Publications by authors named "Shigeharu Takenaka"

12 Publications

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[Improvement in Image Quality of CBCT during Treatment by Cycle Generative Adversarial Network].

Nihon Hoshasen Gijutsu Gakkai Zasshi 2020 ;76(11):1173-1184

Department of Radiology, University of Tokyo Hospital.

Purpose: Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) can acquire projection images during rotational irradiation, and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images during VMAT delivery can be reconstructed. The poor quality of CBCT images prevents accurate recognition of organ position during the treatment. The purpose of this study was to improve the image quality of CBCT during the treatment by cycle generative adversarial network (CycleGAN).

Method: Twenty patients with clinically localized prostate cancer were treated with VMAT, and projection images for intra-treatment CBCT (iCBCT) were acquired. Synthesis of PCT (SynPCT) with improved image quality by CycleGAN requires only unpaired and unaligned iCBCT and planning CT (PCT) images for training. We performed visual and quantitative evaluation to compare iCBCT, SynPCT and PCT deformable image registration (DIR) to confirm the clinical usefulness.

Result: We demonstrated suitable CycleGAN networks and hyperparameters for SynPCT. The image quality of SynPCT improved visually and quantitatively while preserving anatomical structures of the original iCBCT. The undesirable deformation of PCT was reduced when SynPCT was used as its reference instead of iCBCT.

Conclusion: We have performed image synthesis with preservation of organ position by CycleGAN for iCBCT and confirmed the clinical usefulness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.6009/jjrt.2020_JSRT_76.11.1173DOI Listing
November 2020

Surface and build-up dose comparison between Elekta 6 MV flattening filter and flattening-filter-free beams using an advanced Markus ionization chamber and a solid water-equivalent phantom.

J Appl Clin Med Phys 2020 Dec 12;21(12):334-339. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Department of Radiology, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

Using a plane-parallel advanced Markus ionization chamber and a stack of water-equivalent solid phantom blocks, percentage surface and build-up doses of Elekta 6 MV flattening filter (FF) and flattening-filter-free (FFF) beams were measured as a function of the phantom depth for field sizes ranging from 2 × 2 to 10 × 10 cm . It was found that the dose difference between the FF and the FFF beams was relatively small. The maximum dose difference between the FF and the FFF beams was 4.4% at a depth of 1 mm for a field size of 2 × 2 cm . The dose difference was gradually decreased while the field size was increased up to 10 × 10 cm . The measured data were also compared to published Varian FF and FFF data, suggesting that the percentage surface and build-up doses as well as the percentage dose difference between FF and FFF beams by our Elekta linac were smaller than those by the Varian linac.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/acm2.13094DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7769389PMC
December 2020

Retrospective dose reconstruction of prostate stereotactic body radiotherapy using cone-beam CT and a log file during VMAT delivery with flattening-filter-free mode.

Radiol Phys Technol 2020 Sep 12;13(3):238-248. Epub 2020 Jul 12.

Department of Radiology, University of Tokyo Hospital, 3-7-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8655, Japan.

This study aimed to reconstruct the dose distribution of single fraction of stereotactic body radiotherapy for patients with prostate cancer using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and a log file during volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) delivery with flattening-filter-free (FFF) mode. Twenty patients with clinically localized prostate cancer were treated with FFF-VMAT, and projection images for in-treatment CBCT (iCBCT) imaging were concomitantly acquired with a log file. A D dose of 36.25 Gy in five fractions was prescribed to each planning target volume (PTV) on each treatment planning CT (pCT). Deformed pCT (dCT) was obtained from the iCBCT using a hybrid deformable image registration algorithm. Dose distributions on the dCT were calculated using Pinnacle v9.10 by converting the log file data to Pinnacle data format using an in-house software. Dose warping was performed by referring to deformation vector fields calculated from pCT and dCT. Reconstructed dose distribution was compared with that of the original plan. Dose differences between the original and reconstructed dose distributions were within 3% at the isocenter and observed in PTV and organ-at-risk (OAR) regions. Differences in OAR regions were relatively larger than those in the PTV, presumably because OARs were more deformed than the PTV. Therefore, our method can be used successfully to reconstruct the dose distributions of one fraction using iCBCT and a log file during FFF-VMAT delivery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12194-020-00574-3DOI Listing
September 2020

Radiation dose reduction with frame rate conversion in X-ray fluoroscopic imaging systems with flat panel detector: basic study and clinical retrospective analysis.

