Publications by authors named "Shi Fang"

165 Publications

Hyperbranched anion exchangers prepared from polyethylene polyamine modified polymeric substrates for ion chromatography.

J Chromatogr A 2021 Aug 28;1655:462508. Epub 2021 Aug 28.

Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Xixi Campus, Hangzhou 310028, China. Electronic address:

High hydrophilic anion stationary phases play a crucial role in the separation behavior of ion chromatography. Herein, we report novel polymeric anion exchangers grafted with polyethylene polyamines, including ethylenediamine, diethylenetriamine, triethylenetetramine and tetraethylene pentaamine, via a facile epoxy-amine polymerization method. The anion exchangers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and elemental analysis. The chromatographic performance of the stationary phases was evaluated with the separation of common inorganic anions, organic weak acids and highly polarizable anions. Seven common anions (F, Cl, NO, Br, NO, SO and HPO) can be separated within 18 min by using hydroxide eluent in isocratic mode. By adopting different polyethylene polyamines as hyperbranched units, the four types of new stationary phases displayed high efficiencies and good reproducibility. The columns exhibit large exchange capacities at 76.5-184.8 μmol•column (4.6 × 150 mm, i.d.) with efficiency up to 20293 plate m (Cl). The RSDs of the retention time were less than 0.27% and the RSDs of the efficiency were less than 1.95% by consecutive injections after working for two months. The self-fabricated column was successfully applied to determine the chloride content in exhaled breath condensate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2021.462508DOI Listing
August 2021

Periorbital Mass in a 2-month-old Girl.

Pediatr Rev 2021 09;42(Suppl 2):146-150

Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/pir.2019-0261DOI Listing
September 2021

Clinical Efficacy of Corticosteroids in the Early Stages of Deterioration in COVID-19 Pneumonia.

Infect Drug Resist 2021 12;14:2667-2674. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, The Petroleum Clinical Medical College of Hebei Medical University, Langfang, Hebei, 065000, People's Republic of China.

Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) strongly suggests using corticosteroids in patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Similarly, a large randomized controlled clinical trial (RCT) in the UK found that dexamethasone effectively reduced the mortality rate in severe COVID-19 patients. However, the safety profile of corticosteroids has been a controversial area of study.

Case Description: A case of a COVID-19 patient is described and the clinical characteristics are observed as the mildly symptomatic patient progresses into a critically ill patient and during their dramatic improvement with corticosteroid therapy in the early stage of the deterioration process with COVID-19 pneumonia.

Conclusion: The most suitable timing and dosage for the use of corticosteroids to maximize its effect during the worsening of COVID-19 pneumonia are discussed. One of the main pathophysiological hypotheses for severe COVID-19 patients is related to cytokine storm and virus load, which can be effectively treated with corticosteroid therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IDR.S314938DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8285565PMC
July 2021

Study on Numerical Simulation for Component Transportation and Oil Displacement of a Microbial System.

ACS Omega 2021 Jun 17;6(25):16507-16516. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Laboratory of Enhanced Oil Recovery of Education Ministry, Northeast Petroleum University, 163318 Daqing, China.

Component transportation is one of the main mechanisms for numerical simulation in microbial oil recovery. However, the research on the component transportation considering the inhibition of metabolites is very limited. A mathematical model of oil displacement in a microorganism system including microbial growth and metabolism equation, component transport equation, and porous media physical property variation equation was established in this paper. The equation was discretized and solved by implicit pressure and explicit saturation. The MATLAB simulation results showed that the chromatographic separation between microorganisms and nutrients happened because of the adsorption of porous media and the activity of microorganisms during the transportation, and the separation degree of the chromatography became higher as the permeability became lower and the injection speed became slower. The multislug alternative injection mode could reduce the degree of chromatographic separation, and the recovery rate can be increased to 50.82%. The results of this study could provide theoretical guidance for the popularization and application of microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.1c01667DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8246491PMC
June 2021

Characterization and influencing factors of the pig movement network in Hunan Province, China.

Prev Vet Med 2021 Aug 1;193:105396. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

China Animal Health and Epidemiology Center, Qingdao, 266032, Shandong, China. Electronic address:

In terms of pig production in China, Hunan was the third largest province where the number of hogs accounted for 9.0 % of the national number of hogs in 2017. To propose the precise strategy for supervision of pig movements in Hunan Province, a weighted directed one-mode network was constructed using the data from the electronic animal health certificate platform in 2017. The nodes were designed as districts in Hunan and edges as flows of pig movement between districts. Social network analysis was used to analyse network characteristics and generalized linear models were performed to ascertain the socioeconomic factors that affect the pig movement network. During 2017, the pig movement network within the Hunan Province was composed of 122 nodes and 8562 directed connections, with a total of 510,973 shipments and 17,815,040 pigs moved. The network displayed a small-world topology, which had a higher clustering coefficient (0.4 vs. 0.1) and shorter average shortest path length (1.8 vs. 3.7) compared with equivalent random networks. The degree centrality positively correlated with closeness centrality (r = 0.99, P < 0.001) as well as betweenness centrality (r = 0.91, P < 0.001). After restricting the cross-regional pig movements in areas with the top 10 % of degree centrality, the number of pigs was reduced by nearly 50 % in the network, whereas the number of pigs was reduced by 94.0 % when movement restrictions were implemented in areas with the top 50 % of degree centrality. Observed network metrics showed an upward trend during the months of 2017, peaking in November and December. Generalized linear models showed that the size of the human population and per capita gross domestic product were the most important socioeconomic drivers of pig movements. The pig movement network in Hunan Province is a small-world network in which the introduction and spread of diseases may be quicker. More human, material, and financial resources should be allocated to areas with higher centrality. Swine movements were seasonal, and the inspection and quarantine work should be reinforced in the fourth quarter, especially in November and December. Pig movements were more active in areas with larger populations and advanced economy, and stricter supervision in these areas should be implemented. Our findings contribute to understanding the movement of pigs and the associated influencing factors in a big pig producing province in China, and the supervision strategies proposed in this study can be extended to other regions in China if proved to be viable.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2021.105396DOI Listing
August 2021

The Association of Hypertension With the Severity of and Mortality From the COVID-19 in the Early Stage of the Epidemic in Wuhan, China: A Multicenter Retrospective Cohort Study.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 12;8:623608. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Health Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.

