Publications by authors named "Shibin Ma"

17 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Delivery of parasite Cdg7_Flc_0990 RNA transcript into intestinal epithelial cells during Cryptosporidium parvum infection suppresses host cell gene transcription through epigenetic mechanisms.

Cell Microbiol 2017 11 14;19(11). Epub 2017 Jul 14.

Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Creighton University School of Medicine, Omaha, NE, USA.

Cryptosporidial infection causes dysregulated transcription of host genes key to intestinal epithelial homeostasis, but the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. Previous studies demonstrate that several Cryptosporidium parvum (C. parvum) RNA transcripts are selectively delivered into epithelial cells during host cell invasion and may modulate gene transcription in infected cells. We report here that C. parvum infection suppresses the transcription of LRP5, SLC7A8, and IL33 genes in infected intestinal epithelium. Trans-suppression of these genes in infected host cells is associated with promoter enrichment of suppressive epigenetic markers (i.e., H3K9me3). Cdg7_FLc_0990, a C. parvum RNA that has previously demonstrated to be delivered into the nuclei of infected epithelial cells, is recruited to the promoter regions of LRP5, SLC7A8, and IL33 genes. Cdg7_FLc_0990 appears to be recruited to their promoter regions together with G9a, a histone methyltransferase for H3K9 methylation. The PR domain zinc finger protein 1, a G9a-interacting protein, is required for the assembly of Cdg7_FLc_0990 to the G9a complex and gene-specific enrichment of H3K9 methylation. Our data demonstrate that cryptosporidial infection induces epigenetic histone methylations in infected cells through nuclear transfer of parasite Cdg7_Flc_0990 RNA transcript, resulting in transcriptional suppression of the LRP5, SLC7A8, and IL33 genes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cmi.12760DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5638686PMC
November 2017

Delivery of Parasite RNA Transcripts Into Infected Epithelial Cells During Cryptosporidium Infection and Its Potential Impact on Host Gene Transcription.

J Infect Dis 2017 02;215(4):636-643

Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Creighton University School of Medicine, Omaha, Nebraska, USA.

Cryptosporidium parvum is an important opportunistic parasite pathogen for immunocompromised individuals and a common cause of diarrhea in young children. Previous studies have identified a panel of RNA transcripts of very low protein-coding potential in C. parvum. Using an in vitro model of human intestinal cryptosporidiosis, we report here that some of these C. parvum RNA transcripts were selectively delivered into the nuclei of host epithelial cells during C. parvum infection. Nuclear delivery of several such parasitic RNAs, including Cdg7_FLc_0990, involved heat-shock protein 70-mediated nuclear importing mechanism. Overexpression of Cdg7_FLc_0990 in intestinal epithelial cells resulted in significant changes in expression levels of specific genes, with significant overlapping with alterations in gene expression profile detected in host cells after C. parvum infection. Our data demonstrate that C. parvum transcripts of low protein-coding potential are selectively delivered into epithelial cells during infection and may modulate gene transcription in infected host cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiw607DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5388288PMC
February 2017

A long noncoding RNA, lincRNA-Tnfaip3, acts as a coregulator of NF-κB to modulate inflammatory gene transcription in mouse macrophages.

FASEB J 2017 03 15;31(3):1215-1225. Epub 2016 Dec 15.

Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, Creighton University, Omaha, Nebraska, USA;