Eur Radiol 2019 Feb 9;29(2):985-992. Epub 2018 Jul 9.

Department of Radiology, The University of Tokyo Hospital, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8655, Japan.

Objectives: To (a) evaluate the interpolation frames of frame rate conversion (FRC) compared with fluoroscopic frames of conventional method, and (b) compare radiation dose and fluoroscopy time between various clinical examinations without and with FRC retrospectively.

Methods: This study consisted of a basic study and a clinical retrospective analysis. The radiation dosimetry, visual assessment and measurements of contrast to noise ratio were examined. Similarity between interpolation frames and fluoroscopic frames was evaluated using normalised cross-correlation values. In the clinical retrospective analysis approved by the institutional review board, we extracted 270 examinations performed without FRC (conventional group, 12.5 pulses/s) and with FRC (FRC group, 6.25 pulses/s) from 23 May to 31 December 2016. The fluoroscopy parameters and demographics of the two groups of the clinical examinations were compared. Statistical analyses were performed with Wilcoxon signed-rank test, Brunner-Munzel test and χ test.

Results: In the basic study, the only significant difference was that the radiation dose of FRC was approximately half that of the conventional method in the same fluoroscopy time (p = .031). The interpolation frames of FRC were similar to the fluoroscopic frames of the conventional method. In the clinical retrospective analysis, the only significant difference was that FRC reduced the fluoroscopy dose by 48% and the total dose by 31% compared with the conventional method (p < .001). There was no significant difference in the others.

Conclusion: FRC significantly reduced the radiation dose without extending the fluoroscopy time and maintaining the image quality compared to the conventional method.

Key Points: • Although X-ray fluoroscopic techniques are widely used for various clinical purposes, X-ray fluoroscopic examinations have radiation risks. • Frame rate conversion is an image processing technique for radiation dose reduction. • Clinical retrospective analysis showed that FRC reduces radiation doses of patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-018-5620-yDOI Listing
February 2019

Effective atomic number estimation using kV-MV dual-energy source in LINAC.

Phys Med 2017 Jul 20;39:9-15. Epub 2017 Jun 20.

Department of Radiology, The University of Tokyo Hospital, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8655, Japan.

Dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) imaging can measure the effective atomic number (EAN) as well as the electron density, and thus its adoption may improve dose calculations in brachytherapy and external photon/particle therapy. An expanded energy gap in dual-energy sources is expected to yield more accurate EAN estimations than conventional DECT systems, which typically span less than 100kV. The aim of this paper is to assess a larger energy gap DECT by using a linear accelerator (LINAC) radiotherapy system with a kV X-ray imaging device, which are combined to provide X-rays in both the kV- and MV-energy ranges. Traditionally, the EAN is determined by parameterising the Hounsfield Unit; however, this is difficult in a kV-MV DECT due to different uncertainties in the reconstructed attenuation coefficient at each end of the energy spectrum. To overcome this problem, we included a new calibration step to produce the most likely linear attenuation coefficients, based upon the X-ray spectrum. To determine the X-ray spectrum, Monte Carlo calculations using GEANT4 were performed. Then the images were calibrated using information from eight inserts of known materials in a CIRS phantom (CIRS Inc., Norfolk, VA). Agreement between the estimated and empirical EANs in these inserts was within 11%. Validation was subsequently performed with the CatPhan500 phantom (The Phantom Laboratory, Salem). The estimated EAN for seven inserts agreed with the empirical values to within 3%. Accordingly, it can be concluded that, given properly reconstructed images based upon a well-determined X-ray spectrum, kV-MV DECT provides an excellent prediction for the EAN.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmp.2017.06.010DOI Listing
July 2017

Evaluation of In Vivo Volumetric Dosimetry for Prostate Cancer Using Electronic Portal Imaging Device.