Hypertension may affect the prognosis of COVID-19 illness. We analyzed the epidemiological and clinical characteristics associated with the disease severity and mortality in hypertensive vs. non-hypertensive deceased COVID-19 patients. We included all the deceased patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 admitted to >200 health facilities in Wuhan between December 1 and February 24, 2020. The median survival time in COVID-19 patients with and without hypertension, the association of hypertension with the disease severity, and the risk factors associated with the COVID-19 mortality stratified by the hypertension status were assessed using the Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, logistic regression, and Cox proportional regression, respectively before and after the propensity score-matching (PS) for age and sex. The prevalence of hypertension in the studied 1,833 COVID-19 patients was 40.5%. Patients with hypertension were more likely to have severe COVID-19 illness than patients without hypertension; the PS-matched multivariable-adjusted odds ratio (95% CI) was 2.44 (1.77-3.08). Moreover, the median survival time in the hypertension group was 3-5 days shorter than the non-hypertension group. There was a 2-fold increased risk of COVID-19 mortality in the hypertension group compared with the non-hypertension group; the PS-matched multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 2.04 (1.61-2.72), and the significant increased risk of COVID-19 mortality in the moderate vs. mild COVID-19 illness was confined to patients with hypertension. Additionally, the history and the number of underlying chronic diseases, occupation, and residential location showed stronger associations with the COVID-19 mortality among patients with hypertension than patients without hypertension. Hypertension was associated with the severity and mortality of COVID-19 illness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2021.623608DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8149896PMC
May 2021

The comparison of epidemiological characteristics between confirmed and clinically diagnosed cases with COVID-19 during the early epidemic in Wuhan, China.

Glob Health Res Policy 2021 05 28;6(1):18. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Health Sciences, Wuhan University, 430071, Wuhan, China.

Background: To put COVID-19 patients into hospital timely, the clinical diagnosis had been implemented in Wuhan in the early epidemic. Here we compared the epidemiological characteristics of laboratory-confirmed and clinically diagnosed cases with COVID-19 in Wuhan.

Methods: Demographics, case severity and outcomes of 29,886 confirmed cases and 21,960 clinically diagnosed cases reported between December 2019 and February 24, 2020, were compared. The risk factors were estimated, and the effective reproduction number (Rt) of SARS-CoV-2 was also calculated.

Results: The age and occupation distribution of confirmed cases and clinically diagnosed cases were consistent, and their sex ratio were 1.0 and 0.9, respectively. The epidemic curve of clinical diagnosis cases was similar to that of confirmed cases, and the city centers had more cumulative cases and higher incidence density than suburbs in both of two groups. The proportion of severe and critical cases (21.5 % vs. 14.0 %, P < 0.0001) and case fatality rates (5.2 % vs. 1.2 %, P < 0.0001) of confirmed cases were all higher than those of clinically diagnosed cases. Risk factors for death we observed in both of two groups were older age, male, severe or critical cases. Rt showed the same trend in two groups, it dropped below 1.0 on February 6 among confirmed cases, and February 8 among clinically diagnosed cases.

Conclusions: The demographic characteristics and spatiotemporal distributions of confirmed and clinically diagnosed cases are roughly similar, but the disease severity and clinical outcome of clinically diagnosed cases are better than those of confirmed cases. In cases when detection kits are insufficient during the early epidemic, the implementation of clinical diagnosis is necessary and effective.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s41256-021-00200-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8161348PMC
May 2021

SphK1 Promotes Cancer Progression through Activating JAK/STAT Pathway and Up-Regulating S1PR1 Expression in Colon Cancer Cells.

Anticancer Agents Med Chem 2021 Mar 31. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Clinical Nutrition, The First Affiliated Hospital, SUN Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, 510080. China.

Background: SphK1 is a conserved lipid kinase, which can catalyze formation of tumor promoting factor sphingosine phosphate-1 (S1P).

Objective: To investigate effect of SphK1 on proliferation/migration of colon cancer cells and associated mechanisms.

Methods: Transcription of SphK1 gene in colon cancer cells was detected. Gene transcription of SphK1 was inhibited by transfecting with si-SphK1 gene in colon cancer cells. Effects of SphK1 inhibition (si-SphK1) on cell migration/proliferation were detected using transwell system and MTS. Gene transcription of SIP, S1PR1, S1PR2, S1PR3, and activation of JAK/STAT3 pathway were examined using RT-PCR and western blot assay. S1PR1 over-expressing plasmid was constructed and transfected into cells. Effects of S1PR1 over-expression on migration/proliferation of si-SphK1 transfected colon cancer cells and activation of JAK/STAT3 pathway were determined using RT-PCR and western blotting.

Results: Gene transcription of SphK1 in SW480 and HT-29 colon cancer cells was significantly inhibited by transfection of si-SphK1 gene. Transwell migration and MTS findings showed that si-SphK1 transfection (si-SphK1 group) could reduce migration quantity and cell viability of colon cancer cells compared to negative control (NC) (p<0.0001). SphK1 inhibition (si-SphK1 group) significantly down-regulated S1PR1 and S1PR3 gene transcription in SW480 and HT-29 cells (p<0.0001), and decreased activation level of JAKSTAT3 signaling pathway compared to NC group (p<0.05). Over-expression of S1PR1 reversed inhibitory effects of si-SphK1 on migration/proliferation of SW480 and activation of JAK/Stat3.

Conclusion: SphK1 promoted proliferation and migration of colon cancer cells through promoting JAK/STAT activation and up-regulating S1PR1 expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1871520621666210401105344DOI Listing
March 2021

Role of the Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptors in Hypertension.

Circ Res 2021 Apr 1;128(7):1021-1039. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Physiology, Cardiovascular Center (S.F., P.N., J.W., C.D.S.), Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee.

