Publications by authors named "Sheng Wu"

281 Publications

Selective Wnt/β-Catenin Pathway Activation Concomitant With Sustained Overexpression of miR-21 is Responsible for Aristolochic Acid-Induced AKI-to-CKD Transition.

Front Pharmacol 2021 28;12:667282. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Nephrology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is increasingly recognized as a cumulative risk factor for chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Using an aristolochic acid (AA)-induced mouse model of AKI-to-CKD transition, we found that the development of tubulointerstitial fibrosis following AKI was accompanied with a strong activation of miR-21 and canonical Wnt signaling, whereas inhibition of miR-21 or selective silencing of Wnt ligands partially attenuated AKI-to-CKD transition. To explore the interaction between miR-21 and Wnt/β-catenin signaling, we examined the effects of genetic absence or pharmacologic inhibition of miR-21 on Wnt/β-catenin pathway expression. In miR-21 mice and in wild-type mice treated with anti-miR21 oligos, Wnt1 and Wnt4 canonical signaling in the renal tissue was significantly reduced, with partial reversal of renal interstitial fibrosis. Although the renal abundance of miR-21 remained unchanged after inhibition or activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, early intervention with ICG-001, a β-catenin inhibitor, significantly attenuated renal interstitial fibrosis. Moreover, early (within 24 h), but not late β-catenin inhibition after AA administration attenuated AA-induced apoptosis and inflammation. In conclusion, inhibition of miR-21 or β-catenin signaling may be an effective approach to prevent AKI-to-CKD progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.667282DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8193720PMC
May 2021

Label3DMaize: toolkit for 3D point cloud data annotation of maize shoots.

Gigascience 2021 May;10(5)

Beijing Research Center for Information Technology in Agriculture, 11#Shuguang Huayuan Middle Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100097, China.

Background: The 3D point cloud is the most direct and effective data form for studying plant structure and morphology. In point cloud studies, the point cloud segmentation of individual plants to organs directly determines the accuracy of organ-level phenotype estimation and the reliability of the 3D plant reconstruction. However, highly accurate, automatic, and robust point cloud segmentation approaches for plants are unavailable. Thus, the high-throughput segmentation of many shoots is challenging. Although deep learning can feasibly solve this issue, software tools for 3D point cloud annotation to construct the training dataset are lacking.

Results: We propose a top-to-down point cloud segmentation algorithm using optimal transportation distance for maize shoots. We apply our point cloud annotation toolkit for maize shoots, Label3DMaize, to achieve semi-automatic point cloud segmentation and annotation of maize shoots at different growth stages, through a series of operations, including stem segmentation, coarse segmentation, fine segmentation, and sample-based segmentation. The toolkit takes ∼4-10 minutes to segment a maize shoot and consumes 10-20% of the total time if only coarse segmentation is required. Fine segmentation is more detailed than coarse segmentation, especially at the organ connection regions. The accuracy of coarse segmentation can reach 97.2% that of fine segmentation.

Conclusion: Label3DMaize integrates point cloud segmentation algorithms and manual interactive operations, realizing semi-automatic point cloud segmentation of maize shoots at different growth stages. The toolkit provides a practical data annotation tool for further online segmentation research based on deep learning and is expected to promote automatic point cloud processing of various plants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/gigascience/giab031DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8105162PMC
May 2021

infection secondary to spontaneous renal rupture that presents only as fever: A case report.

World J Clin Cases 2021 Apr;9(11):2602-2610

Department of Emergency Medicine, Beijing Tsinghua Changgung Hospital, School of Clinical Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing 102218, China.

Background: Spontaneous renal rupture is a rare disease in the clinic. The causes of spontaneous renal rupture include extrarenal factors, intrarenal factors, and idiopathic factors. Reports on infection secondary to spontaneous renal rupture and the complications of spontaneous renal rupture are scarce. Furthermore, there are few patients with spontaneous renal rupture who present only with fever.

Case Summary: We present the case of a 52-year-old female patient who was admitted to our hospital. She presented only with fever, and the cause of the disease was unclear. She underwent a contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) scan, which showed that the left renal capsule had a crescent-shaped, low-density shadow; the perirenal fat was blurred, and exudation was visible with no sign of calculi, malignancies, instrumentation, or trauma. Under ultrasound guidance, a pigtail catheter was inserted into the hematoma, and fluid was drained and used for the bacterial test, which proved the presence of Two months later, abdominal CT showed that the hematoma was absorbed, so the drainage tube was removed. The abdominal CT was normal after 4 mo.

Conclusion: Spontaneous renal rupture due to intrarenal factors causes a higher proportion of shock and is more likely to cause anemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12998/wjcc.v9.i11.2602DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8040190PMC
April 2021

Room Temperature Magnetic Memory Effect in Nanodiamond/γ-FeO Composites.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 Mar 7;11(3). Epub 2021 Mar 7.

Department of Physics, National Dong Hwa University, Hualien 97401, Taiwan.