Nihon Hoshasen Gijutsu Gakkai Zasshi 2016 ;72(11):1128-1136

Department of Radiology, University of Tokyo Hospital.

Purpose: Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) is capable of acquiring projection images using electronic portal imaging device (EPID). Commercial EPID-based dosimetry software, dosimetry check (DC), allows in vivo dosimetry using projection images. The purpose of this study was to evaluate in vivo dosimetry for prostate cancer using VMAT.

Method: VMAT plans were generated for eight patients with prostate cancer using treatment planning system (TPS), and patient quality assurances (QAs) were carried out with phantom. We analyzed five plans as phantom study and five plans as patient study. Projection images were acquired during VMAT delivery. DC converted acquired images into fluence images and used a pencil beam algorithm to calculate dose distributions delivered on the CT images of the phantom and the patients. We evaluated isocenter point doses and gamma analysis in both studies and dose indexes of planning target volume (PTV), bladder and rectum in patient study.

Results And Discussion: Dose differences at the isocenter were less than a criterion in both studies. Pass rates of the gamma analysis were less than a criterion by two plans in the phantom study. Dose indexes of reconstructed distribution were lower than original plans and standard deviations of PTV in reconstructed distribution were larger than original plans. The errors were caused by some issues, such as the commissioning of DC, variations in patient anatomy, and patient positioning.

Conclusion: The method was feasible to non-invasively perform in vivo dose evaluation for prostate cancer using VMAT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.6009/jjrt.2016_JSRT_72.11.1128DOI Listing
April 2017

[Evaluation of a Post-analysis Method for Cumulative Dose Distribution in Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy].

Nihon Hoshasen Gijutsu Gakkai Zasshi 2016 Mar;72(3):251-60

Department of Radiology, University of Tokyo Hospital.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate a post-analysis method for cumulative dose distribution in stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) using volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) .

Method: VMAT is capable of acquiring respiratory signals derived from projection images and machine parameters based on machine logs during VMAT delivery. Dose distributions were reconstructed from the respiratory signals and machine parameters in the condition where respiratory signals were without division, divided into 4 and 10 phases. The dose distribution of each respiratory phase was calculated on the planned four-dimensional CT (4DCT). Summation of the dose distributions was carried out using deformable image registration (DIR), and cumulative dose distributions were compared with those of the corresponding plans.

Results And Discussion: Without division, dose differences between cumulative distribution and plan were not significant. In the condition where respiratory signals were divided, dose differences were observed over dose in cranial region and under dose in caudal region of planning target volume (PTV). Differences between 4 and 10 phases were not significant.

Conclusion: The present method was feasible for evaluating cumulative dose distribution in VMAT-SBRT using 4DCT and DIR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.6009/jjrt.2016_JSRT_72.3.251DOI Listing
March 2016

[Dose reconstruction using respiratory signals and machine parameters during treatment in stereotactic body radiotherapy].

Nihon Hoshasen Gijutsu Gakkai Zasshi 2014 Nov;70(11):1225-34

Department of Radiology, University of Tokyo Hospital.

Purpose: Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) is a rotational intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) technique capable of acquiring projection images during treatment. The purpose of this study was to reconstruct the dose distribution from respiratory signals and machine parameters acquired during stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT).

Methods: The treatment plans created for VMAT-SBRT included the constraint of 1 mm/degree in multileaf collimator (MLC) for a moving phantom and three patients with lung tumors. The respiratory signals were derived from projection images acquired during VMAT delivery, while the machine parameters were derived from machine logs. The respiratory signals and machine parameters were then linked along with the gantry angle. With this data, the dose distribution of each respiratory phase was calculated on the planned four-dimensional CT (4D CT). The doses at the isocenter, the point of max dose and the centroid of the target were compared with those of the corresponding plans.

Results And Discussion: In the phantom study, the maximum dose difference between the plan and "in-treatment" results was -0.4% at the centroid of the target. In the patient study, the difference was -1.8 ± 0.4% at the centroid of the target. Dose differences of the evaluated points between 4 and 10 phases were not significant.