Long intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs) are long noncoding transcripts (>200 nt) from the intergenic regions of annotated protein-coding genes. We report here that the lincRNA gene , located at mouse chromosome 10 proximal to the tumor necrosis factor α-induced protein 3 () gene, is an early-primary response gene controlled by nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling in murine macrophages. Functionally, lincRNA- Tnfaip3 appears to mediate both the activation and repression of distinct classes of inflammatory genes in macrophages. Specifically, induction of lincRNA-Tnfaip3 is required for the transactivation of NF-κB-regulated inflammatory genes in response to bacterial LPSs stimulation. LincRNA-Tnfaip3 physically interacts with the high-mobility group box 1 (Hmgb1), assembling a NF-κB/Hmgb1/lincRNA-Tnfaip3 complex in macrophages after LPS stimulation. This resultant NF-κB/Hmgb1/lincRNA-Tnfaip3 complex can modulate Hmgb1-associated histone modifications and, ultimately, transactivation of inflammatory genes in mouse macrophages in response to microbial challenge. Therefore, our data indicate a new regulatory role of NF-κB-induced lincRNA-Tnfaip3 to act as a coactivator of NF-κB for the transcription of inflammatory genes in innate immune cells through modulation of epigenetic chromatin remodeling.-Ma, S., Ming, Z., Gong, A.-Y., Wang, Y., Chen, X., Hu, G., Zhou, R., Shibata, A., Swanson, P. C., Chen, X.-M. A long noncoding RNA, LincRNA-Tnfaip3, acts as a coregulator of NF-κB to modulate inflammatory gene transcription in mouse macrophages.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.201601056RDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6191062PMC
March 2017

LincRNA-Cox2 Promotes Late Inflammatory Gene Transcription in Macrophages through Modulating SWI/SNF-Mediated Chromatin Remodeling.

J Immunol 2016 Mar 15;196(6):2799-2808. Epub 2016 Feb 15.

Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Creighton University School of Medicine, Omaha, NE 68178, USA.

Long intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs) are long noncoding transcripts (>200 nt) from the intergenic regions of annotated protein-coding genes. One of the most highly induced lincRNAs in macrophages upon TLR ligation is lincRNA-Cox2, which was recently shown to mediate the activation and repression of distinct classes of immune genes in innate immune cells. We report that lincRNA-Cox2, located at chromosome 1 proximal to the PG-endoperoxide synthase 2 (Ptgs2/Cox2) gene, is an early-primary inflammatory gene controlled by NF-κB signaling in murine macrophages. Functionally, lincRNA-Cox2 is required for the transcription of NF-κB-regulated late-primary inflammatory response genes stimulated by bacterial LPS. Specifically, lincRNA-Cox2 is assembled into the switch/sucrose nonfermentable (SWI/SNF) complex in cells after LPS stimulation. This resulting lincRNA-Cox2/SWI/SNF complex can modulate the assembly of NF-κB subunits to the SWI/SNF complex, and ultimately, SWI/SNF-associated chromatin remodeling and transactivation of the late-primary inflammatory-response genes in macrophages in response to microbial challenge. Therefore, our data indicate a new regulatory role for NF-κB-induced lincRNA-Cox2 as a coactivator of NF-κB for the transcription of late-primary response genes in innate immune cells through modulation of epigenetic chromatin remodeling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.1502146DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4779692PMC
March 2016

LincRNA-Cox2 modulates TNF-α-induced transcription of Il12b gene in intestinal epithelial cells through regulation of Mi-2/NuRD-mediated epigenetic histone modifications.

FASEB J 2016 Mar 17;30(3):1187-97. Epub 2015 Nov 17.

*Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Creighton University School of Medicine, Omaha, Nebraska, USA; Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China; and School of Medicine, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, China

Long intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs) can regulate the transcription of inflammatory genes and thus may represent a new group of inflammatory mediators with a potential pathogenic role in inflammatory diseases. Here, our genome-wide transcriptomic data show that TNF-α stimulation caused up-regulation of 171 lincRNAs and down-regulation of 196 lincRNAs in murine intestinal epithelial cells in culture. One of the up-regulated lincRNAs, lincRNA-Cox2, is an early-responsive lincRNA induced by TNF-α through activation of the NF-ĸB signaling pathway. Knockdown of lincRNA-Cox2 resulted in reprogramming of the gene expression profile in intestinal epithelial cells in response to TNF-α stimulation. Specifically, lincRNA-Cox2 silencing significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced the transcription of Il12b, a secondary late-responsive gene induced by TNF-α. Mechanistically, lincRNA-Cox2 promoted the recruitment of the Mi-2/nucleosome remodeling and deacetylase (Mi-2/NuRD) repressor complex to the Il12b promoter region. Recruitment of the Mi-2/NuRD complex was associated with decreased H3K27 acetylation and increased H3K27 dimethylation at the Il12b promoter region, which might contribute to Il12b trans-suppression by lincRNA-Cox2. Thus, our data demonstrate a novel mechanism of epigenetic modulation by lincRNA-Cox2 on Il12b transcription, supporting an important role for lincRNAs in the regulation of intestinal epithelial inflammatory responses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.15-279166DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4750408PMC
March 2016