Nuclear receptors represent a large family of ligand-activated transcription factors which sense the physiological environment and make long-term adaptations by mediating changes in gene expression. In this review, we will first discuss the fundamental mechanisms by which nuclear receptors mediate their transcriptional responses. We will focus on the PPAR (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor) family of adopted orphan receptors paying special attention to PPARγ, the isoform with the most compelling evidence as an important regulator of arterial blood pressure. We will review genetic data showing that rare mutations in PPARγ cause severe hypertension and clinical trial data which show that PPARγ activators have beneficial effects on blood pressure. We will detail the tissue- and cell-specific molecular mechanisms by which PPARs in the brain, kidney, vasculature, and immune system modulate blood pressure and related phenotypes, such as endothelial function. Finally, we will discuss the role of placental PPARs in preeclampsia, a life threatening form of hypertension during pregnancy. We will close with a viewpoint on future research directions and implications for developing novel therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.120.318062DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8020861PMC
April 2021

Vitamin K2 protects against Aβ42-induced neurotoxicity by activating autophagy and improving mitochondrial function in Drosophila.

Neuroreport 2021 04;32(6):431-437

Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning.

Objective: Alzheimer disease is characterized by progressive decline in cognitive function due to neurodegeneration induced by accumulation of Aβ and hyperphosphorylated tau protein. This study was conducted to explore the protective effect of vitamin K2 against Aβ42-induced neurotoxicity.

Methods: Alzheimer disease transgenic Drosophila model used in this study was amyloid beta with the arctic mutation expressed in neurons. Alzheimer disease flies were treated with vitamin K2 for 28 days after eclosion. Aβ42 level in brain was detected by ELISA. Autophagy-related genes and NDUFS3, the core subunit of mitochondrial complex I, were examined using real-Time PCR (RT-PCR) and western blot analysis.

Results: Vitamin K2 improved climbing ability (P = 0.0105), prolonged lifespan (P < 0.0001) and decreased Aβ42 levels (P = 0.0267), upregulated the expression of LC3 and Beclin1(P = 0.0012 and P = 0.0175, respectively), increased the conversion of LC3I to LC3II (P = 0.0206) and decreased p62 level (P =0.0115) in Alzheimer disease flies. In addition, vitamin K2 upregulated the expression of NDUFS3 (P = 0.001) and increased ATP production (P = 0.0033) in Alzheimer disease flies.

Conclusion: It seems that vitamin K2 protect against Aβ42-induced neurotoxicity by activation of autophagy and rescue mitochondrial dysfunction, which suggests that it may be a potential valuable therapeutic approach for Alzheimer disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/WNR.0000000000001599DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8016515PMC
April 2021

EP3 (E-Prostanoid 3) Receptor Mediates Impaired Vasodilation in a Mouse Model of Salt-Sensitive Hypertension.

Hypertension 2021 04 1;77(4):1399-1411. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

From the Department of Physiology, Cardiovascular Center, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee (J.W., S.F., K.-T.L., K.W., J.L.G., C.D.S.).

[Figure: see text].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.120.16518DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7946772PMC
April 2021

Spatiotemporal Changes in the Gene Expression Spectrum of the β2 Adrenergic Receptor Signaling Pathway in the Lungs of Rhesus Monkeys.

Lung 2021 02 29;199(1):73-82. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Department of Pediatrics, West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University, No. 20, Section 3, South Renmin Road, Chengdu, 610041, China.

Objective: β2 adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) agonists mainly participate in regulation of airway function through the ADRB2-G protein-adenylyl cyclase (AC) signaling pathway; however, the key genes associated with this pathway and the spatiotemporal changes in the expression spectrum of some of their subtypes remain unclear, resulting in an insufficient theoretical basis for formulating the dose and method of drug administration for neonates.

Methods: We performed sampling at different developmental time points in rhesus monkeys, including the embryo stage, neonatal stage, and adolescence. The MiSeq platform was used for sequencing of key genes and some of their subtypes in the ADRB2 signaling pathway in lung tissues, and target gene expression was normalized and calculated according to reads per kilobase million.

Results: At different lung-developmental stages, we observed expression of phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT), ADRB2, AC, AKAP and EPAC subtypes (except AC8, AKAP4/5), and various phosphodiesterase (PDE) subtypes (PDE3, PDE4, PDE7, and PDE8), with persistently high expression of AC6, PDE4B, and AKAP(1/2/8/9/12/13, and EZR) maintained throughout the lung-developmental process, PNMT, ADRB2, AC(4/6), PDE4B, and AKAP(1/2/8/9/12/13, EZR, and MAP2)were highly expressed at the neonatal stage.

Conclusion: During normal lung development in rhesus monkeys, key genes associated with ADRB2-G protein-AC signaling and some of their subtypes are almost all expressed at the neonatal stage, suggesting that this signaling pathway plays a role in this developmental stage. Additionally, AC6, PDE4B, and AKAP(1/2/8/9/12/13, and EZR) showed persistently high expression during the entire lung-developmental process, which provides a reference for the development and utilization of key gene subtypes in this pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00408-021-00420-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7870609PMC
February 2021

Combined prognostic value of the SUVmax derived from FDG-PET and the lymphocyte-monocyte ratio in patients with stage IIIB-IV non-small cell lung cancer receiving chemotherapy.

BMC Cancer 2021 Jan 14;21(1):66. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Yantai Yuhuangding Hospital, 20 Yudong Road, Yantai, 264000, Shandong, People's Republic of China.

Background: We evaluated the prognostic potential of tumor F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake derived from positron emission tomography (PET) and known inflammatory hematological markers, both individually and in combination, for chemosensitivity and survival in patients with stage IIIB-IV non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) receiving first-line chemotherapy.

Methods: A total of 149 patients with stage IIIB and IV NSCLC (based on TNM 7th edition) were retrospectively reviewed. Maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) were used to quantitatively assess FDG uptake. The lymphocyte-monocyte ratio (LMR), neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) were selected as hematological markers. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed for the determination of optimal cut-off values to predict chemotherapeutic response.