We report a room temperature magnetic memory effect (RT-MME) from magnetic nanodiamond (MND) (ND)/γ-FeO nanocomposites. The detailed crystal structural analysis of the diluted MND was performed by synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction, revealing the composite nature of MND having 99 and 1% weight fraction ND and γ-FeO phases, respectively. The magnetic measurements carried out using a DC SQUID magnetometer show the non-interacting superparamagnetic nature of γ-FeO nanoparticles in MND have a wide distribution in the blocking temperature. Using different temperature, field, and time relaxation protocols, the memory phenomenon in the DC magnetization has been observed at room temperature (RT). These findings suggest that the dynamics of MND are governed by a wide distribution of particle relaxation times, which arise from the distribution of γ-FeO nanoparticle size. The observed RT ferromagnetism coupled with MME in MND will find potential applications in ND-based spintronics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano11030648DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8001642PMC
March 2021

Coupling ITO3dE model and GIS for spatiotemporal evolution analysis of agricultural non-point source pollution risks in Chongqing in China.

Sci Rep 2021 Feb 25;11(1):4635. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Chongqing Academy of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Chongqing, 401147, China.

To determine the risk state distribution, risk level, and risk evolution situation of agricultural non-point source pollution (AGNPS), we built an 'Input-Translate-Output' three-dimensional evaluation (ITO3dE) model that involved 12 factors under the support of GIS and analyzed the spatiotemporal evolution characteristics of AGNPS risks from 2005 to 2015 in Chongqing by using GIS space matrix, kernel density analysis, and Getis-Ord Gi* analysis. Land use changes during the 10 years had a certain influence on the AGNPS risk. The risk values in 2005, 2010, and 2015 were in the ranges of 0.40-2.28, 0.41-2.57, and 0.41-2.28, respectively, with the main distribution regions being the western regions of Chongqing (Dazu, Jiangjin, etc.) and other counties such as Dianjiang, Liangping, Kaizhou, Wanzhou, and Zhongxian. The spatiotemporal transition matrix could well exhibit the risk transition situation, and the risks generally showed no changes over time. The proportions of 'no-risk no-change', 'low-risk no-change', and 'medium-risk no-change' were 10.86%, 33.42%, and 17.25%, respectively, accounting for 61.53% of the coverage area of Chongqing. The proportions of risk increase, risk decline, and risk fluctuation were 13.45%, 17.66%, and 7.36%, respectively. Kernel density analysis was suitable to explore high-risk gathering areas. The peak values of kernel density in the three periods were around 1110, suggesting that the maximum gathering degree of medium-risk pattern spots basically showed no changes, but the spatial positions of high-risk gathering areas somehow changed. Getis-Ord Gi* analysis was suitable to explore the relationships between hot and cold spots. Counties with high pollution risks were Yongchuan, Shapingba, Dianjiang, Liangping, northwestern Fengdu, and Zhongxian, while counties with low risks were Chengkou, Wuxi, Wushan, Pengshui, and Rongchang. High-value hot spot zones gradually dominated in the northeast of Chongqing, while low-value cold spot zones gradually dominated in the Midwest. Our results provide a scientific base for the development of strategies to prevent and control AGNPS in Chongqing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-84075-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7907261PMC
February 2021

Inverted U-Shaped Associations between Glycemic Indices and Serum Uric Acid Levels in the General Chinese Population: Findings from the China Cardiometabolic Disease and Cancer Cohort (4C) Study.

Biomed Environ Sci 2021 Jan;34(1):9-18

Shandong Provincial Hospital affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan 250021, Shandong, China.

Objective: The relationship between serum uric acid (SUA) levels and glycemic indices, including plasma glucose (FPG), 2-hour postload glucose (2h-PG), and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), remains inconclusive. We aimed to explore the associations between glycemic indices and SUA levels in the general Chinese population.

Methods: The current study was a cross-sectional analysis using the first follow-up survey data from The China Cardiometabolic Disease and Cancer Cohort Study. A total of 105,922 community-dwelling adults aged ≥ 40 years underwent the oral glucose tolerance test and uric acid assessment. The nonlinear relationships between glycemic indices and SUA levels were explored using generalized additive models.

Results: A total of 30,941 men and 62,361 women were eligible for the current analysis. Generalized additive models verified the inverted U-shaped association between glycemic indices and SUA levels, but with different inflection points in men and women. The thresholds for FPG, 2h-PG, and HbA1c for men and women were 6.5/8.0 mmol/L, 11.0/14.0 mmol/L, and 6.1/6.5, respectively (SUA levels increased with increasing glycemic indices before the inflection points and then eventually decreased with further increases in the glycemic indices).

Conclusion: An inverted U-shaped association was observed between major glycemic indices and uric acid levels in both sexes, while the inflection points were reached earlier in men than in women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3967/bes2021.003DOI Listing
January 2021

Semisupervised Feature Learning by Deep Entropy-Sparsity Subspace Clustering.

IEEE Trans Neural Netw Learn Syst 2021 Jan 25;PP. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

While feature learning by deep neural networks is currently widely used, it is still very challenging to perform this task, given the very limited quantity of labeled data. To solve this problem, we propose to unite subspace clustering with deep semisupervised feature learning to form a unified learning framework to pursue feature learning by subspace clustering. More specifically, we develop a deep entropy-sparsity subspace clustering (deep ESSC) model, which forces a deep neural network to learn features using subspace clustering constrained by our designed entropy-sparsity scheme. The model can inherently harmonize deep semisupervised feature learning and subspace clustering simultaneously by the proposed self-similarity preserving strategy. To optimize the deep ESSC model, we introduce two unconstrained variables to eliminate the two constraints via softmax functions. We provide a general algebraic-treatment scheme for solving the proposed deep ESSC model. Extensive experiments with comprehensive analysis substantiate that our deep ESSC model is more effective than the related methods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TNNLS.2020.3029033DOI Listing
January 2021

An optimized segmentation and quantification approach in microvascular imaging for OCTA-based neovascular regression monitoring.

