8). Significant expression of differentially expressed genes in liver tissue (DEGs; false discovery rate corrected P-<-0.1) were identified only in the non-SARA group, and were further analyzed by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software. Among the top expressed DEGs, the hepatic genes encoding lipid and cholesterol secretion (APOA1, APOA4, and G0S2) and gluconeogenesis (PC, G6PC, and PCK1) were upregulated postpartum. In silico analysis revealed the significant postpartum activation of upstream regulators, such as INSR, PPARG, and PPARGC1A. These results suggested that hepatic transcriptomic responsiveness to postpartum metabolic load and hormones were likely discouraged in cows with SARA when compared to the significant activation of genes and signaling pathways for adequate metabolic adaption to postpartum high-grain diet feeding in Holstein cows without SARA.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/physiolgenomics.00048.2021DOI Listing
June 2021

Anti-lipopolysaccharide antibody mitigates ruminal lipopolysaccharide release without acute-phase inflammation or liver transcriptomic responses in Holstein bulls.

J Vet Sci 2021 May;22(3):e34

Cooperative Department of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Agriculture, Iwate University, Morioka 020-8550, Japan.

Anti-lipopolysaccharide (LPS) antibody administration has the potential benefits of neutralizing and consequently controlling rumen-derived LPS during subacute ruminal acidosis. Four Holstein bulls were used in this crossover study with a 2-week wash-out period. Anti-LPS antibody (0 or 4 g) was administered once daily for 14 days. Significantly lower ruminal LPS and higher 1-h mean ruminal pH were identified in the 4 g group. However, blood metabolites, acute-phase proteins, cytokines, and hepatic transcriptomes were not different between the two groups. Therefore, anti-LPS antibody administration mitigated ruminal LPS release and pH depression without accompanying responses in acute-phase inflammation or hepatic transcriptomic expression.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4142/jvs.2021.22.e34DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8170223PMC
May 2021

Impact of photoreceptor density in a 3D simulation of panretinal laser photocoagulation.

BMC Ophthalmol 2021 May 7;21(1):200. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Ophthalmology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, E-7, Suita, Osaka, 565-0871, Japan.

Background: During panretinal photocoagulation (PRP), the outer retina, especially the photoreceptors, are destroyed. During such procedures, the impact of the retinal photocoagulation, which is performed in the same photocoagulated area, may change if it is applied to different locations with different photoreceptor densities. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the influence of photoreceptor density on PRP.

Methods: We constructed a three-dimensional (3D) average distribution of photoreceptors with 3D computer-aided design (CAD) software using previously derived photoreceptor density data and calculated the number of photoreceptors destroyed by scatter PRP and full-scatter PRP (size 400-μm on the retina, spacing 1.0 spot) using a geometry-based simulation. To investigate the impact of photoreceptor density on PRP, we calculated the ratio of the number of photoreceptors destroyed to the total number of photoreceptors, termed the photoreceptor destruction index.

Results: In this 3D simulation, the total number of photoreceptors was 96,571,900. The total number of photoreceptors destroyed by scatter PRP and full-scatter PRP were 15,608,200 and 19,120,600, respectively, and the respective photoreceptor destruction indexes were 16.2 and 19.8%, respectively.

Conclusions: Scatter PRP is expected to have 4/5 of the number of photoreceptors destroyed by full-scatter PRP.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12886-021-01945-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8103585PMC
May 2021

Effects of Adding Inter-Set Static Stretching to Flywheel Resistance Training on Flexibility, Muscular Strength, and Regional Hypertrophy in Young Men.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 04 4;18(7). Epub 2021 Apr 4.

Metabolism, Nutrition, and Exercise Laboratory, Physical Education and Sport Center, Londrina State University, Londrina 86050-070, Brazil.

Performing static stretching (SS) during resistance training (RT) rest periods is posited to potentiate muscular adaptations, but the literature is scarce on the topic. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of adding inter-set SS to a lower-limb flywheel RT program on joint flexibility, muscular strength, and regional hypertrophy. Sixteen untrained male adults (21 ± 1 y) completed the study, where they performed progressive flywheel bilateral squatting twice a week for 5 weeks. One leg of each participant was randomly allocated to perform SS during the inter-set rest period (RT+SS), while the other leg served as control (RT only). Before and after the intervention, knee flexion range of motion; knee extension isometric, concentric, and eccentric peak torque; 1-repetition maximum; and muscle thickness of the lower-limb muscles were assessed. Following the training period, additional effects were observed for the inter-set SS side on increasing joint flexibility ( < 0.05), whereas the average increase in strength measures was 5.3% for the control side, and 10.1% for the inter-set SS side, however, SS intervention induced significantly greater gains only for knee extension isometric strength, but not for dynamic 1-RM, concentric, and eccentric tests. Hamstrings and gluteus maximus did not hypertrophy with training; increases quadriceps muscle thickness depended on the site/portion analyzed, but no significant difference was observed between legs (average: RT = 7.3%, RT+SS = 8.0%). The results indicate that adding inter-set SS to RT may provide large gains in flexibility, slightly benefits for muscular strength (especially for isometric action), but do not impact muscle hypertrophy in untrained young men.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073770DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8038434PMC
April 2021

Anti-lipopolysaccharide antibody administration mitigates ruminal lipopolysaccharide release and depression of ruminal pH during subacute ruminal acidosis challenge in Holstein bull cattle.