A role for IRF8 in B cell anergy.

J Immunol 2013 Dec 11;191(12):6222-30. Epub 2013 Nov 11.

Department of Genetics, Cell Biology, and Anatomy, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198.

B cell central tolerance is a process through which self-reactive B cells are removed from the B cell repertoire. Self-reactive B cells are generally removed by receptor editing in the bone marrow and by anergy induction in the periphery. IRF8 is a critical transcriptional regulator of immune system development and function. A recent study showed that marginal zone B cell and B1 B cell populations are dramatically increased in IRF8-deficient mice, indicating that there are B cell-developmental defects in the absence of IRF8. In this article, we report that mice deficient for IRF8 produced anti-dsDNA Abs. Using a hen egg lysozyme double-transgenic model, we further demonstrate that B cell anergy was breached in IRF8-deficient mice. Although anergic B cells in the IRF8-proficient background were blocked at the transitional stage of development, anergic B cells in the IRF8-deficient background were able to mature further, which allowed them to regain responses to Ag stimulation. Interestingly, our results show that IRF8-deficient B cells were more sensitive to Ag stimulation and were resistant to Ag-induced cell death. Moreover, our results show that IRF8 was expressed at a high level in the anergic B cells, and an elevated level of IRF8 promoted apoptosis in the transitional B cells. Thus, our findings reveal a previously unrecognized function of IRF8 in B cell anergy induction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.1301169DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3864091PMC
December 2013

A role for IRF4 in the development of CLL.

Blood 2013 Oct 7;122(16):2848-55. Epub 2013 Aug 7.

Department of Genetics, Cell Biology, and Anatomy, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE; and.

Interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) is a critical transcriptional regulator of B-cell development and function. A recent genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) association study identified IRF4 as a major susceptibility gene in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Although the SNPs located in the IRF4 gene were linked to a downregulation of IRF4 in CLL patients, whether a low level of IRF4 is critical for CLL development remains unclear. In rodents, CLL cells are derived from B1 cells whose population is dramatically expanded in immunoglobulin heavy chain Vh11 knock-in mice. We bred a Vh11 knock-in allele into IRF4-deficient mice (IRF4(-/-)Vh11). Here, we report that IRF4(-/-)Vh11 mice develop spontaneous early-onset CLL with 100% penetrance. Further analysis shows that IRF4(-/-)Vh11 CLL cells proliferate predominantly in spleen and express high levels of Mcl-1. IRF4(-/-)Vh11 CLL cells are resistant to apoptosis but reconstitution of IRF4 expression in the IRF4(-/-)Vh11 CLL cells inhibits their survival. Thus, our study demonstrates for the first time a causal relationship between low levels of IRF4 and the development of CLL. Moreover, our findings establish IRF4(-/-)Vh11 mice as a novel mouse model of CLL that not only is valuable for dissecting molecular pathogenesis of CLL but could also be used for therapeutic purposes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2013-03-492769DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3798999PMC
October 2013

Accelerated development of chronic lymphocytic leukemia in New Zealand Black mice expressing a low level of interferon regulatory factor 4.

J Biol Chem 2013 Sep 29;288(37):26430-40. Epub 2013 Jul 29.

From the Department of Genetics, Cell Biology, and Anatomy, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska 68198.