BMC Med Imaging 2021 01 22;21(1):13. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

School of Electronic and Optical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing, 210094, China.

Background: Quantification of neovascularization changes in terms of neovascular complex (NVC) acquired from the optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) imaging is extremely important for diagnosis and treatment monitoring of proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). However, only few vessel extraction methods have so far been reported to quantify neovascular changes in NVC with proliferative diabetic retinopathy PDR based on OCTA images.

Methods: Here we propose an optimized approach to segment blood vessels, which is based on an improved vascular connectivity analysis (VCA) algorithm and combined with morphological characterization and elimination of noise and artifacts. The length and width of vessels are obtained in the quantitative assessment of microvascular network. The feasibility of the proposed method is further studied by a treatment monitoring and statistical analysis process, as we have monitored and statistically analyzed the changes of NVC based on sampled OCTA images of PDR patients (N = 14) after treatment by intravitreal injection of conbercept.

Results: The proposed method has demonstrated better performance in accuracy compared with existing algorithms and can thus be used for PRD treatment monitoring. Following the PDR treatment monitoring study, our data has shown that from the 1st day to 7th day of treatment, the averaged (arithmetic mean) length of NVC has been substantially shortened by 36.8% (P < 0.01), indicating significant effects of treatment. Meanwhile, the averaged (arithmetic mean) width of NVC from the 1st day to 7th day of treatment has been increased by 10.2% (P < 0.05), indicating that most of the narrow neovascularization has been reduced.

Conclusion: The results and analysis have confirmed that the proposed optimization process by the improved VCA method is both effective and feasible to segment and quantify the NVC with lower noise and fewer artifacts. Thus, it can be potentially applied to monitor the fibrovascular regression during the treatment period. Clinical Trial Registration This trial is registered with the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (Registered 27 December 2017, http://www.chictr.org.cn , registration number ChiCTR-IPR-17014160).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12880-021-00546-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7825210PMC
January 2021

Impact Factors and an Efficient Nomogram for Predicting the Occurrence of Sepsis after Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy.

Biomed Res Int 2020 22;2020:6081768. Epub 2020 Dec 22.

Department of Urology, Affiliated Hospital of Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214100, China.

Introduction: To describe the clinical parameters of urinary stones and investigate the preoperative predictors of sepsis in patients following percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). . A retrospective study of patients who underwent PCNL between August 2017 and December 2019 was performed. The patients were divided into the sepsis and nonsepsis groups according to whether they had sepsis, and their data were compared for further analysis.

Results: Fifteen (6.1%) patients matching in age, gender, body mass index (BMI), and the number of access variables were included in the sepsis group. The multivariate analysis demonstrated that the staghorn calculi (OR: 12.206, < 0.001) and positive midstream urine culture (OR: 16.505, < 0.001) were independent risk factors of sepsis, while preoperative renal fistula (OR: 0.122, < 0.001) was a protective factor of sepsis. The three factors were ultimately selected to develop a nomogram to predict the probability of sepsis. The new nomogram was well calibrated and had higher diagnostic accuracy (the area under the curve: 0.916).

Conclusions: Our study reveals that patients with complex stones and positive bacteriuria are associated with a significantly high risk of sepsis after surgery. The removal of obstruction before operation under certain conditions might be a reliable protective factor of sepsis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/6081768DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7772030PMC
May 2021

Period-mismatched sine dual-interface grating for optical absorption in silicon thin-film solar cells.

Appl Opt 2020 Nov;59(33):10330-10338

Crystalline silicon thin-film solar cells with period-mismatched sine dual-interface gratings are proposed. Several structural parameters of the front and rear gratings, such as heights, periods, and duty ratios, are optimized using the finite-difference time-domain method. The mechanisms of absorption enhancement are also illustrated by analyzing the optical and electrical performance in thin-film solar cells with different grating arrangements. Numerical results indicate that the period-mismatched sine dual-interface grating structure shows obvious improvement in absorption efficiency and is more suitable for grating structures with small period. The short-circuit current density of the period-mismatched dual-interface sine grating structure is improved to 18.89/, an increase of 41.39% as compared with the planar structure. The research findings can be utilized to guide the design of grating structures for thin-film solar cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.408812DOI Listing
November 2020

Long noncoding RNA MIR31HG and its splice variants regulate proliferation and migration: prognostic implications for muscle invasive bladder cancer.

J Exp Clin Cancer Res 2020 Dec 17;39(1):288. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

Department of Urology and Urosurgery, Medical Faculty Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, 68167, Mannheim, Germany.

Background: Growing evidence supports the pivotal role of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in the regulation of cancer development and progression. Their expression patterns and biological function in muscle invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) remain elusive.

Methods: Transcript levels of lncRNA miR-31 host gene (MIR31HG) and its splice variants were measured in our MIBC cohort (n = 102) by qRT-PCR, and validated in silico by the TCGA cohort (n = 370). Kaplan-Meier and multiple Cox regression analysis were conducted to evaluate the survival significance of MIR31HG and its splice variants. Functional experiments were performed to examine the proliferation and migration abilities of MIR31HG and its splice variants by knockdown approaches.