J Vet Med Sci 2021 Jun 21;83(6):905-910. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Cooperative Department of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Agriculture, Iwate University, Morioka, Iwate 020-8550, Japan.

The effects of anti-lipopolysaccharide (LPS) antibody on rumen fermentation and LPS activity were investigated during subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) challenge. Eleven Holstein cattle (164 ± 14 kg) were used in a 3 × 3 Latin square design. Cattle were fed a roughage diet on days -11 to -1 (pre-challenge) and day 2 (post-challenge), and a high-grain diet on days 0 and 1 (SARA challenge). For 14 days, 0-, 2-, or 4-g of anti-LPS antibody was administered once daily through a rumen fistula. Ruminal pH was measured continuously, and rumen fluid and blood samples were collected on days -1, 0, 1, and 2. Significantly lower ruminal LPS activity on day 1 was observed in the 2- and 4-g groups than those in the 0-g group. In addition, significantly higher 1-hr mean ruminal pH on SARA challenge period (days 0 and 1) was identified in the 4-g group than in the 0-g group. However, rumen fermentation measurements (total volatile fatty acid [VFA], VFA components, NH-N and lactic acid) and peripheral blood metabolites (glucose, free fatty acid, beta-hydroxybutyrate, total cholesterol, blood urea nitrogen, aspartate aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyl transferase) were not different among the groups during the experimental periods. Therefore, anti-LPS antibody administration mitigates LPS release and pH depression without the depression of rumen fermentation and peripheral blood metabolites during SARA challenge in Holstein cattle.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1292/jvms.21-0037DOI Listing
June 2021

Training and Detraining Effects Following a Static Stretching Program on Medial Gastrocnemius Passive Properties.

Front Physiol 2021 1;12:656579. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Institute of Human Movement Science, Sport and Health, University of Graz, Graz, Austria.

A stretching intervention program is performed to maintain and improve range of motion (ROM) in sports and rehabilitation settings. However, there is no consensus on the effects of stretching programs on muscle stiffness, likely due to short stretching durations used in each session. Therefore, a longer stretching exercise session may be required to decrease muscle stiffness in the long-term. Moreover, until now, the retention effect (detraining) of such an intervention program is not clear yet. The purpose of this study was to investigate the training (5-week) and detraining effects (5-week) of a high-volume stretching intervention on ankle dorsiflexion ROM (DF ROM) and medial gastrocnemius muscle stiffness. Fifteen males participated in this study and the plantarflexors of the dominant limb were evaluated. Static stretching intervention was performed using a stretching board for 1,800 s at 2 days per week for 5 weeks. DF ROM was assessed, and muscle stiffness was calculated from passive torque and muscle elongation during passive dorsiflexion test. The results showed significant changes in DF ROM and muscle stiffness after the stretching intervention program, but the values returned to baseline after the detraining period. Our results indicate that high-volume stretching intervention (3,600 s per week) may be beneficial for DF ROM and muscle stiffness, but the training effects are dismissed after a detraining period with the same duration of the intervention.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2021.656579DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8049289PMC
April 2021

Association between the Range of Motion and Passive Property of the Gastrocnemius Muscle-Tendon Unit in Older Population.

Healthcare (Basel) 2021 Mar 12;9(3). Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Institute of Human Movement Science, Sport and Health, University of Graz, Mozartgasse 14, A-8010 Graz, Austria.

Range of motion has been widely known to decrease with age; however, factors associated with its decrease in the elderly population and especially its gender difference have been unclear. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the factors associated with ankle dorsiflexion range of motion in the older population. Both male (n = 17, mean ± SD; 70.5 ± 4.2 years; 165.4 ± 5.3 cm; 63.8 ± 7.7 kg) and female (n = 25, 74.0 ± 4.0 years; 151.2 ± 4.9 cm; 50.1 ± 5.6 kg) community-dwelling older adults participated in this study. The ankle dorsiflexion and passive torque of both legs were measured using a dynamometer, and shear elastic modulus of the medial gastrocnemius muscle at 0° ankle angle was measured using ultrasonic shear wave elastography. In this study, we defined the passive torque at dorsiflexion range of motion (DF ROM) as the index of stretch tolerance, and shear elastic modulus as the index of passive muscle stiffness. The partial correlation coefficient adjusted by age, height, weight, and side (dominant or nondominant side) was used to analyze the relationship between DF ROM and passive torque at DF ROM or shear elastic modulus of MG in each male and female participant, respectively. Our results revealed that dorsiflexion range of motion was significantly associated with passive torque at dorsiflexion range of motion in both male (r = 0.455, = 0.012) and female (r = 0.486, < 0.01), but not with shear elastic modulus in both male (r = -0.123, = 0.519) and female (r = 0.019, = 0.898). Our results suggested that the ankle dorsiflexion range of motion could be related to the stretch tolerance, but not to passive muscle stiffness in community-dwelling elderly population regardless of gender.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9030314DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8000756PMC
March 2021

Single oral β-cryptoxanthin administration increases its serum concentration and enhances peripheral blood neutrophil function in Holstein cattle.

J Vet Med Sci 2021 May 29;83(5):829-831. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Cooperative Department of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Agriculture, Iwate University, Morioka, Iwate, 020-8550, Japan.