A recent genome-wide SNP association study identified IRF4 as a major susceptibility gene for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Moreover, the SNPs located in the 3' UTR of the IRF4 gene have been linked to a down-regulation of IRF4. However, whether a low level of IRF4 is critical for CLL development remains unclear. New Zealand Black (NZB) mice are a naturally occurring, late-onset mouse model of CLL. To examine the role of a reduced level of IRF4 in CLL development, we generated, through breeding, IRF4 heterozygous mutant mice in the NZB background (NZB IRF4(+/-)). Our results show that CLL development is accelerated dramatically in the NZB IRF4(+/-) mice. The average onset of CLL in NZB mice is 12 months, but CLL cells can be detected in NZB IRF4(+/-) mice at 3 months of age. By 5 months of age, 80% of NZB IRF4(+/-) mice developed CLL. CLL cells are derived from B1 cells in mice. Interestingly, NZB IRF4(+/-) B1 cells exhibit prolonged survival, accelerated self-renewal, and defects in differentiation. Although NZB IRF4(+/-) CLL cells are resistant to apoptosis, high levels of IRF4 inhibit their survival. High levels of IRF4 also reduce the survival of MEC-1 human CLL cells. Our analysis further reveals that high levels of IRF4 suppress Akt activity and can do so without the IRF4 DNA binding domain. Thus, our findings reveal a causal relationship between a low level of IRF4 and the development of CLL and establish IRF4 as a novel regulator in the pathogenesis of CLL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M113.475913DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3772189PMC
September 2013

IRF4 is a suppressor of c-Myc induced B cell leukemia.

PLoS One 2011 27;6(7):e22628. Epub 2011 Jul 27.

Department of Genetics, Cell Biology and Anatomy, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska, United States of America.

Interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) is a critical transcriptional regulator in B cell development and function. We have previously shown that IRF4, together with IRF8, orchestrates pre-B cell development by limiting pre-B cell expansion and by promoting pre-B cell differentiation. Here, we report that IRF4 suppresses c-Myc induced leukemia in EμMyc mice. Our results show that c-Myc induced leukemia was greatly accelerated in the IRF4 heterozygous mice (IRF4(+/-)Myc); the average age of mortality in the IRF4(+/-)Myc mice was only 7 to 8 weeks but was 20 weeks in the control mice. Our results show that IRF4(+/-)Myc leukemic cells were derived from large pre-B cells and were hyperproliferative and resistant to apoptosis. Further analysis revealed that the majority of IRF4(+/-)Myc leukemic cells inactivated the wild-type IRF4 allele and contained defects in Arf-p53 tumor suppressor pathway. p27(kip) is part of the molecular circuitry that controls pre-B cell expansion. Our results show that expression of p27(kip) was lost in the IRF4(+/-)Myc leukemic cells and reconstitution of IRF4 expression in those cells induced p27(kip) and inhibited their expansion. Thus, IRF4 functions as a classical tumor suppressor to inhibit c-Myc induced B cell leukemia in EμMyc mice.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0022628PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3144921PMC
December 2011

Ikaros and Aiolos inhibit pre-B-cell proliferation by directly suppressing c-Myc expression.

Mol Cell Biol 2010 Sep 21;30(17):4149-58. Epub 2010 Jun 21.

Department of Genetics, Cell Biology, and Anatomy, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-5805, USA.

Pre-B-cell expansion is driven by signals from the interleukin-7 receptor and the pre-B-cell receptor and is dependent on cyclin D3 and c-Myc. We have shown previously that interferon regulatory factors 4 and 8 induce the expression of Ikaros and Aiolos to suppress pre-B-cell proliferation. However, the molecular mechanisms through which Ikaros and Aiolos exert their growth inhibitory effect remain to be determined. Here, we provide evidence that Aiolos and Ikaros bind to the c-Myc promoter in vivo and directly suppress c-Myc expression in pre-B cells. We further show that downregulation of c-Myc is critical for the growth-inhibitory effect of Ikaros and Aiolos. Ikaros and Aiolos also induce expression of p27 and downregulate cyclin D3 in pre-B cells, and the growth-inhibitory effect of Ikaros and Aiolos is compromised in the absence of p27. A time course analysis further reveals that downregulation of c-Myc by Ikaros and Aiolos precedes p27 induction and cyclin D3 downregulation. Moreover, downregulation of c-Myc by Ikaros and Aiolos is necessary for the induction of p27 and downregulation of cyclin D3. Collectively, our studies identify a pre-B-cell receptor signaling induced inhibitory network, orchestrated by Ikaros and Aiolos, which functions to terminate pre-B-cell expansion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/MCB.00224-10DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2937562PMC
September 2010