Results: In this study, a decreased expression of MIR31HG was found in bladder cancer cells and tissues, except in the basal subtype. Survival analysis showed that high expression of MIR31HG was associated with poor overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) in patients with MIBC of basal subtype. Two splice variants of MIR31HG lacking exon 1 (MIR31HGΔE1) and exon 3 (MIR31HGΔE3) were identified to have specific expression patterns in different molecular subtypes of our MIBC cohort. MIR31HGΔE3 was highly expressed in basal subtype tumors. A high expression of MIR31HGΔE1 and MIR31HGΔE3 was associated with worse OS and DFS in our cohort. In vitro experiments revealed that knockdown of MIR31HG inhibits cell proliferation, colony formation, and migration in bladder cancer. Cell proliferation and migration assays after knockdown of splice variants of MIR31HG showed corresponding roles for the full-length transcript.

Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that MIR31HG and its splice variants could serve as biomarkers for the classification and prognosis prediction of patients with MIBC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13046-020-01795-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7745499PMC
December 2020

MVS-Pheno: A Portable and Low-Cost Phenotyping Platform for Maize Shoots Using Multiview Stereo 3D Reconstruction.

Plant Phenomics 2020 12;2020:1848437. Epub 2020 Mar 12.

Beijing Research Center for Information Technology in Agriculture, Beijing 100097, China.

Plant phenotyping technologies play important roles in plant research and agriculture. Detailed phenotypes of individual plants can guide the optimization of shoot architecture for plant breeding and are useful to analyze the morphological differences in response to environments for crop cultivation. Accordingly, high-throughput phenotyping technologies for individual plants grown in field conditions are urgently needed, and MVS-Pheno, a portable and low-cost phenotyping platform for individual plants, was developed. The platform is composed of four major components: a semiautomatic multiview stereo (MVS) image acquisition device, a data acquisition console, data processing and phenotype extraction software for maize shoots, and a data management system. The platform's device is detachable and adjustable according to the size of the target shoot. Image sequences for each maize shoot can be captured within 60-120 seconds, yielding 3D point clouds of shoots are reconstructed using MVS-based commercial software, and the phenotypic traits at the organ and individual plant levels are then extracted by the software. The correlation coefficient () between the extracted and manually measured plant height, leaf width, and leaf area values are 0.99, 0.87, and 0.93, respectively. A data management system has also been developed to store and manage the acquired raw data, reconstructed point clouds, agronomic information, and resulting phenotypic traits. The platform offers an optional solution for high-throughput phenotyping of field-grown plants, which is especially useful for large populations or experiments across many different ecological regions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.34133/2020/1848437DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7706320PMC
March 2020

Phase transformation and room temperature stabilization of various BiO nano-polymorphs: effect of oxygen-vacancy defects and reduced surface energy due to adsorbed carbon species.

Nanoscale 2020 Dec 26;12(47):24119-24137. Epub 2020 Nov 26.

Department of Physics, National Dong Hwa University, Hualien 97401, Taiwan.

We report the grain growth from the nanoscale to microscale and a transformation sequence from Bi →β-BiO→γ-BiO→α-BiO with the increase of annealing temperature. The room temperature (RT) stabilization of β-BiO nanoparticles (NPs) was attributed to the effect of reduced surface energy due to adsorbed carbon species, and oxygen vacancy defects may have played a significant role in the RT stabilization of γ-BiO NPs. An enhanced red emission band was evident from all the samples attributed to oxygen-vacancy defects formed during the growth process in contrast with the observed white emission band from the air annealed Bi ingots. Based on our experimental findings, the air annealing induced oxidation of Bi NPs and transformation mechanism within various BiO nano-polymorphs are presented. The outcome of this study suggests that oxygen vacancy defects at the nanoscale play a significant role in both structural stabilization and phase transformation within various BiO nano-polymorphs, which is significant from theoretical consideration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0nr06552hDOI Listing
December 2020

UriBLAD: A Urine-Based Gene Expression Assay for Noninvasive Detection of Bladder Cancer.

J Mol Diagn 2021 01 27;23(1):61-70. Epub 2020 Oct 27.

Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai, China; Department of Urology, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Bladder cancer is the most common urinary system neoplasm, with approximately 550,000 new cases per year worldwide. Current methods for diagnosis and monitoring of bladder cancer are often invasive and/or lack sensitivity and specificity. In this study, the authors aimed to develop an accurate, noninvasive urine-based gene expression assay for the detection of bladder cancer. Urine specimens were collected at five Chinese hospitals from patients with bladder cancer, and from healthy and other control subjects. The expression levels of 70 genes were characterized by quantitative RT-PCR in a training cohort of 211 samples. Machine learning approaches were used to identify a 32-gene signature to classify cancer status. The performance of this gene signature was further validated in a multicenter, prospective cohort of 317 samples. In the blind validation set, the 32-gene signature achieved encouraging performance of 90% accuracy, 83% sensitivity, and 95% specificity. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve reached 0.93. Importantly, the 32-gene signature performed well in the detection of non-muscle invasive tumor and low-grade tumor with sensitivities of 81.6% and 81%, respectively. In conclusion, we present a novel gene expression assay using urine samples that can accurately discriminate patients with bladder cancer from controls. The results might prompt further development of this gene expression assay into an in vitro diagnostic test amenable to routine clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmoldx.2020.10.005DOI Listing
January 2021

Jervine exhibits anticancer effects on nasopharyngeal carcinoma through promoting autophagic apoptosis via the blockage of Hedgehog signaling.