We investigated the effect of oral administration of β-cryptoxanthin (β-CRX) on its serum concentration and peripheral neutrophil functions by the chemiluminescence (CL) response in Holstein cattle. A single oral administration of β-CRX was performed for serum β-CRX concentration (0, 0.05, 0.1, or 0.2 mg/kg body weight [BW]) and for peak CL response of peripheral neutrophils (0.2 mg/kg BW). The serum β-CRX concentration was peaked on 2 days after, similar to peak CL response on 3 days after β-CRX administration. Therefore, a single oral administration of β-CRX (0.2 mg/kg BW) induces higher serum concentration and concurrently enhances bactericidal ability of peripheral neutrophils in Holstein cattle.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1292/jvms.21-0054DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8182316PMC
May 2021

The Acute and Prolonged Effects of Different Durations of Foam Rolling on Range of Motion, Muscle Stiffness, and Muscle Strength.

J Sports Sci Med 2021 03 1;20(1):62-68. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Institute of Human Movement Science, Sport and Health, University of Graz, Mozartgasse 14, 8010 Graz, Austria.

"Foam Rolling" has been used in sports settings to increase range of motion and decrease muscle stiffness without decreasing muscle strength and athletic performance. However, there has been no study investigating the acute and prolonged effect of different durations of foam rolling intervention on muscle stiffness, and the minimum foam rolling intervention duration required to decrease muscle stiffness is unclear. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the acute and prolonged effect of different durations of foam rolling intervention on ROM, muscle stiffness, and muscle strength. The 45 participants were randomly allocated to 1 of 3 groups (30 s × 1 times group vs 30 s × 3 times group vs 30 s× 10 times group). The outcome measures were dorsiflexion range of motion, shear elastic modulus of medial gastrocnemius, and muscle strength before, 2 min and 30 min after foam rolling intervention. There were no significant differences before and 2 min after foam rolling intervention in 30 s×1 time group, whereas dorsiflexion range of motion was increased in both 30 s×3 times group (p = 0.042, d = 0.26) and 30 s× 10 times group (p < 0.01, d = 0.33). However, the increase in dorsiflexion range of motion was returned to baseline value after 30 minutes in both 30 s × 3 times group and 30 s × 10 times group. In addition, there were no significant changes in shear elastic modulus and muscle strength in all groups. This study suggested that foam rolling for more than 90 s or more of foam rolling was effective in order to increase the range of motion immediately without changing muscle stiffness and muscle strength.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.52082/jssm.2021.62DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7919347PMC
March 2021

Flow pattern and perforating vessels in three different phases of myopic choroidal neovascularization seen by swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography.

Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2021 Mar 9. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Department of Ophthalmology, Osaka University Medical School, 2-2 Yamadaoka, 565-0871, Suita, Osaka, Japan.

Purpose: To compare the choroidal neovascularization (CNV) flow patterns and the relationship between perforating vessels (PVs) and CNV in the three different stages of networks in myopic CNV (mCNV) using swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography (SS-OCTA).

Methods: This retrospective study included 28 eyes with mCNV that was divided into three phases (active, scar, and atrophic) and observed by SS-OCTA. SS-OCTA findings, with special focus on the relationship between the PVs and CNV, were compared among the three phases.

Results: Overall, the CNV signal was detected in 31 of the 34 areas of CNV (91%); in the active, scar, and atrophic phases, respectively, CNV signals were detected in eight of eight areas of CNV (100%), 10 of 11 areas of CNV (91%), and 13 of 15 areas of CNV (86%). Two signal patterns were observed in each phase, i.e., dense and loop; in the atrophic phase, seven eyes were unclassifiable. The ratio between the dense and loop patterns did not differ significantly among the phases. In 30 of 34 areas of CNV for which clear images were obtained, the PVs and CNV were connected directly or indirectly in 19 area of CNV, and in five areas of CNV, trunk-like vessels were connected to the PVs within the CNV. The numbers of foveal or parafoveal CNVs accompanied by PVs were significantly (p=0.0048) greater than those of the extrafoveal CNV.

Conclusions: OCTA provides detailed observation of mCNV and the relationship between CNV and PVs. Although the CNV signal pattern does not differ depending on the degree of atrophy, there are cases in which only the trunk-like vessels connect to the PVs within the CNV in the atrophic phase without CNV flow signal.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00417-021-05134-yDOI Listing
March 2021

Comparison of the Acute Effects of Hold-Relax and Static Stretching among Older Adults.

Biology (Basel) 2021 Feb 5;10(2). Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Institute of Human Movement Science, Sport and Health, University of Graz, Mozartgasse 14, A-8010 Graz, Austria.

Various stretching techniques are generally recommended to counteract age-related declines in range of motion (ROM) and/or increased muscle stiffness. However, to date, an effective stretching technique has not yet been established for older adults. Consequently, we compared the acute effects of hold relax stretching (HRS) and static stretching (SS) on dorsiflexion (DF) ROM and muscle stiffness among older adults. Overall, 15 elderly men and nine elderly women (70.2 ± 3.9 years, 160.8 ± 7.8 cm, 59.6 ± 9.7 kg) were enrolled, and both legs were randomized to either HRS or SS stretching. We measured DF ROM and muscle stiffness using a dynamometer and ultrasonography before and after 120 s of HRS or SS interventions. Our multivariate analysis indicated no significant interaction effects, but a main effect for DF ROM. Post-hoc tests revealed that DF ROM was increased after both HRS and SS interventions. Moreover, multivariate analysis showed a significant interaction effect for muscle stiffness. Post-hoc tests revealed that muscle stiffness was decreased significantly after only SS intervention. Taken together, our results indicated that both HRS and SS interventions are recommended to increase ROM, and SS is recommended to decrease muscle stiffness in older adults.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biology10020126DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7914644PMC
February 2021

The Comparison of Different Stretching Intensities on the Range of Motion and Muscle Stiffness of the Quadriceps Muscles.