Results: Patients with SUVmax > 11.6 or LMR ≤3.73 exhibited a significantly lower objective response rate (ORR) to chemotherapy (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001). Through multivariable logistic regression analysis, both the SUVmax and LMR were identified as independent predictive factors for chemotherapeutic response (p = 0.001 and p < 0.001). Furthermore, a multivariable Cox proportional hazard model identified a high SUVmax (> 11.6) and low LMR (≤3.73) as independent predictors of poor PFS (p < 0.001 and p = 0.025) and OS (p < 0.001 and p = 0.032). A novel score system was constructed based on the SUVmax and LMR (SUV_LMR score), and patients were stratified into three subgroups. The patients with a score of 0 had a significantly higher ORR (88.9%) than did those with a score of 1 (59.6%) and score of 2 (25.0%) (p < 0.001). Moreover, multivariable Cox analysis further identified the SUV_LMR score as an independent prognostic factor for PFS (p < 0.001) and OS (p < 0.001).

Conclusions: Pre-treatment SUVmax and LMR were not only predictive factors for chemotherapeutic response but also independent prognostic factors of survival in stage IIIB-IV NSCLC. Moreover, the SUV_LMR score, which is based on primary tumor metabolic activity and the systemic inflammatory response, might provide a promising tool to predict chemosensitivity, recurrence and survival of advanced NSCLC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-021-07784-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7809816PMC
January 2021

Correction to: The epidemiological characteristics of deaths with COVID-19 in the early stage of epidemic in Wuhan, China.

Glob Health Res Policy 2020 Dec 31;5(1):55. Epub 2020 Dec 31.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Health Sciences, Wuhan University, 115#Donghu Road, Wuhan, 430071, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s41256-020-00184-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7773505PMC
December 2020

[Advances in studies on steroidal alkaloids and their pharmacological activities in genus Veratrum].

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2020 Nov;45(21):5129-5142

Key Laboratory of Neuropsychiatric Drug Research of Zhejiang Province, Institute of Materia Medica,Hangzhou Medical College Hangzhou 310013, China.

Genus Veratrum plants contain a diversity of steroidal alkaloids, so far at least 184 steroidal alkaloids attributed to cevanine type(A-1~A-69), veratramine type(B-1~B-21), jervanine type(C-1~C-31), solanidine type(D-1~D-10) and verazine type(E-1~E-53), respectively, have been isolated and identified in the genus Veratrum. Their pharmacological activities mainly focused on decreasing blood pressure, anti-platelet aggregation and anti-thrombosis, anti-inflammatory and analgesic, and antitumor effect. This paper classified and summarized the 184 kind of steroidal alkaloids from the Veratrum plants and their major pharmalogical activities in order to provide the scientific basis for the further development and utilization of active alkaloids.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.20200612.201DOI Listing
November 2020

The epidemiological characteristics of deaths with COVID-19 in the early stage of epidemic in Wuhan, China.

Glob Health Res Policy 2020 12 21;5(1):54. Epub 2020 Dec 21.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Health Sciences, Wuhan University, 115#Donghu Road, Wuhan, 430071, China.

Objectives: To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of COVID-19 related deaths in Wuhan, China and comprehend the changing trends of this epidemic along with analyzing the prevention and control measures in Wuhan.

Methods: Through the China's Infectious Disease Information System, we collected information about COVID-19 associated deaths from December 15, 2019 to February 24, 2020 in Wuhan. We analyzed the patient's demographic characteristics, drew epidemiological curve and made geographic distribution maps of the death toll in each district over time, etc. ArcGIS was used to plot the numbers of daily deaths on maps. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS and @Risk software.

Results: As of February 24, 2020, a total of 1833 deaths were included. Among the deaths with COVID-19, mild type accounted for the most (37.2%), followed by severe type (30.1%). The median age was 70.0 (inter quartile range: 63.0-79.0) years. Most of the deaths were distributed in 50-89 age group, whereas no deaths occurred in 0-9 age group. Additionally, the male to female ratio was 1.95:1. A total of 65.7% of the deaths in Wuhan combined with underlying diseases, and was more pronounced among males. Most of the underlying diseases included hypertension, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The peak of daily deaths appeared on February 14 and then declined. The median interval from symptom onset to diagnosis was 10.0 (6.0-14.0) days; the interval from onset to diagnosis gradually shortened. The median intervals from diagnosis to death and symptom onset to deaths were 6.0 (2.0-11.0), 17.0 (12.0-22.0) days, respectively. Most of the disease was centralized in central urban area with highest death rate in Jianghan District.

Conclusion: COVID-19 poses a greater threat to the elderly people and men with more devastating effects, particularly in the presence of underlying diseases. The geographical distributions show that the epidemic in the central area of Wuhan is more serious than that in the surrounding areas. Analysis of deaths as of February 24 indicates that a tremendous improvement of COVID-19 epidemic in Wuhan has achieved by effective control measures taken by Wuhan Government.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s41256-020-00183-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7750392PMC
December 2020

Pt/AlGaN Nanoarchitecture: Toward High Responsivity, Self-Powered Ultraviolet-Sensitive Photodetection.

Nano Lett 2021 Jan 15;21(1):120-129. Epub 2020 Dec 15.

School of Microelectronics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230029, P.R. China.

Energy-saving photodetectors are the key components in future photonic systems. Particularly, self-powered photoelectrochemical-type photodetectors (PEC-PDs), which depart completely from the classical solid-state junction device, have lately intrigued intensive interest to meet next-generation power-independent and environment-sensitive photodetection. Herein, we construct, for the first time, solar-blind PEC PDs based on self-assembled AlGaN nanostructures on silicon. Importantly, with the proper surface platinum (Pt) decoration, a significant boost of photon responsivity by more than an order of magnitude was achieved in the newly built Pt/AlGaN nanoarchitectures, demonstrating strikingly high responsivity of 45 mA/W and record fast response/recovery time of 47/20 ms without external power source. Such high solar-blind photodetection originates from the unparalleled material quality, fast interfacial kinetics, as well as high carrier separation efficiency which suggests that embracement of defect-free wide-bandgap semiconductor nanostructures with appropriate surface decoration offers an unprecedented opportunity for designing future energy-efficient and large-scale optoelectronic systems on a silicon platform.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.0c03357DOI Listing
January 2021

A diet rich in fruit and whole grains is associated with a low risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: findings from a case-control study in South China.