Biomed Pharmacother 2020 Dec 28;132:110898. Epub 2020 Oct 28.

Department of Otolaryngology, East Theater General Hospital of PLA, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210000, China. Electronic address:

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a malignant tumor originating from the superior mucosal epithelium of the nasopharynx. However, effective therapies for NPC are still required. Reducing Hedgehog signaling pathway has been shown to suppress tumor growth. In this study, we attempted to explore whether Jervine (JV), an inhibitor of Hedgehog signaling, had anti-cancer effects on NPC, and the underlying mechanisms. Our findings showed that JV treatments markedly reduced the proliferation of NPC cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase was significantly enhanced by JV, along with evident DNA damage. Moreover, JV treatment effectively induced apoptosis in NPC cells through improving Caspase-3 activation. Furthermore, ROS production and mitochondrial impairments were detected in JV-incubated NPC cells with elevated releases of Cyto-c from mitochondria. JV also dramatically triggered autophagy through blocking AKT/mTOR and increasing AMPK signaling pathways. Intriguingly, we showed that JV-induced apoptosis was mainly via an autophagy-dependent manner. In addition, the expression levels of SHH, PTCH1, SMO and GLI1 were markedly suppressed in NPC cells, demonstrating the hindered Hedgehog signaling. Importantly, we found that JV-induced apoptosis and autophagy were closely associated with the blockage of Hedgehog signaling. Our in vivo studies confirmed the anti-cancer effects of JV on NPC through inducing autophagy, as evidenced by the markedly reduced tumor growth rate and weight without side effects and toxicity. Taken together, JV may be a promising and effective agent for human NPC treatment through repressing Hedgehog signaling pathway and inducing autophagic cell death.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2020.110898DOI Listing
December 2020

Combination Preemptive Peripheral Nerve Block in Limb Surgery. A Prospective Study.

Medicina (Kaunas) 2020 Aug 3;56(8). Epub 2020 Aug 3.

Department of Anesthesiology, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan.

: Patients often suffer from moderate to severe pain during the early recovery period in orthopedic surgery. We investigated the impact of a single-shot preoperative peripheral nerve block (PNB) on post-anesthesia recovery parameters and interleukin (IL)-6 level during limb surgery. A prospective randomized controlled study was conducted, and patients scheduled for limb surgery were recruited. Sixty patients were randomly assigned to either the PNB group or control group, who received morphine as a primary analgesic. The peak verbal numeric rating scale (NRS) score in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU) was evaluated as a primary outcome. We also recorded rescue analgesics requirement and wake-up time from anesthesia in the PACU. In addition, the change of plasma IL-6 level after incision was measured. : Fifty-two patients completed the study, 27 and 25 cases in the PNB and control group, respectively. Preemptive PNB significantly reduced peak NRS score in the PACU compared to control group. Lower rescue analgesics requirement and rapid wake-up from anesthesia were also noted in PNB group. The IL-6 concentration increased less in the PNB group at 2 h after incision. : Preemptive PNB attenuates IL-6 expression 2 h after incision and improves pain management in the PACU. PNB was considered as an essential part of pain management in limb surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/medicina56080388DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7466242PMC
August 2020

Author Correction: Image Quality and Radiation Dose for Prospectively Triggered Coronary CT Angiography: 128-Slice Single-Source CT versus First-Generation 64-Slice Dual-Source CT.

Sci Rep 2020 Jul 10;10(1):11619. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Department of Radiology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1277 Jiefang Avenue, Wuhan, 430022, P. R. China.

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-68767-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7351788PMC
July 2020

Room Temperature Magnetic Memory Effect in Cluster-Glassy Fe-doped NiO Nanoparticles.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2020 Jul 4;10(7). Epub 2020 Jul 4.

Department of Physics, National Dong Hwa University, Hualien 97401, Taiwan.

The Fe-doped NiO nanoparticles that were synthesized using a co-precipitation method are characterized by enhanced room-temperature ferromagnetic property evident from magnetic measurements. Neutron powder diffraction experiments suggested an increment of the magnetic moment of 3 ions in the nanoparticles as a function of Fe-concentration. The temperature, time, and field-dependent magnetization measurements show that the effect of Fe-doping in NiO has enhanced the intraparticle interactions due to formed defect clusters. The intraparticle interactions are proposed to bring additional magnetic anisotropy energy barriers that affect the overall magnetic moment relaxation process and emerging as room temperature magnetic memory. The outcome of this study is attractive for the future development of the room temperature ferromagnetic oxide system to facilitate the integration of spintronic devices and understanding of their fundamental physics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano10071318DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7407623PMC
July 2020

Melatonin Suppressed the Heat Stress-Induced Damage in Wheat Seedlings by Modulating the Antioxidant Machinery.

Plants (Basel) 2020 Jun 28;9(7). Epub 2020 Jun 28.

State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology in Arid Areas and College of Agronomy, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, China.