Front Physiol 2020 13;11:628870. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Department of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Rehabilitation, Kobe International University, Hyogo, Japan.

Muscle strain is one of the most frequent sports injuries, having the rectus femoris (RF) muscle as the reported preferred site of quadriceps muscle strain. The decrease muscle stiffness could be an effective RF muscle strain prevention. In recent studies, a high-intensity static stretching intervention decreased passive stiffness, though no study has investigated on the effect of the different static stretching intervention intensities on quadriceps muscle stiffness. The purpose of this study was to investigate the three different quadriceps muscle stiffness intensities (120 vs. 100 vs. 80%). Eighteen healthy, sedentary male volunteers participated in the study and randomly performed three intensities. The static stretching intervention was performed in knee flexion with 30° hip extension. Three 60-second stretching intervention with a 30-second interval were performed at each stretching intensity. We measured knee flexion range of motion and shear elastic modulus of the RF muscle used by ultrasonic shear-wave elastography before and after the static stretching intervention. Our results showed that the knee flexion range of motion was increased after 100% ( < 0.01) and 120% intensities ( < 0.01) static stretching intervention, not in 80% intensity ( = 0.853). In addition, our results showed that the shear elastic modulus of the RF muscle was decreased only after 100% intensity static stretching intervention ( < 0.01), not after 80% ( = 0.365), and 120% intensities ( = 0.743). To prevent the quadriceps muscle strain, especially the RF muscle, 100%, not 120% (high) and 80% (low), intensity stretching could be beneficial in sports setting application.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2020.628870DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7838703PMC
January 2021

Effects of a high-volume static stretching programme on plantar-flexor muscle strength and architecture.

Eur J Appl Physiol 2021 Apr 27;121(4):1159-1166. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Institute for Human Movement and Medical Sciences, Niigata University of Health and Welfare, 1398 Shimami-cho, Kita-ku, Niigata City, Niigata, 950-3198, Japan.

Purpose: Static stretching (SS) is performed in various settings, but there is no consensus about the effects of SS programmes on changes in muscle morphofunction. This study aimed to investigate the effects of a high-volume SS programme on muscle strength and architecture.

Methods: Sixteen healthy young male adults participated, and the dominant leg was defined as the intervention side, with the non-dominant leg as the control side. Stretching exercises were performed two times per week (6 sets of 5 min, totally 30 min per session,) for 5-week using a stretching board under the supervision of the research team. Before and after SS intervention programme, plantar-flexor strength (maximum voluntary isometric contraction, MVC-ISO; maximum voluntary concentric contraction, MVC-CON) and architecture (muscle thickness, pennation angle, and fascicle length) were measured via dynamometer and ultrasound, respectively.

Results: Following the SS-training programme, significant increases were observed for stretching side in MVIC-ISO at neutral ankle position (p = 0.02, d = 0.31, Δ = 6.4 ± 9.9%) and MVC-CON at 120°/s (p = 0.02, d = 0.30, Δ = 7.8 ± 9.1%), with no significant change on the control side. There was no significant change in any measure of muscle architecture for both intervention and control sides.

Conclusion: Five-week high-volume SS induced positive changes on some measures of muscle strength but not hypertrophy of plantar-flexor muscles. Even with a volume much greater than already tested, the low strain offered by the SS per set seems be insufficient to induce architectural changes on skeletal muscle.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00421-021-04608-5DOI Listing
April 2021

The Associations between Rapid Strength Development and Muscle Stiffness in Older Population.

Healthcare (Basel) 2021 Jan 15;9(1). Epub 2021 Jan 15.

Institute of Human Movement Science, Sport and Health, University of Graz, Graz A-8010, Austria.

Background: Previous studies suggest that the capacity for rapid force production of ankle plantar flexors is essential for the prevention of falls in the elderly. In healthy young adults, there were significant associations between rate of force development and muscle stiffness measured by shear wave elastography. However, there has been no study investigating the association of rate of force development with shear elastic modulus in older adults.

Methods: The muscle strength and shear elastic modulus of the medial gastrocnemius muscle in both legs were measured in 17 elderly men and 10 elderly women (mean ± SD; 70.7 ± 4.1 years; 160.6 ± 8.0 cm; 58.7 ± 9.5 kg). We investigated the rate of force development of plantar flexors and shear elastic modulus of medial gastrocnemius muscle using by shear wave elastography.

Results: Our results showed that there were no significant associations between normalized rate of force development and shear elastic modulus of medial gastrocnemius muscle.

Conclusion: This suggests that the capacity of rapid force production could be related not to muscle stiffness of the medial gastrocnemius muscle, but to neuromuscular function in older individuals.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9010080DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7830458PMC
January 2021

The Acute Effect of Foam Rolling on Eccentrically-Induced Muscle Damage.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 12 24;18(1). Epub 2020 Dec 24.