Public Health Nutr 2020 Dec 15:1-12. Epub 2020 Dec 15.

Department of Clinical Nutrition, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, 58 # Zhongshan Road 2, Guangzhou 510080, Guangzhou, China.

Objective: Various foods are associated with or protect against type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This study was to examine the associations of foods and food patterns with the risk of T2DM in South China.

Design: Case-control study.

Setting: The dietary patterns were identified by a principal components factor analysis. Univariable and multivariable conditional logistic regression analyses were used to analyse the associations between food groups and dietary patterns and the risk of T2DM.

Participants: A total of 384 patients with T2DM and 768 controls.

Results: After adjustment for total energy intake, the standard intake of grains (228·3 ± 71·9 v. 238·8 ± 73·1 g/d, P = 0·025) and fruits (109 ± 90 v. 145 ± 108 g/d, P < 0·001) were lower in T2DM than in controls. Four dietary patterns were identified: (1) high light-coloured vegetables and low grains, (2) high fruits, (3) high red meat and low grains and (4) high dark-coloured vegetable. After adjustment for covariables, multivariable conditional logistic regression analyses showed significant dose-dependent inverse associations between total fruit intake, whole grains intake and the score of the high-fruit dietary pattern (all Pfor trend < 0·001) and the risk of T2DM. The adjusted OR (95 % CI) for T2DM comparing the extreme quartiles were 0·46 (0·29, 0·76) for total fruits, 0·48(0·31, 0·77) for whole grains and 0·42 (0·26, 0·68) for the high-fruit dietary pattern, respectively. Similar associations were observed for all subgroups of fruits (dark-colour and light-colour).

Conclusion: In South China, a diet rich in fruit and whole grains is associated with lower risk of T2DM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1368980020004930DOI Listing
December 2020

Epidemiological characteristics of patients with severe COVID-19 infection in Wuhan, China: evidence from a retrospective observational study.

Int J Epidemiol 2021 01;49(6):1940-1950

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Health Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.

Background: The new coronavirus (COVID-19) rapidly resulted in a pandemic. We report the characteristics of patients with severe or critical severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in Wuhan city, China, and the risk factors related to infection severity and death.

Methods: We extracted the demographic and clinical data of 7283 patients with severe COVID-19 infection from designated Wuhan hospitals as of 25 February 2020. Factors associated with COVID-19 critical illness and mortality were analysed using logistic- and Cox-regression analyses.

Results: We studied 6269 patients with severe COVID-19 illness and 1014 critically ill patients. The median (IQR) age was 64 (53-71) years; 51.2% were male, 38.9% were retirees and 7.4% had self-reported histories of chronic disease. Up to the end of the study, 1180 patients (16.2%) recovered and were discharged, 649 (8.9%) died and the remainder were still receiving treatment. The number of daily confirmed critical cases peaked between 23 January and 1 February 2020. Patients with advanced age [odds ratio (OR), 1.03; 95% confidence intervals (CIs), 1.03-1.04], male sex (OR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.33-1.86) and pre-existing diabetes (OR, 2.11), hypertension (OR, 2.72), cardiovascular disease (OR, 2.15) or respiratory disease (OR, 3.50) were more likely to be critically ill. Compared with those who recovered and were discharged, patients who died were older [hazard ratio (HR), 1.04; 95% CI, 1.03-1.05], more likely to be male (HR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.44-2.11) and more likely to have hypertension (HR, 5.58), cardiovascular disease (HR, 1.83) or diabetes (HR, 1.67).

Conclusion: Advanced age, male sex and a history of chronic disease were associated with COVID-19 critical illness and death. Identifying these risk factors could help in the clinical monitoring of susceptible populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyaa180DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7665537PMC
January 2021

Tetrandrine Attenuates Cartilage Degeneration, Osteoclast Proliferation, and Macrophage Transformation through Inhibiting P65 Phosphorylation in Ovariectomy-induced Osteoporosis.

Immunol Invest 2020 Nov 3:1-15. Epub 2020 Nov 3.

Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Beijing JiShuitan Hospital, Beijing, China.

Background: Osteoporosis is a common metabolic bone disease with high prevalence. Tetrandrine (TET) suppressed osteoclastogenesis, while the roles of TET in osteoporosis regulation remained unclear. Thus, the study aimed to investigate the effect of TET on osteoporosis and the underlying mechanism.

Methods: The osteoporosis rabbit model was established through anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) and bilateral ovariectomy (OVX). The degeneration of articular cartilage was assessed using HE staining and Alcian blue staining. The liver and kidney tissue injury was determined using HE staining. The activity of osteoclasts was evaluated using Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining. The changes in bone structural parameters were determined through measuring the BMD, BV/TV, Tb.Th, Tb.N, and Tb.Sp, and the serum levels of calcium and phosphorus. Macrophage polarization was determined using Flow cytometry.

Results: The bone structural parameters including BMD, BV/TV, Tb.N, Tb.Th and Tb.Sp were changed in osteoporosis rabbit, which was reversed by TET. Besides, TET suppressed the increased serum levels of calcium and phosphorus in osteoporosis rabbit. Furthermore, TET inhibited the degeneration of articular cartilage and the activity of osteoclasts induced by osteoporosis. Moreover, TET inhibited the levels of MMP-9, PPAR-γ, RANKL, β-CTX and TRACP-5b, and increased the levels of OPG, ALP and osteocalcin (OC) in osteoporosis. Additionally, TET promoted macrophage transformation from M1 to M2 in osteoporotic and inhibited the production of IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6. TET also inhibited the p65 phosphorylation in osteoporosis. Besides, TET reversed RANKL-induced osteoclasts proliferation, p65 phosphorylation, and the expression changes of RANKL, Ki67, PPAR-γ, ALP, OPG.