Conclusion: The present method successfully reconstructed the dose distribution using the respiratory signals and machine parameters acquired during treatment. This is a feasible method for verifying the actual dose for a moving target.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.6009/jjrt.2014_jsrt_70.11.1225DOI Listing
November 2014

Volumetric modulated arc therapy for lung stereotactic radiation therapy can achieve high local control rates.

Radiat Oncol 2014 Nov 11;9:243. Epub 2014 Nov 11.

Department of Radiology, The University of Tokyo Hospital, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8655, Japan.

Purpose: The aim of this study was to report the outcome of primary or metastatic lung cancer patients undergoing volumetric modulated arc therapy for stereotactic body radiation therapy (VMAT-SBRT).

Methods And Materials: From October 2010 to December 2013, consecutive 67 lung cancer patients received single-arc VMAT-SBRT using an Elekta-synergy system. All patients were treated with an abdominal compressor. The gross tumor volumes were contoured on 10 respiratory phases computed tomography (CT) datasets from 4-dimensional (4D) CT and merged into internal target volumes (ITVs). The planning target volume (PTV) margin was isotropically taken as 5 mm. Treatment was performed with a D95 prescription of 50 Gy (43 cases) or 55 Gy (12 cases) in 4 fractions for peripheral tumor or 56 Gy in 7 fractions (12 cases) for central tumor.

Results: Among the 67 patients, the median age was 73 years (range, 59-95 years). Of the patients, male was 72% and female 28%. The median Karnofsky performance status was 90-100% in 39 cases (58%) and 80-90% in 20 cases (30%). The median follow-up was 267 days (range, 40-1162 days). Tissue diagnosis was performed in 41 patients (61%). There were T1 primary lung tumor in 42 patients (T1a in 28 patients, T1b in 14 patients), T2 in 6 patients, three T3 in 3 patients, and metastatic lung tumor in 16 patients. The median mean lung dose was 6.87 Gy (range, 2.5-15 Gy). Six patients (9%) developed radiation pneumonitis required by steroid administration. Actuarial local control rate were 100% and 100% at 1 year, 92% and 75% at 2 years, and 92% and 75% at 3 years in primary and metastatic lung cancer, respectively (p =0.59). Overall survival rate was 83% and 84% at 1 year, 76% and 53% at 2 years, and 46% and 20% at 3 years in primary and metastatic lung cancer, respectively (p =0.12).

Conclusions: Use of VMAT-based delivery of SBRT in primary in metastatic lung tumors demonstrates high local control rates and low risk of normal tissue complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13014-014-0243-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4229616PMC
November 2014

[Winston-lutz test and acquisition of flexmap using rotational irradiation].

Nihon Hoshasen Gijutsu Gakkai Zasshi 2014 Apr;70(4):359-68

Purpose: IGRT (image guided radiation therapy) is a useful technique for implementing precisely targeted radiation therapy. Quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) medical linear accelerators with a portal imaging system (electronic portal imaging device: EPID) are the key to ensuring safe IGRT. The Winston-Lutz test (WLT) provides an evaluation of the MV isocenter, which is the intersection of radiation, collimator, and couch isocenters. A flexmap can indicate a displacement of EPID from the beam center axis as a function of gantry angles which can be removed from the images. The purpose of this study was to establish a novel method for simultaneously carrying out WLT and acquiring a flexmap using rotational irradiation. We also observed long-term changes in flexmaps over a period of five months.

Method: We employed rotational irradiation with a rectangular field (30×30 mm). First, the displacement of EPID from the beam center axis, indicated by the ball bearing (BB) center, was evaluated using an in-house program. The location of the BB center was then modified according to WLT. Second, a second irradiation was used to acquire a flexmap. We performed this examination regularly and evaluated long-term changes in the flexmap.

Results And Discussion: It proved feasible to perform WLT and flexmap measurements using our proposed methods. The precision of WLT using rotational irradiation was 0.1 mm. In flexmap analysis, the maximum displacement from the mean value for each angle was 0.4 mm over five months.