Institute of Sport Science, University of Graz, Mozartgasse 14, 8010 Graz, Austria.

Previous studies have shown significant improvement in muscle soreness and muscle function loss after 300-s foam rolling intervention two days after intense exercise. However, this duration is assumed to be too long, so investigating the effect of short-term duration foam rolling intervention on an eccentrically-damaged muscle is needed. This study aimed to eccentrically induce muscle damage in the leg extensors, and to detect the acute effect of 90-s foam rolling on muscle soreness and muscle function of the quadriceps muscle. We enrolled 17 healthy and nonathlete male volunteers. They performed a bout of eccentric exercise of the knee extensors with the dominant leg and received 90-s foam rolling intervention of the quadriceps two days after the eccentric exercise. The dependent variables were measured before the eccentric exercise (baseline), and before (preintervention) and after foam rolling intervention (postintervention), two days after the eccentric exercise. The results show that the preintervention muscle soreness and muscle strength values were significantly increased, compared with the baseline values, whereas the postintervention values were significantly decreased, compared with the preintervention values. Furthermore, 90-s of foam rolling intervention could improve muscle soreness and muscle function loss.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18010075DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7795530PMC
December 2020

Comparison of pH and bacterial communities in the rumen and reticulum during fattening of Japanese Black beef cattle.

Anim Sci J 2020 Jan;91(1):e13487

United Graduate School of Veterinary Sciences, Gifu University, Gifu, Japan.

We used castrated and fistulated Japanese Black beef cattle (n = 9) to measure the pH and bacterial communities in the rumen liquid, rumen solid, and reticulum liquid during early, middle, and late fattening stages (10-14, 15-22, and 23-30 months of age, respectively). The pH was measured in the rumen and reticulum during the last 13 days of each fattening stage and was significantly lower in the rumen at the early and middle fattening stage and in the reticulum during the late stage. Sequencing analysis indicated similar bacterial compositions in the rumen and reticulum liquid fractions and stability of bacterial diversity in the rumen and reticulum liquid fractions and rumen solid fraction. By contrast, major operational taxonomic units (OTUs), such as Ruminococcus bromii strain ATCC 27255 (OTU1, OTU10, and OTU15), were differently correlated to the fermentation parameters among the rumen and reticulum liquid fractions. Therefore, the long-term feeding of Japanese Black beef cattle with a high-concentrate diet might reverse the trend of pH in the rumen and reticulum during the late fattening stage, and the bacterial communities adapted to changes in fermentation by preserving their diversity throughout fattening.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/asj.13487DOI Listing
January 2020

Effects of Static Stretching With High-Intensity and Short-Duration or Low-Intensity and Long-Duration on Range of Motion and Muscle Stiffness.

Front Physiol 2020 20;11:601912. Epub 2020 Nov 20.

Institute for Human Movement and Medical Sciences, Niigata University of Health and Welfare, Niigata, Japan.

This study investigated the effects of static stretching (SS) delivered with the same load but using two protocols - high-intensity and short-duration and low-intensity and long-duration - on range of motion (ROM) and muscle stiffness. A total of 18 healthy students participated in the study. They randomly performed high-intensity and short-duration (120% and 100 s) or low-intensity and long-duration (50% and 240 s) SS. Outcomes were assessed on ROM, passive torque at dorsiflexion ROM, and shear elastic modulus of the medial gastrocnemius before and after static stretching. The results showed that ROM increased significantly at post-stretching compared to that at pre-stretching in both high-intensity and short-duration [+6.1° ± 4.6° (Δ25.7 ± 19.9%)] and low-intensity and long-duration [+3.6° ± 2.3° (Δ16.0 ± 11.8%)]. Also, the ROM was significantly higher at post-stretching in high-intensity and short-duration conditions than that in low-intensity and long-duration. The passive torque at dorsiflexion ROM was significantly increased in both high-intensity and short-duration [+5.8 ± 12.8 Nm (Δ22.9 ± 40.5%)] and low-intensity and long-duration [+2.1 ± 3.4 Nm (Δ6.9 ± 10.8%)] conditions, but no significant differences were observed between both conditions. The shear elastic modulus was significantly decreased in both high-intensity and short-duration [-8.8 ± 6.1 kPa (Δ - 38.8 ± 14.5%)] and low-intensity and long-duration [-8.0 ± 12.8 kPa (Δ - 22.2 ± 33.8%)] conditions. Moreover, the relative change in shear elastic modulus in the high-intensity and short-duration SS was significantly greater than that in low-intensity and long-duration SS. Our results suggest that a higher intensity of the static stretching should be conducted to increase ROM and decrease muscle stiffness, even for a short time.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2020.601912DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7714915PMC
November 2020

One-repetition maximum can be estimated with a handheld dynamometer and circumference in community-dwelling older adults.

J Phys Ther Sci 2020 Oct 3;32(10):669-673. Epub 2020 Oct 3.

Institute for Human Movement and Medical Sciences, Niigata University of Health and Welfare: 1398 Shimami-cho, Kita-ku, Niigata City, Niigata 950-3198, Japan.