Conclusion: TET attenuated bone structural parameters including BMD, BV/TV, Tb.N, Tb.Th and Tb.Sp, inhibited articular cartilage degeneration, promoted bone formation, inhibited the inflammatory response, and promoted macrophage transformation from M1 to M2 via NF-κB inactivation in osteoporosis. TET may be a promising drug for osteoporosis therapy.

Abbreviation: TET: Tetrandrine; ACLT: anterior cruciate ligament transection; OVX: ovariectomy; TRAP: Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase; BMD: bone mineral density; BV/TV: Bone volume/total volume; Tb.Th: trabecular thickness; Tb.N: trabecular number; Tb.Sp: trabecular separation; MMP-9: Matrix metallopeptidase 9; PPAR-γ: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma; RANKL: Receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand; OPG: Osteoprotegerin; ALP: alkaline phosphatase; OC: osteocalcin; β-CTX: β isomer of C-terminal telopeptide of type Ⅰ collagen; TRACP-5b: Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b; TNF-α: tumor necrosis factor-α; IL-1β: interleukin-1β; IL-6: interleukin 6; NF-κB: Nuclear factor kappa B; PKC-α: Protein kinase C alpha; qRT-PCR: Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08820139.2020.1837864DOI Listing
November 2020

[Association of age distribution with the expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 in lung tissues in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection: reflections from the study of RAS pathway expression in mice].

Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi 2020 Oct;22(10):1119-1124

Department of Pediatric Respiratory Immunology, West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China.

Objective: To study the expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and other key molecules of the RAS pathway in normal mice at different developmental stages, and to provide ideas for understanding the infection mechanism of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) as well as the diagnosis and treatment of children with COVID-19.

Methods: The mice at different developmental stages were enrolled, including fetal mice (embryonic days 14.5 and 18.5), neonatal mice (0, 3, 7, 14, and 21 days old), young mice (28 and 42 days old), and adult mice (84 days old). The lung tissues of all fetal mice from 4 pregnant mice were collected at each time point in the fetal group. Four mice were sampled in other age groups at each time point. Whole transcriptome resequencing was used to measure the mRNA expression of AGT, ACE, ACE2, Renin, Agtr1a, Agtr1b, Agtr2, and Mas1 in mouse lung tissue.

Results: The expression of ACE2 in the lungs showed changes from embryonic stage to adult stage. It increased gradually after birth, reached a peak on day 3 after birth, and reached a nadir on day 14 after birth (P<0.05). The expression of AGT reached a peak on days 0 and 7 after birth and reached a nadir on day 21 after birth (P<0.05). The expression of ACE increased rapidly after birth and reached a peak on day 21 after birth (P<0.05). Agtr1a expression reached a peak on day 21 after birth (P<0.05). Agtr2 expression gradually decreased to a low level after birth. Renin, Agtr1b, and Mas1 showed low expression in lung tissues at all developmental stages.

Conclusions: At different developmental stages of mice, ACE2 has dynamic expression changes, with high expression in early neonatal and adult mice. The other key molecules of the RAS pathway have their own expression patterns. These suggest that the difference in clinical features between children and adults with COVID-19 might be associated with the different expression levels of ACE2 in the different stages, and further studies are needed for the mechanism.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7568992PMC
October 2020

Identification of 22 Novel Motifs of the Cell Entry Fusion Glycoprotein B of Oncolytic Herpes Simplex Viruses: Sequence Analysis and Literature Review.

Front Oncol 2020 19;10:1386. Epub 2020 Aug 19.

Laboratory of Oncology, Center for Molecular Medicine, School of Basic Medicine, Health Science Center, Yangtze University, Jingzhou, China.

Herpes simplex viruses (HSVs) are widely spread throughout the world, causing infections from oral, and genital mucous membrane ulcerations to severe viral encephalitis. Glycoprotein B (gB) was the first HSV envelope glycoprotein identified to induce cell fusion. This glycoprotein initiates viral entry and thereby determines the infectivity of HSV, as well as oncolytic HSV (oHSV). Clarifying its molecular characterization and enlarging its motif reservoir will help to engineer oHSV and in cancer treatment applications. Only in recent years has the importance of gB been acknowledged in HSV infection and oHSV engineering. Although gB-modified oHSVs have been developed, the detailed molecular biology of gB needs to be illustrated more clearly in order to construct more effective oHSVs. Here, we performed a systematic comparative sequence analysis of gBs from the 9 HSV-1 and 2 HSV-2 strains, including HSV-1-LXMW, which was isolated by our lab. Online software was implemented to predict gB secondary structure and motifs. Based on extensive literature reviews, a functional analysis of the predicted motifs was performed. Here, we reported the DNA and predicted amino acid sequences of our recently isolated HSV-1-LXMW and found that the strain was evolutionarily close to HSV-1 strains F, H129, and SC16 based on gB analysis. The 22 novel motifs of HSV gB were identified for the first time. An amino acid sequence alignment of the 11 HSV strains showed that the gB motifs are conserved among HSV strains, suggesting that they are functional . Additionally, we found that certain amino acids within the 13 motifs out of the 22 were reported to be functional . Furthermore, the gB mutants and gB-engineered oHSVs were also summarized. Our identification of the 22 novel motifs shed light on HSV gB biology and provide new options for gB engineering to improve the efficiency and safety of oHSVs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2020.01386DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7466406PMC
August 2020

Prostacyclin facilitates vascular smooth muscle cell phenotypic transformation via activating TP receptors when IP receptors are deficient.

Acta Physiol (Oxf) 2021 02 20;231(2):e13555. Epub 2020 Sep 20.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, National and Local United Engineering Lab of Druggability and New Drugs Evaluation, Guangdong Engineering Laboratory of Druggability and New Drug Evaluation, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of New Drug Design and Evaluation, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangdong, PR China.