A role for interferon regulatory factor 4 in receptor editing.

Mol Cell Biol 2008 Apr 19;28(8):2815-24. Epub 2008 Feb 19.

Department of Genetics, Cell Biology, and Anatomy, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198, USA.

Receptor editing is the primary means through which B cells revise antigen receptors and maintain central tolerance. Previous studies have demonstrated that interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF-4) and IRF-8 promote immunoglobulin light-chain rearrangement and transcription at the pre-B stage. Here, the roles of IRF-4 and -8 in receptor editing were analyzed. Our results show that secondary rearrangement was impaired in IRF-4 but not IRF-8 mutant mice, suggesting that receptor editing is defective in the absence of IRF-4. The role of IRF-4 in receptor editing was further examined in B-cell-receptor (BCR) transgenic mice. Our results show that secondary rearrangement triggered by membrane-bound antigen was defective in the IRF-4-deficient mice. Our results further reveal that the defect in secondary rearrangement is more severe at the immunoglobulin lambda locus than at the kappa locus, indicating that IRF-4 is more critical for the lambda rearrangement. We provide evidence demonstrating that the expression of IRF-4 in immature B cells is rapidly induced by self-antigen and that the reconstitution of IRF-4 expression in the IRF-4 mutant immature B cells promotes secondary rearrangement. Thus, our studies identify IRF-4 as a nuclear effector of a BCR signaling pathway that promotes secondary rearrangement at the immature B-cell stage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/MCB.01946-07DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2293099PMC
April 2008

Interferon regulatory factors 4 and 8 induce the expression of Ikaros and Aiolos to down-regulate pre-B-cell receptor and promote cell-cycle withdrawal in pre-B-cell development.

Blood 2008 Feb 30;111(3):1396-403. Epub 2007 Oct 30.

Department of Genetics, Cell Biology and Anatomy, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-5805, USA.

Pre-B lymphocytes consist of 2 distinct cell populations: large pre-B and small pre-B. The large pre-B cells are newly generated pre-B cells that express pre-B-cell receptor (pre-BCR) on the surface and are highly proliferative; small pre-B cells are derived from large pre-B cells that have down-regulated pre-BCR and withdrawn from cell cycle. The molecular events that mediate the transition from cycling pre-B to small, resting pre-B have not been fully elucidated. Here, we show that interferon regulatory factors 4 and 8 (IRF4,8) suppress surrogate light chain expression and down-regulate pre-BCR in pre-B cells. Our studies further reveal that IRF4,8 induce the expression of Ikaros and Aiolos in pre-B cells, and reconstitution of expression of either one is sufficient to suppress surrogate light chain expression and down-regulate pre-BCR in pre-B cells lacking IRF4,8. Interestingly, our results also indicate that pre-B cells undergo growth inhibition and cell-cycle arrest in the presence of IRF4,8. Moreover, we provide evidence that Ikaros and Aiolos are indispensable for the down-regulation of pre-BCR and the cell-cycle withdrawal mediated by IRF4,8. Thus, IRF4,8 orchestrate the transition from large pre-B to small pre-B cells by inducing the expression of Ikaros and Aiolos.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2007-08-110106DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2214771PMC
February 2008

IFN regulatory factor 4 and 8 promote Ig light chain kappa locus activation in pre-B cell development.

J Immunol 2006 Dec;177(11):7898-904

Department of Genetics, Cell Biology, and Anatomy, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198, USA.