Conclusion: We have successfully established a novel method of simultaneously carrying out WLT and flexmap acquisition using rotational irradiation. Maximum displacement from the mean in each angle was 0.4 mm over five months.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.6009/jjrt.2014_jsrt_70.4.359DOI Listing
April 2014

Individually wide range of renal motion evaluated by four-dimensional computed tomography.

Springerplus 2014 7;3:131. Epub 2014 Mar 7.

Department of Radiology, The University of Tokyo Hospital, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8655 Japan.

Objectives: Assessment of physiologic renal motion in order to optimize abdominal intensity-modulated radiation therapy and stereotactic body radiation therapy.

Methods And Materials: Twenty patients with a median age of 47 years underwent computed tomography simulation and four-dimensional computed tomography acquisition. Thirty-nine kidneys were contoured during ten phases of respiration to estimate renal motion.

Results: Kidney motion was not related to age (p = 0.42), sex (p = 0.28), height (p = 0.75), or body weight (p = 0.63). The average +/- standard deviation (SD) of movement of the center of gravity for all subjects was 11.1 +/- 4.8 mm in the cranio-caudal (CC) direction (range, 2.5-20.5 mm), 3.6 +/- 2.1 mm in the anterior-posterior (AP) direction (range, 0.6-8.0 mm), and 1.7 +/- 1.4 mm in the right-left (RL) direction (range, 0.4-5.9 mm). Renal motion strongly correlated with the respiratory phases (r > 0.97 and p < 0.01 in all three directions).

Conclusions: Renal motion was independent of age, sex, height, or body weight. Renal motion in all directions was strongly respiration dependent, but motion in the cranio-caudal direction showed wide individual variation. In a clinical setting, it will be necessary to evaluate renal respiratory motion separately in each individual.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/2193-1801-3-131DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3977021PMC
April 2014

Independent absorbed-dose calculation using the Monte Carlo algorithm in volumetric modulated arc therapy.

Radiat Oncol 2014 Mar 14;9:75. Epub 2014 Mar 14.

Department of Radiology, The University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

Purpose: To report the result of independent absorbed-dose calculations based on a Monte Carlo (MC) algorithm in volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) for various treatment sites.

Methods And Materials: All treatment plans were created by the superposition/convolution (SC) algorithm of SmartArc (Pinnacle V9.2, Philips). The beam information was converted into the format of the Monaco V3.3 (Elekta), which uses the X-ray voxel-based MC (XVMC) algorithm. The dose distribution was independently recalculated in the Monaco. The dose for the planning target volume (PTV) and the organ at risk (OAR) were analyzed via comparisons with those of the treatment plan.Before performing an independent absorbed-dose calculation, the validation was conducted via irradiation from 3 different gantry angles with a 10- × 10-cm2 field. For the independent absorbed-dose calculation, 15 patients with cancer (prostate, 5; lung, 5; head and neck, 3; rectal, 1; and esophageal, 1) who were treated with single-arc VMAT were selected. To classify the cause of the dose difference between the Pinnacle and Monaco TPSs, their calculations were also compared with the measurement data.

Result: In validation, the dose in Pinnacle agreed with that in Monaco within 1.5%. The agreement in VMAT calculations between Pinnacle and Monaco using phantoms was exceptional; at the isocenter, the difference was less than 1.5% for all the patients. For independent absorbed-dose calculations, the agreement was also extremely good. For the mean dose for the PTV in particular, the agreement was within 2.0% in all the patients; specifically, no large difference was observed for high-dose regions. Conversely, a significant difference was observed in the mean dose for the OAR. For patients with prostate cancer, the mean rectal dose calculated in Monaco was significantly smaller than that calculated in Pinnacle.

Conclusions: There was no remarkable difference between the SC and XVMC calculations in the high-dose regions. The difference observed in the low-dose regions may have arisen from various causes such as the intrinsic dose deviation in the MC calculation, modeling accuracy, and CT-to-density table used in each planning system It is useful to perform independent absorbed-dose calculations with the MC algorithm in intensity-modulated radiation therapy commissioning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1748-717X-9-75DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3995553PMC
March 2014