Aim: By activating prostacyclin receptors (IP receptors), prostacyclin (PGI ) exerts cardiovascular protective effects such as vasodilation and inhibition of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation. However, IP receptors are dysfunctional under pathological conditions, and PGI produces detrimental effects that are opposite to its physiological protective effects via thromboxane-prostanoid (TP) receptors. This attempted to investigate whether or not IP receptor dysfunction facilitates the shift of PGI action.

Methods: The effects of PGI and its stable analog iloprost on VSMC phenotypic transformation and proliferation were examined in A10 cells silencing IP receptors, in human aortic VSMCs (HAVSMCs) knocked down IP receptor by CRISPR-Cas9, or in HAVSMCs transfected with a dysfunctional mutation of IP receptor IP .

Results: PGI /iloprost treatment stimulated cell proliferation, upregulated synthetic proteins and downregulated contractile proteins, suggesting that PGI /iloprost promotes VSMC phenotypic transformation in IP-deficient cells. The effect of PGI /iloprost was prevented by TP antagonist S18886 or TP knockdown, indicating that the VSMC detrimental effect of PGI is dependent on TP receptor. RNA sequencing and Western blotting results showed that RhoA/ROCKs, MEK1/2 and JNK signalling cascades were involved. Moreover, IP deficiency increased the distribution of TP receptors at the cell membrane.

Conclusion: PGI induces VSMC phenotypic transformation when IP receptors are impaired. This is attributed to the activation of TP receptor and its downstream signaling cascades, and to the increased membrane distribution of TP receptors. The VSMC detrimental effect of PGI medicated by IP dysfunction and TP activation might probably exacerbate vascular remodelling, accelerating cardiovascular diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/apha.13555DOI Listing
February 2021

Secular Trend of Cancer Death and Incidence in 29 Cancer Groups in China, 1990-2017: A Joinpoint and Age-Period-Cohort Analysis.

Cancer Manag Res 2020 23;12:6221-6238. Epub 2020 Jul 23.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Health Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: China has a heavy cancer burden. We aimed to quantitatively estimate the secular trend of cancer mortality and incidence in China.

Methods: We extracted numbers, age-specific and age-standardized rates of 29 cancer groups (from 1990 to 2017) from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study in 2017. We estimated rates of major cancer types for annual percent change by Joinpoint regression, and for age, period, and cohort effect by an age-period-cohort model.

Results: In 2017, breast cancer had the highest incidence rate in females. Lung cancer had the highest mortality and incidence rates in males. Although the age-standardized incidence rate of prostate cancer ranked second highest in males, it increased by 112% from 1990 to 2017. Individuals aged over 50 years were at high risk of developing cancer, and the number of deaths at this age accounted for over 89% of all cancers in all age groups. When compared with the global average level, the age-standardized mortality and incidence rates of both liver and esophageal cancers were 2.1 times higher in China, and stomach, lung and nasopharyngeal cancers in China also had high levels (more than 1.5 times higher). During 1990-2017, most of the 29 cancers exhibited an increasing incidence trend, and Joinpoint regression demonstrated increasing mortality of some major cancers. The period effect indicated that the risk of mortality and incidence due to the main cancers generally increased during 1992-2017.

Conclusion: Trend analysis provided information on the effects of prevention strategies and targeted interventions on the occurrence of different cancers. Etiological studies need to be conducted on some major cancers in the Chinese population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CMAR.S247648DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7398884PMC
July 2020

Attributable Risk and Economic Cost of Cardiovascular Hospital Admissions Due to Ambient Particulate Matter in Wuhan, China.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 07 29;17(15). Epub 2020 Jul 29.

School of Public Health and Management, Hubei University of Medicine, Shiyan 442000, China.

Although the adverse effects of ambient particulate matter (PM) on cardiovascular disease (CVD) have been previously documented, information about their economic consequence was insufficient. This study aimed to evaluate the attributable risk and economic cost of cardiovascular hospitalizations due to ambient PM. Data of CVD hospitalizations and PM concentrations from 1 January 2015 to 31 December 2017 were collected in Wuhan, China. A generalized additive model was applied to quantify the PM-attributable CVD hospitalizations, and total attributable hospitalization costs were calculated via multiplying the total attributable cases by the case-average hospitalization costs. A total of 45,714 CVD hospitalizations were included in this study. The results showed that a 10 µg/m increase in PM and PM concentrations at lag7 day, respectively, contributed to a 1.01% (95% confidence interval: 0.67-1.34) and 0.48% (0.26-0.70) increase in CVD hospitalizations. During the study period, 1487 and 983 CVD hospitalizations were attributable to PM and PM, equaling an economic cost of 29.27 and 19.34 million RMB (1 RMB = 0.1424 USD), respectively, and significant differences in PM-attributable hospitalizations and economic burden were found between gender and age groups. Our study added evidence in heavily polluted megacities regarding the increased health risk and economic cost of CVD hospitalizations associated with ambient particulate pollution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17155453DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7432018PMC
July 2020

Associations between acute exposure to ambient air pollution and length of stay for inpatients with ischemic heart disease: a multi-city analysis in central China.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2020 Dec 1;27(35):43743-43754. Epub 2020 Aug 1.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Medical College, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430065, China.

Ambient air pollution (AAP) has been widely associated with increased morbidity of ischemic heart disease (IHD). However, no prior studies have investigated the effects of AAP exposure on the length of stay (LOS) due to IHD. Hospital data during 2015-2017 were obtained from hospital information system in five cities of Hubei province, China. We collected daily mean concentrations of air pollutants, including PM, PM, SO, NO, O, and CO, and meteorological data during the same time period. Poisson regression was applied to estimate the acute impacts of AAP on the LOS of IHD inpatients. A total of 42,114 inpatients with primary diagnosis of IHD were included, 50.63% of which were chronic IHD inpatients. Annual average concentrations of PM, PM, SO, NO, O, and CO were 61.93 μg/m, 95.47 μg/m, 18.59 μg/m, 35.87 μg/m, 100.30 μg/m, and 1.117 mg/m, respectively. After adjusting for temperature, relative humidity, gender, age group, payment method, number of hospital beds, location of hospital, and surgery or not, exposures to PM, PM, SO, O, and CO were associated with increased LOS for all IHD patients in both single- and multi-pollutant models, and stronger associations were observed among chronic IHD patients. In addition, subgroup analyses demonstrated that males and the group aged 65+ years were more vulnerable to air pollution, and the adverse effects were also promoted by low temperature in cold season. This study provides the first investigation of the adverse effects of AAP on the LOS for IHD patients. In order to shorten the LOS of IHD, measures should be taken to strengthen the AAP management and protect the high-risk population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-10256-7DOI Listing
December 2020

High lncSNHG15 expression may predict poor cancer prognosis: a meta-analysis based on the PRISMA and the bio-informatics analysis.