Melatonin (-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is a pleiotropic signaling molecule that plays a crucial role in the regulation of various environmental stresses, including heat stress (HS). In this study, a 100 μM melatonin (MT) pretreatment followed by exposure to heat stress for different time periods was found to efficiently reduce oxidative stress by preventing the over-accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (HO), lowering the lipid peroxidation content (malondialdehyde (MDA) content), and increasing proline (Pro) biosynthesis. Moreover, the activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD), were increased substantially in MT-pretreated wheat seedlings. The presence of MT significantly improved the heat tolerance of wheat seedlings by modulating their antioxidant defense system, activating the ascorbate-glutathione (AsA-GSH) cycle comprising ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and increasing glutathione reductase (GR) activities. It also held the photosynthetic machinery stable by increasing the chlorophyll content. Enhancement in the endogenous MT contents was also observed in the MT+HS-treated plants. Furthermore, the expression of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-related genes TaSOD, TaPOD, and TaCAT and anti-stress responsive genes, such as TaMYB80, TaWRKY26, and TaWRKY39, was also induced in MT-treated seedlings. Due to these notable changes, an improvement in stress resistance was observed in MT-treated seedlings compared with control. Taken together, our findings suggest that MT can play a key role in boosting the stress tolerance of plants by modulating the antioxidant defense system and regulating the transcription of stress-responsive genes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants9070809DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7412093PMC
June 2020

Dissecting the phenotypic components and genetic architecture of maize stem vascular bundles using high-throughput phenotypic analysis.

Plant Biotechnol J 2021 01 19;19(1):35-50. Epub 2020 Jul 19.

Beijing Key Lab of Digital Plant, National Engineering Research Center for Information Technology in Agriculture, Beijing Research Center for Information Technology in Agriculture, Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences, Beijing, China.

High-throughput phenotyping is increasingly becoming an important tool for rapid advancement of genetic gain in breeding programmes. Manual phenotyping of vascular bundles is tedious and time-consuming, which lags behind the rapid development of functional genomics in maize. More robust and automated techniques of phenotyping vascular bundles traits at high-throughput are urgently needed for large crop populations. In this study, we developed a standard process for stem micro-CT data acquisition and an automatic CT image process pipeline to obtain vascular bundle traits of stems including geometry-related, morphology-related and distribution-related traits. Next, we analysed the phenotypic variation of stem vascular bundles between natural population subgroup (480 inbred lines) based on 48 comprehensively phenotypic information. Also, the first database for stem micro-phenotypes, MaizeSPD, was established, storing 554 pieces of basic information of maize inbred lines, 523 pieces of experimental information, 1008 pieces of CT scanning images and processed images, and 24 192 pieces of phenotypic data. Combined with genome-wide association studies (GWASs), a total of 1562 significant single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) were identified for 30 stem micro-phenotypic traits, and 84 unique genes of 20 traits such as VBNum, VBAvArea and PZVBDensity were detected. Candidate genes identified by GWAS mainly encode enzymes involved in cell wall metabolism, transcription factors, protein kinase and protein related to plant signal transduction and stress response. The results presented here will advance our knowledge about phenotypic trait components of stem vascular bundles and provide useful information for understanding the genetic controls of vascular bundle formation and development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pbi.13437DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7769239PMC
January 2021

Structural and Enhanced Optical Properties of Stabilized γ‒BiO Nanoparticles: Effect of Oxygen Ion Vacancies.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2020 May 27;10(6). Epub 2020 May 27.

Department of Physics, National Dong Hwa University, Hualien 97401, Taiwan.

We report the synthesis of room temperature (RT) stabilized γ-BiO nanoparticles (NPs) at the expense of metallic Bi NPs through annealing in an ambient atmosphere. RT stability of the metastable γ-BiO NPs is confirmed using synchrotron radiation powder X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. γ-BiO NPs exhibited a strong red-band emission peaking at ~701 nm, covering 81% integrated intensity of photoluminescence spectra. Our findings suggest that the RT stabilization and enhanced red-band emission of γ‒BiO is mediated by excess oxygen ion vacancies generated at the octahedral O(2) sites during the annealing process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano10061023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7352962PMC
May 2020

Exosomes from adipose-derived stem cells protect against high glucose-induced erectile dysfunction by delivery of corin in a streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat model.

Regen Ther 2020 Jun 15;14:227-233. Epub 2020 May 15.

Department of Urology, Affiliated Hospital of Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu, 214041, China.

Introduction: Increasing study have found that stem cell transplantation have a therapeutical effect to diabetes mellitus (DM)-induced erectile dysfunction (ED). So, the aim of this study was to evaluate the beneficial effect of corin from adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) on DM-induced ED.

Methods: Exosomes were isolated from ADSCs (ADSC-EXOs) or from ADSCs in which corin gene expression was silenced by siRNA (siCorin). For studies, rats with streptozotocin-induced DM were intravenously injected with ADSC-EXOs or siCorin-ADSC-EXOs. Two weeks later, intracavernosal pressure (ICP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were measured to assess erectile function, and penile tissues were harvested for further evaluation of levels of inflammatory factors and expression of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). We also evaluated the recovery of neurovascular function in penile tissues by immunofluorescence analysis.

Results: The results showed that ADSC-EXOs restored erectile function in diabetic rats, as determined by the ICP/MAP ratio. Exosomes from ADSCs also promoted neurovascular function and suppressed expression of inflammatory factors. In contrast, the decreased content of corin in exosomes after silencing corin in ADSCs reduced the therapeutic effect of exosomes on ED.