[Purpose] One-repetition maximum is an essential statistic for physical therapists and coaches in rehabilitation and athletic settings. In a previous study, we showed that one-repetition maximum of the knee extensor could be predicted more accurately with the combination of maximal voluntary isometric contraction strength, as measured by a handheld dynamometer, muscle thickness, and thigh circumference, in young adults. However, there has been no study in older adults investigating the relationship between one-repetition maximum and maximal voluntary isometric contraction strength, or muscle thickness, and thigh circumference. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between one-repetition maximum and maximal voluntary isometric contraction strength, or muscle thickness, and thigh circumference in older adults. [Participants and Methods] Twenty-eight older community-dwelling adults (18 males and 10 females) participated in this study. Muscle strength of the knee extensor was measured using one-repetition maximum and maximal voluntary isometric contraction strength. In addition, muscle thicknesses of the refutes femoris and the vastus intermedius, and thigh circumference were measured using ultrasonography and measuring tape, respectively. [Results] Stepwise regression analysis revealed that body mass, gender, thigh circumference at 15 cm above the patella, and maximal voluntary isometric contraction strength were significant and independent determinants (R=0.868). [Conclusion] One-repetition maximum could be predicted more accurately using a combination of maximal voluntary isometric contraction strength, as measured with a handheld dynamometer, and thigh circumference in older adults.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1589/jpts.32.669DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7590855PMC
October 2020

The Relationship between Stretching Intensity and Changes in Passive Properties of Gastrocnemius Muscle-Tendon Unit after Static Stretching.

Sports (Basel) 2020 Oct 23;8(11). Epub 2020 Oct 23.

Institute for Human Movement and Medical Sciences, Niigata University of Health and Welfare, 1398 Shimami-cho, Kita-ku, Niigata City, Niigata 950-3198, Japan.

This study aimed to investigate the relationship between relative or absolute intensity and changes in range of motion and passive stiffness after static stretching. A total of 65 healthy young adults voluntarily participated in this study and performed static stretching of the plantar flexor-muscle for 120 s. Dorsiflexion range of motion and passive torque during passive dorsiflexion before and after stretching were assessed. We measured the passive torque at a given angle when the minimum angle was recorded before and after stretching. The angle during stretching was defined as the absolute intensity. Dorsiflexion range of motion before stretching was defined as 100%, and the ratio (%) of the angle during stretching was defined as the relative intensity. A significant correlation was found between absolute intensity and change in passive torque at a given angle (r = -0.342), but relative intensity and range of motion (r = 0.444) and passive torque at dorsiflexion range of motion (r = 0.259). A higher absolute intensity of stretching might be effective in changing the passive properties of the muscle-tendon unit. In contrast, a higher relative intensity might be effective in changing the range of motion, which could be contributed by stretch tolerance.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/sports8110140DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7690681PMC
October 2020

Effects of 5-Week Foam Rolling Intervention on Range of Motion and Muscle Stiffness.

J Strength Cond Res 2020 Oct 9. Epub 2020 Oct 9.

Institute for Human Movement and Medical Sciences, Niigata University of Health and Welfare, Niigata, Japan.

Kiyono, R, Onuma, R, Yasaka, K, Sato, S, Yahata, K, and Nakamura, M. Effects of 5-week foam rolling intervention on range of motion and muscle stiffness. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2020-In clinical and sports settings, foam rolling (FR) intervention is widely used to increase the range of motion (ROM). But, the chronic effects of FR on ROM and muscle stiffness are unclear. This study aimed to investigate the effects of 5-weeks FR intervention on dorsiflexion ROM (DFROM) and shear elastic modulus of the medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscle. Accordingly, 30 healthy young adults were enrolled and randomly assigned to either the FR or control group with the former receiving 90 seconds of FR thrice per week over 5-weeks. Thereafter, DFROM, passive torque at DFROM, and shear elastic modulus of the MG during passive ankle dorsiflexion were assessed using a dynamometer and ultrasonography before and after 5-weeks. Our results showed that the FR group exhibited a significant increase in DFROM (Δ = 11.7%, p < 0.05, effect size = 0.39), but no changes in passive torque at DFROM, and shear elastic modulus at 0° and 10° dorsiflexion. Moreover, significant correlations were observed between change in DFROM and change in passive torque at DFROM in the FR group (rs = 0.607; p = 0.016). These results suggested that FR was an effective method to increase DFROM given its ability to change passive torque at DFROM (stretch tolerance) without altering muscle stiffness.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000003757DOI Listing
October 2020

Corneal Opacity Induced by Light in a Mouse Model of Gelatinous Drop-Like Corneal Dystrophy.

Am J Pathol 2020 12 1;190(12):2330-2342. Epub 2020 Oct 1.

Department of Ophthalmology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Japan; Integrated Frontier Research for Medical Science Division, Institute for Open and Transdisciplinary Research Initiatives, Osaka University, Suita, Japan.

Gelatinous drop-like corneal dystrophy (GDLD) is a severe inherited corneal dystrophy characterized by subepithelial corneal amyloid deposition. We had previously succeeded in identifying the responsible gene, TACSTD2, and subsequently found that the epithelial barrier function is significantly decreased. As with GDLD patients, the knockout mice showed severe loss of tight junction, progressive opacity, and neovascularization in the cornea. We devised an easy method to confirm the loss of the corneal barrier function even before corneal opacity is observed. Furthermore, by using knockout mice, we were able to verify clinical findings, such as the wound healing delay and light-induced acceleration of the disease. This mouse model should prove to be a highly useful tool for investigating the pathology of GDLD and for developing new therapies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajpath.2020.08.017DOI Listing
December 2020

Secondary peritonitis as a result of accidental ingestion of a press-through package.