Biosci Rep 2020 07;40(7)

Department of Thoracic Surgery, The Affiliated Hospital of Zunyi Medical University, 149 Dalian Road, Zunyi, Guizhou 563000, China.

Background: SNHG15 has been reported to be aberrantly expressed in various tumor tissues and could serve as a promising prognostic cancer biomarker. Previous studies on SNHG15 yielded inconsistent results with insufficient sampling. Here, a meta-analysis was conducted to investigate the prognostic value of SNHG15 in multiple cancers.

Methods: Relevant studies were retrieved from six electronic databases including PubMed, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, Embase, Web of Science and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI). Fifteen publications comprising 1318 patients were included. The publication bias was identified by the Begg's Test, and the sensitivity analysis was also performed.

Results: The results demonstrated a positive correlation between high expression level of lncSNHG15 and short overall survival (hazard ratio (HR) = 2.07, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.48-2.88; P<0.0001) and disease-free survival (DFS) (HR = 2.32, 95% CI, 1.53-3.53; P<0.0001). The analysis based on different cancer types showed that SNHG15 had the most prominent prognostic potential in Glioma (HR = 3.81; 95% CI, 0.84-42.69; P=0.28). Moreover, the high expression level of lncSNHG15 indicated advanced TNM stage (OR = 2.52; 95% CI, 1.33-4.76; P=0.00001), lymph node metastasis (OR = 2.41, 95% CI, 0.99-4.81; P=0.05), bigger tumor size (OR = 2.06; 95% CI, 1.03-4.13; P=0.04) and poor histological grade (OR = 2.62, 95% CI, 1.90-3.59; P<0.00001), yet no association with distant metastasis (OR = 1.64, 95% CI, 0.40-6.74; P=0.49), age (OR = 0.98, 95% CI, 0.78-1.22; P=0.84) and gender (OR = 0.9, 95% CI, 0.71-1.14; P=0.3838) was found. Its conclusions further confirmed by exploring TCGA databases.

Conclusion: It revealed that lncSNHG15 might be a promising prognostic biomarker of multiple cancer types, especially in Glioma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/BSR20194468DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7369394PMC
July 2020

Cation-Exchange Induced Precise Regulation of Single Copper Site Triggers Room-Temperature Oxidation of Benzene.

J Am Chem Soc 2020 Jul 8;142(29):12643-12650. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemistry for Energy Materials (iChEM), School of Chemistry and Materials Science, and National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026, China.

The controllable synthesis of stable single-metal site catalysts with an expected coordination environment for high catalytic activity and selectivity is still challenging. Here, we propose a cation-exchange strategy for precise production of an edge-rich sulfur (S) and nitrogen (N) dual-decorated single-metal (M) site catalysts (M = Cu, Pt, Pd, etc.) library. Our strategy relies on the anionic frameworks of sulfides and N-rich polymer shell to generate abundant S and N defects during high-temperature annealing, further facilitating the stabilization of exchanged metal species with atomic dispersion and excellent accessibility. This process was traced by in situ transmission electron microscopy, during which no metal aggregates were observed. Both experiments and theoretical results reveal the precisely obtained S, N dual-decorated Cu sites exhibit a high activity and low reaction energy barrier in catalytic hydroxylation of benzene at room temperature. These findings provide a route to controllably produce stable single-metal site catalysts and an engineering approach for regulating the central metal to improve catalytic performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.0c03415DOI Listing
July 2020

Failure to vasodilate in response to salt loading blunts renal blood flow and causes salt-sensitive hypertension.

Cardiovasc Res 2021 01;117(1):308-319

Department of Physiology, Cardiovascular Center, Medical College of Wisconsin, 8701 Watertown Plank Road, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA.

Aims: Salt-sensitive (SS) hypertension is accompanied by impaired vasodilation in the systemic and renal circulation. However, the causal relationship between vascular dysfunction and salt-induced hypertension remains controversial. We sought to determine whether primary vascular dysfunction, characterized by a failure to vasodilate during salt loading, plays a causal role in the pathogenesis of SS hypertension.

Methods And Results: Mice selectively expressing a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ dominant-negative mutation in vascular smooth muscle (S-P467L) exhibited progressive SS hypertension during a 4 week high salt diet (HSD). This was associated with severely impaired vasodilation in systemic and renal vessels. Salt-induced impairment of vasodilation occurred as early as 3 days after HSD, which preceded the onset of SS hypertension. Notably, the overt salt-induced hypertension in S-P467L mice was not driven by higher cardiac output, implying elevations in peripheral vascular resistance. In keeping with this, HSD-fed S-P467L mice exhibited decreased smooth muscle responsiveness to nitric oxide (NO) in systemic vessels. HSD-fed S-P467L mice also exhibited elevated albuminuria and a blunted increase in urinary NO metabolites which was associated with blunted renal blood flow and increased sodium retention mediated by a lack of HSD-induced suppression of NKCC2. Blocking NKCC2 function prevented the salt-induced increase in blood pressure in S-P467L mice.

Conclusion: We conclude that failure to vasodilate in response to salt loading causes SS hypertension by restricting renal perfusion and reducing renal NO through a mechanism involving NKCC2 in a mouse model of vascular peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ impairment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cvr/cvaa147DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7797211PMC
January 2021
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