Conclusion: These findings demonstrated the therapeutic mechanism underlying the use of ADSC-EXOs for treating ED and the beneficial effect of corin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.reth.2020.03.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7229419PMC
June 2020

The Effectiveness of Low-dose Dexmedetomidine Infusion in Sedative Flexible Bronchoscopy: A Retrospective Analysis.

Medicina (Kaunas) 2020 Apr 23;56(4). Epub 2020 Apr 23.

Department of Anesthesiology, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan.

Flexible bronchoscopy has been widely used for diagnosis and intervention, while various drugs are used for sedation during bronchoscopy. We examined two regular standardized sedation options (with or without dexmedetomidine) regularly used in our regional hospital. The aim was to assess the efficacy and safety of dexmedetomidine on conscious sedation under bronchoscopy. A retrospective chart review was conducted from April 2017 to March 2018. All patients undergoing flexible bronchoscopy with moderate sedation were enrolled. Patients having received dexmedetomidine-propofol-fentanyl were defined as group D, and those having received midazolam-propofol-fentanyl were defined as group M. The primary outcome was a safety profile during the procedure, including the incidence of procedural interference by patient cough or movement, transient hypoxemia, and hypotension. The secondary outcome was measured by the recovery profile (awake and ambulation time). Thirty-five patients in group D and thirty-three in group M were collected in this retrospective study. All patients underwent the procedure successfully. Group D showed higher safety with fewer procedural interference incidences by cough or body movement than Group M (3.3% versus 36.3%, < 0.001) and minor respiratory adverse effects. Patients in group D showed faster recovery in a shorter ambulation time than group M (24.9 ± 9.7 versus 31.5 ± 11.9, = 0.02). In group D, bronchoscopist satisfaction to sedation was higher than group M ( = 0.01). More transient bradycardia episodes were noted in patients receiving dexmedetomidine ( < 0.05), but all recovered without atropine intervention. Overall post-procedural adverse events and satisfaction were comparable in the two groups. The co-administration of dexmedetomidine met the safety and recovery demands of flexible bronchoscopy. Compared to the conventional midazolam-propofol-fentanyl regimen, the application of dexmedetomidine improved sedative effectiveness with less procedural interruptions, shorter time to ambulation and higher bronchoscopist satisfaction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/medicina56040193DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7231242PMC
April 2020

Fat-suppressed magnetic resonance volume interpolated examination for deep venous thrombosis compared with duplex sonography.

Exp Ther Med 2020 Apr 7;19(4):2632-2640. Epub 2020 Feb 7.

Department of Radiology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430022, P.R. China.

The aim of the present study was to evaluate magnetic resonance venography (MRV) scanned by breath-hold volume interpolated body examination with spectral fat saturation (VIBE-fs), combined with Dixon fat-suppressed VIBE (VIBE-Dixon) by using a 1.5T MR scanner for detecting deep venous thrombosis (DVT) compared with duplex sonography. A total of 31 patients with DVT were identified using duplex sonography and were enrolled in the present study for MRV examination, from the inferior vena cava to the ankle level after injection of gadopentetate dimeglumine. Venous segment-to-segment comparison was assessed for DVT detection between MRV and duplex sonography. A total of two radiologists separately performed subjective image quality assessment using a 5-point scale. Cohen's κ coefficient, Wilcoxon rank sum test and intraclass correlation coefficient values were used for statistical analysis. Of the 303 evaluated vein segments, duplex sonography identified 119 (39.3%; 119/303) venous segments with thrombus, while MRV detected 170 (56.1%; 170/303) venous segments with thrombus. The diagnostic agreement rate of DVT between duplex sonography and MRV was poor in the deep femoral vein and anterior tibial veins, while it was excellent in the inferior vena cava (IVC), common iliac vein, external iliac vein, femoral vein, popliteal vein, posterior tibial veins and peroneal veins. In addition, poor reliability was detected in the deep femoral vein, anterior tibial veins and peroneal veins, but good to excellent reliability was observed in IVC, common iliac vein, external iliac vein, femoral vein, popliteal vein and posterior tibial veins. Furthermore, image quality scores of each venous segment between the two radiologists indicated no statistical difference. Therefore, MRV scanned using VIBE-fs for the suprainguinal and VIBE-Dixon for the infrainguinal region may be a useful method for detecting DVT compared with duplex sonography. The results of present study proved this MR protocol to be a beneficial alternative imaging modality for the detection of DVT when duplex sonography is inadequate or not able to be performed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/etm.2020.8500DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7086293PMC
April 2020

A CARE-compliant article: Unicentric Castleman disease presenting as a retroperitoneal mass of the upper edge of the pancreas: A case report.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2020 Mar;99(11):e19515

Department of Pathology, People Hospital of Jingjiang, YangZhou University Medical Academy, Jingjiang, Taizhou, China.

Rationale: Castleman disease (CD) is a rare lymphoproliferative disease with a poorly understood etiology. The occurrence of CD in the abdominal cavity is very rare, especially in the retroperitoneal peripancreatic region.

Patient Concerns: A 33-year-old woman was referred to our department on March 1, 2018 for a detailed physical examination due to retroperitoneal peripancreatic lymph node enlargement over 15 days.