Previous studies have shown that B cell development is blocked at the pre-B cell stage in IFN regulatory factor (IRF)4 (pip) and IRF8 (IFN consensus sequence binding protein) double mutant mice (IRF4,8(-/-)). In this study, the molecular mechanism by which IRF4,8 regulate pre-B cell development was further investigated. We show that IRF4,8 function in a B cell intrinsic manner to control pre-B cell development. IRF4,8(-/-) mice expressing a Bcl-2 transgene fail to rescue pre-B cell development, suggesting that the defect in B cell development in IRF4,8(-/-) mice is not due to a lack of survival signal. IRF4,8(-/-) pre-B cells display a high proliferation index that may indirectly inhibit the L chain rearrangement. However, forced cell cycle exit induced by IL-7 withdrawal fails to rescue the development of IRF4,8(-/-) pre-B cells, suggesting that cell cycle exit by itself is not sufficient to rescue the development of IRF4,8(-/-) pre-B cells and that IRF4,8 may directly regulate the activation of L chain loci. Using retroviral mediated gene transduction, we show that IRF4 and IRF8 function redundantly to promote pre-B cell maturation and the generation of IgM(+) B cells. Molecular analysis indicates that IRF4, when expressed in IRF4,8(-/-) pre-B cells, induces kappa germline transcription, enhances V(D)J rearrangement activity at the kappa locus, and promotes L chain rearrangement and transcription. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay further reveals that IRF4 expression leads to histone modifications and enhanced chromatin accessibility at the kappa locus. Thus, IRF4,8 control pre-B cell development, at least in part, by promoting the activation of the kappa locus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.177.11.7898DOI Listing
December 2006

[Effects of effective component from "qing kai ling" on endothelial cell of microvessel in MCAO rats].

Zhong Yao Cai 2004 May;27(5):348-51

Beijing University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Beijing 100029.

Objective: The plasma expression levels of ET-1, TXB2, 6-keto-PGF1alpha, vWF at different time after cerebral ischemia were assayed for observing the effects of baicalin, jasminoidin, cholalic acid, hydrolysis fluid of nacre and the combined prescription (CP) on cerebral vasoconstriction and endothelial cells in MCAO rats.

Methods: The plasma levels of ET-1, TXB2, 6-keto-PGF1alpha in MCAO rats were detected by the method of RIA and the plasma expressions of vWF were observed by ELISA.

Results: The levels of ET-1, TXB2/6-keto-PGF1alpha and vWF all increased at different time after cerebral ischemia, so do TXB2 at 12 hours after ischemia. The expression of 6-keto-PGF1alpha significantly reduced at different time point after ischemia in MCAO rat. There were no significant changes after medicine treating 12 hours except baicalin's increasing 6-keto-PGF1alpha level. Jasminoidin and CP significantly reduced the expression of ET-1 at 24 hours after ischemia, so do all effective components except CP on expression of TXB2 at 12 hours after ischemia. The expression of TXB2 was significantly decreased by baicalin and CP at 24 hours after cerebral ischemia. Both baicalin and cholalic acid significantly increased the expression of 6-keto-PGF1alpha at 12 hours after ischemia while cholalic acid and hydrolysis fluid of nacre increased its level after ischemia for 24 hours. TXB2/6-keto-PGF1alpha ratio was reduced distinctively by baicalin, jasminoidin, cholalic acid, CP at the point of 12 hours, while decreased by baicalin and CP, and increased by jasmionoidin at the point of 24 hours. On the other hand, baicalin, hydrolysis fluid of nacre significantly reduced and jasminoidin increased the expression of vWF at the point of 12 hours. At the point of 24 hours, expression of vWF reduced by hydrolysis fluid of nacre and increased by baicalin.