Geriatr Gerontol Int 2020 Oct;20(10):988-989

Division of Community Medicine, Tohoku Medical and Pharmaceutical University, Sendai, Japan.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ggi.13995DOI Listing
October 2020

Changes in peripheral blood oxidative stress markers and hepatic gene expression related to oxidative stress in Holstein cows with and without subacute ruminal acidosis during the periparturient period.

J Vet Med Sci 2020 Oct 4;82(10):1529-1536. Epub 2020 Sep 4.

Graduate School of Veterinary Sciences, Iwate University, Morioka, Iwate 020-8550, Japan.

We investigated changes in peripheral blood metabolites, oxidative stress markers (malondialdehyde, potential antioxidant capacity, and glutathione peroxidase [GPX]), and hepatic gene expression related to oxidative stress in Holstein cows with and without subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) during the periparturient period. Eighteen multiparous Holstein cows were categorized into SARA (n=9) or non-SARA (n=9) groups depending on whether they developed SARA; reticulo-ruminal pH was <5.6 for more than 3 hr per day, during the 2 weeks after parturition. Blood and liver tissue samples were collected 3 weeks prepartum and 2 and 6 weeks postpartum, with an additional blood sample collected 0 and 4 weeks postpartum. Blood aspartate transaminase (AST) and nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) increased significantly (P<0.05) after parturition in both groups. GPX activity decreased gradually after parturition in the SARA group. In the SARA group, gene expression of GPX 1 and microsomal glutathione S-transferase 3 (MGST3) decreased significantly (P<0.05), and expression of metallothionein 2A increased significantly (P<0.05) after parturition in the SARA group. Superoxide dismutase 1 and MGST3 decreased significantly (P<0.05) 2 weeks postpartum in the non-SARA group. Gene expression related to oxidative stress was negatively correlated with AST, NEFA and total ketone body levels. Therefore, the hepatic gene expression related to oxidative stress might change associated with a negative energy balance, and might relate the high oxidative stress in the SARA group during periparturient period.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1292/jvms.20-0426DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7653322PMC
October 2020

Effects of short-term fasting on ruminal pH and volatile fatty acids in cattle fed high-roughage versus high-concentrate diets.

J Vet Med Sci 2020 Oct 10;82(10):1415-1420. Epub 2020 Aug 10.

Cooperative Department of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Agriculture, Iwate University, Morioka, Iwate 020-8550, Japan.

We evaluated whether the dietary roughage-to-concentrate ratio affects ruminal pH and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) in response to a one-time morning fast. Four healthy rumen-cannulated Holstein steers 4-5 months old were used. Cattle were subjected to 2 weeks of adaptation (high-roughage or high-concentrate diet), and morning feed restriction was performed on the day after the adaptation period ended (Day 0). Thereafter, each diet was reintroduced on the evening of Day 0. Our results showed that the 1-hr mean ruminal pH from 0800 to 1900 on Day 0 was higher, and that from 1700 to 1900 on Day 1 was lower (P<0.05) than pH on 1 day before fasting (Day -1) in cattle fed both diets. On Day 0, total VFA levels decreased after morning fasting and were lower (P<0.05) than those on Day -1 irrespective of evening refeeding. Furthermore, blood non-esterified fatty acid and beta-hydroxybutyric acid levels on Day 0 increased and decreased, respectively, compared to Day -1 in cattle fed both diets. These results indicate that even a one-time feed restriction can disrupt ruminal fermentation, and the changes can persist to the next day after fasting.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1292/jvms.20-0359DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7653324PMC
October 2020

Novel mutation identified in Leber congenital amaurosis - a case report.

BMC Ophthalmol 2020 Jul 31;20(1):313. Epub 2020 Jul 31.

Department of Ophthalmology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka, 565-0871, Japan.

Background: Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) is the earliest onset and the most severe form of all inherited retinal degenerative disorders, characterized by blindness, or severe visual impairment from birth, and typically exhibits clinical and genetic heterogeneity. Recently, 14 causative genes of LCA were reported. We performed whole-exome sequencing (WES) for Japanese siblings, and identified a novel homozygous nonsense mutation in the RPGR-interacting protein 1 (RPGRIP1) gene. We also report their follow-up data over 27 years.

Case Presentation: Patient 1 is a 37-year-old male. In 1992, his eye position indicated orthophoria, however, horizontal nystagmus was evident, and he complained of photophobia. His best corrected decimal visual acuity (BCVA) was 0.2 (S + 6.5/C-3.5/170°) OD and 0.1 (S + 6.0/C-2.5/10°) OS. Fundus examination revealed bisymmetrical inferior focal retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) mottling. Bright-flash electroretinogram (ERG) revealed a subnormal pattern, while 30 Hz flicker ERG was non-recordable in both eyes. At his final visit in 2019, his BCVA was 0.09 (S + 3.5/C-3.5/180°) OD and 0.09 (S + 3.0/C-4.0/10°) OS. Patient 2, a 34-year-old female, is the sibling of patient 1. In 1992, her BCVA was 0.05 (S + 6.0) OD and 0.06 (S + 5.0) OS. She was in a chin-up position during visual acuity testing. Horizontal nystagmus was evident, and she also complained of photophobia. Bright-flash ERG was severely attenuated, and 30 Hz flicker ERG was non-recordable in both eyes. At her final visit in 2019, her BCVA was 0.02 (uncorrectable) OD and 0.03 (uncorrectable) OS. There were no other patients with LCA in their family and their parents were non-consanguineous. WES revealed a homozygous, consecutive, two-nucleotide variation in the RPGRIP1 gene (NM_020366: exon15:c.G2294A and c.C2295A, p.C765X), resulting in a premature stop codon. We interpreted this variation as a novel pathogenic mutation of RPGRIP1 that contributes to LCA6 development.