Conclusions: The higher plasma expression of ET-1, TXA2 in plasma aggravated cerebral vasoconstriction and damaged endothelial cells. At the same time, the effective components of "Qing Kai Ling" inhibit the expression of ET-1 , TXA2 and reduce both TXB2/6-keto-PGF1alpha ratio and level of vWF. As a result, they relax cerebral microvessel and protect endothelial cells by different pathway at different target points.
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May 2004

A novel recombinant adeno-associated virus vaccine reduces behavioral impairment and beta-amyloid plaques in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

Neurobiol Dis 2003 Dec;14(3):365-79

Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and School of Basic Medicine, Peking Union Medical College, 100005 Beijing, People's Republic of China.

Memory impairment progressing to dementia is the main clinical symptom of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Deposition of the amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta) in brain, particularly its 42-amino acid isoform (Abeta42), has been shown to play a primary and crucial role in the pathogenesis of AD. In this study we have developed a recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) vaccine against AD. This vaccine could express CB-Abeta42 (cholera toxin B subunit and Abeta42 fusion protein) in vivo. A single administration of the AAV-CB-Abeta42 vaccine induced a prolonged, strong production of Abeta-specific serum IgG in transgenic mice that overexpressed the London mutant of amyloid precursor protein (APP/V717I), and resulted in improved ability of memory and cognition, decreased Abeta deposition in the brain, and a resultant decrease in plaque-associated astrocytosis. Our results extended the immunological approaches for the treatment and prevention of AD to an oral, intranasal, or intramuscular route that might be better tolerated in human patients than repetitive parental immunizations in the presence of adjuvant. AAV has attracted tremendous interest as a promising vector for gene delivery. Our results raised the possibility that AAV-CB-Abeta42 vector immunization may provide the basis of a novel and promising Alzheimer's disease vaccination program.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nbd.2003.07.005DOI Listing
December 2003

FasL-induced downregulation of CD28 expression on jurkat cells in vitro is associated with activation of caspases.

Cell Biol Int 2003 ;27(12):959-64

Department of Immunology, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & School of Basic Medicine, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100005, China.

Ligation of CD28, which is present on the majority of CD4(+)T cells, promotes proliferation and immune responses. However, expression of CD28 declines with aging, and apoptosis may contribute to this decline. We have investigated the molecular mechanism underlying the decrease in CD28 expression in Jurkat T cells cultured with FasL. FasL blocks expression of CD28 at the transcriptional level. This correlates with activation of caspase cascades: active caspase-3 can be detected and inhibitors of caspase-3 and caspase-8 increase CD28 promoter activity and CD28 expression. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that apoptosis plays a key role in the age-related decline of CD28 expression and hence in immunosenescence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s1065-6995(03)00170-7DOI Listing
July 2004

Hydrogen peroxide induced down-regulation of CD28 expression of Jurkat cells is associated with a change of site alpha-specific nuclear factor binding activity and the activation of caspase-3.

Exp Gerontol 2003 Oct;38(10):1109-18

Department of Immunology, Institute of Basic Medical sciences, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and School of Basic Medicine, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100005, People's Republic of China.

CD28 is the requisite co-stimulatory molecule in the activation of T cells and in the generation of immune responses. But expression of CD28 declined and oxidants accumulated in the elderly. Although accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during senescence has been reported extensively, the effect of oxidants on CD28-expression remains totally unknown. In this study, we tried to address the molecular mechanism underlying the decrease in CD28-expression of Jurkat T cells cultured in H2O2. Our results indicate that H2O2 could partially block the expression of CD28. This correlates well with a change of nuclear protein binding activity to the motif of site alpha of the CD28 gene, while the site beta-binding activity remained unaltered. On the other hand, since caspase-3 is activated by H2O2, inhibitors of caspase-3 should increase the expression of CD28. What is more interesting is the fact that the site alpha-binding activity was mostly restored after caspase-3 inhibitors had being added. However, caspase-3 is not activated by caspase-8. Maybe it is activated by caspase-9, which is triggered by cytochrome c. We believe that the procaspase-3 is activated by ROS, and the active caspase-3 can induce the change of the site alpha-binding activity, causing a decrease in CD28 expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0531-5565(03)00166-9DOI Listing
October 2003