Conclusions: Herein, we report a novel nonsense mutation of RPGRIP1 in two patients with LCA6 and present their long-term follow-up data. These clinical data linked to genotypes provide important information for the development of new treatments, such as gene therapy, as well as for genetic counseling.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12886-020-01577-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7393846PMC
July 2020

The effects of static stretching programs on muscle strength and muscle architecture of the medial gastrocnemius.

PLoS One 2020 9;15(7):e0235679. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Institute for Human Movement and Medical Sciences, Niigata University of Health and Welfare, Niigata City, Japan.

Introduction: Static stretching (SS) program are widely used in clinical and athletic settings. Many previous studies investigate the effect of SS program on muscle strength and muscle architecture (muscle thickness, and pennation angleh). However, no consensus has been reached about the effect of SS programs on muscle strength and muscle architecture. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of 6-week SS programs performed at different weekly frequencies on muscle strength, muscle thickness and pennation angle at different ankle joint positions.

Methods: A total of 24 healthy male volunteers were performed 6-week SS programs (2,160 s of SS: 360 s/week*6 weeks) and were randomized to a group that performed SS once a week, or a group that performed SS three times per week. Total time under stretching was equated between groups. The muscle strength (maximum voluntary isometric contraction) at three different ankle joints were assessed before and after the 6-week SS program. In addition, muscle thickness and pennation angle were assessed by ultrasonography before and after 6-week SS program.

Results: There were no significant changes in all variables before and after the 6-week SS program, regardless of weekly frequency (p > 0.05).

Conclusions: Our results suggest that 6-week SS programs do not increase muscle strength or muscle architecture at different ankle joint positions, regardless of stretching frequency; however, no negative effect on these outcomes was observed, contrary to evidence on the immediate, detrimental effects of SS.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0235679PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7347101PMC
September 2020

SIX1 cooperates with RUNX1 and SMAD4 in cell fate commitment of Müllerian duct epithelium.

Cell Death Differ 2020 12 22;27(12):3307-3320. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Department of Cancer Biology and Genetics, The Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA.

During female mammal reproductive tract development, epithelial cells of the lower Müllerian duct are committed to become stratified squamous epithelium of the vagina and ectocervix, when the expression of ΔNp63 transcription factor is induced by mesenchymal cells. The absence of ΔNp63 expression leads to adenosis, the putative precursor of vaginal adenocarcinoma. Our previous studies with genetically engineered mouse models have established that fibroblast growth factor (FGF)/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)/SMAD, and activin A/runt-related transcription factor 1 (RUNX1) signaling pathways are independently required for ΔNp63 expression in Müllerian duct epithelium (MDE). Here, we report that sine oculis homeobox homolog 1 (SIX1) plays a critical role in the activation of ΔNp63 locus in MDE as a downstream transcription factor of mesenchymal signals. In the developing mouse reproductive tract, SIX1 expression was restricted to MDE within the future cervix and vagina. SIX1 expression was totally absent in SMAD4 null MDE and was reduced in RUNX1 null and FGFR2 null MDE, indicating that SIX1 is under the control of vaginal mesenchymal factors: BMP4, activin A and FGF7/10. Furthermore, Six1, Runx1, and Smad4 gene-dose-dependently activated ΔNp63 expression in MDE within the vaginal fornix. Using a mouse model of diethylstilbestrol (DES)-associated vaginal adenosis, we found DES action through epithelial estrogen receptor α (ESR1) inhibits activation of ΔNp63 locus in MDE by transcriptionally repressing SIX1 and RUNX1 in the vaginal fornix.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41418-020-0579-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7852590PMC
December 2020

Effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae supplementation on growth performance, plasma metabolites and hormones, and rumen fermentation in Holstein calves during pre- and post-weaning periods.

Anim Sci J 2020 Jan-Dec;91(1):e13402

Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Tsukuba University, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.

This study aimed to evaluate the effects of supplementing Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC) during the pre- and post-weaning periods on growth, metabolic and hormonal responses, and rumen fermentation in calves. Three-week-old Holstein calves were assigned to either control (n = 12) or SC group (n = 12), the latter of which received 2 × 10  cfu/day of SC. The experiment was conducted over a period of 7 weeks around weaning. Daily gain (DG) in the SC group was higher (p < .05) than that in the control group. In the SC group, plasma glucose, insulin, and growth hormone (GH) concentrations were higher (p < .05) and concentrations of glucagon and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) tended to be higher (p < .1) than in the control group. Proportion of rumen propionate and concentration of rumen ammonia nitrogen at 10 weeks of age were greater (p < .05) in the SC group than that in the control group. Supplementation of SC around weaning may improve dietary nutrient and energy availability and increase plasma GH and IGF-1 concentrations. These changes observed in SC-supplemented calves could be closely related to the improvement of DG.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/asj.13402DOI Listing
October 2020