Diagnosis: Enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of the epigastrium showed the mass with abundant blood supply is located between the liver and the stomach in the upper margin of the pancreas. Postoperative pathological examination revealed CD, type of unicentric Castleman disease.

Interventions: We performed an open surgery on this patient and completely removed the mass. There was no postoperative radiochemotherapy.

Outcomes: The patient was followed-up for more than 12 months after the operation and showed good recovery.

Lessons: CD is a rare disorder that is hard to diagnose early and complete resection of the tumor is still the most effective treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000019515DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7440106PMC
March 2020

[Effect of electroacupuncture preconditioning of "Neiguan"(PC6) on myocardial LKB1/AMPK/PFK2 pathway in myocardial ischemia rats].

Zhen Ci Yan Jiu 2020 Feb;45(2):99-104

Bozhou Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Anhui University of Chinese Medicine, Hefei 230038, China.

Objective: To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) preconditioning on the expression of liver protein kinase 1 (LKB1), adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase (PFK2) in cardiomyocytes of rats with acute myocardial ischemia (AMI), so as to explore its mechanisms underlying cardioprotective effect.

Methods: Thirty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into sham-operation, model and EA pretreatment groups (=10 rats per group). The AMI model was established by ligation of the left anterior descending branch of coronary artery. Before modeling, EA preconditioning (2 Hz/15 Hz, 1 mA) was applied to bilateral "Neiguan"(PC6) for 30 min, once daily for 14 days. Histopathological changes of myocardium was observed by microscope after H.E. staining. The level of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in serum was detected by ELISA. The expression of autophagy-associated proteins and mRNAs as LKB1, AMPKa1, AMPKa2 and PFK2 were detected by Western blot and real-time PCR, respectively.

Results: Compared with the sham-operation group, serum LDH content, and expression levels of myocardial AMPKa2 and PFK2 proteins and mRNAs were significantly up-regulated (<0.01), and those of LKB1 and AMPKa1 proteins and mRNAs were increased in the model group (<0.05). Following the intervention, serum LDH were apparently down-regulated (<0.01), and expression levels of myocardial LKB1, AMPKa1 and PFK2 proteins and mRNAs were apparently up-regulated (<0.01), but that of AMPKa2 protein and mRNA was remarkably down-regulated in the EA group (<0.01). H.E. staining showed cell swelling, disordered arrangement of myocardial fibers with obvious rupture, interstitial bleeding and inflammatory infiltration, which was relatively milder in the EA preconditioning group.

Conclusion: EA pretreatment can trigger LKB1/AMPK/PFK2 signaling pathway in AMI rats, which may contribute to its cardioprotective effect against ischemic myocardial injury by activating autophagy of cardiomyocytes. .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13702/j.1000-0607.1902986DOI Listing
February 2020

[Effect of moxibustion on expression of RAGE and LRP-1 and neuronal ultrastructure of frontal cortex and hippocampus in vascular dementia rats].

Zhen Ci Yan Jiu 2020 Jan;45(1):33-9

The First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui University of Chinese Medicine, Hefei 230038.

Objective: To explore the effect of moxibustion of acupoints of Governor Vessel on learning-memory ability and expression of the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor related protein-1 (LRP-1), β-amyloid precursor protein (APP) and neuronal ultrastructure of the frontal cortex and hippocampus in vascular dementia (VD) rats, so as to investigate its underlying mechanisms in relieving VD.

Methods: A total of 24 male SD rats were randomized into normal, model, and moxibustion groups (=8 rats in each group). The VD model was established by occlusion of the bilateral common carotid arteries for 20 min and reperfusion for 10 min which was repeated for 3 times. Moxibustion was applied to "Baihui" (GV20), "Dazhui"(GV14) and "Fengfu"(GV16)for 30 min, once daily for 4 weeks. The learning-memory ability was evaluated by using Morris water maze tests. At the end of experiments, the frontal lobe of cerebral cortex and hippocampus tissues were collected for detecting the expression of RAGE and LRP-1 proteins with Western blot, and RAGE, LRP-1 and APP mRNAs with quantitative real-time PCR, respectively. The ultrastructure of neurons in the frontal cortex and hippocampal CA1 region was observed with transmission electron microscopy.

Results: Following modeling, Morris water maze tests showed that the average escape latency of the model group and moxibustion group was significantly prolonged on the 4 day of modeling (<0.01). The expression levels of RAGE protein and mRNA and APP mRNA were significantly increased (<0.01), while those of LRP-1 protein and mRNA in the cortex and hippocampus remarkably decreased in the model group relevant to the normal group (<0.01). Following moxibustion, modeling-induced increase of expression of RAGE protein and mRNA and APP mRNA, and down-regulation of expression of LRP-1 protein and mRNA were reversed in the moxibustion group relevant to the model group (<0.01). Results of electron microscopy showed dilation of the mitochondria with disappearance of the cristae, partial vacuolar degeneration or dissolved external membrane, and cytoplasmic edema with basic disappearance of the rough endoplasmic reticulum and glycogen particles in neurons of the frontal cortex and hippocampal CA1 region after modeling, which was relatively milder in the moxibustion group.

Conclusion: Moxibustion of acupoints of the Governor Vessel may reduce the content of APP in the frontal cortex and hippocampus by regulating the expression of RAGE and LRP-1 proteins and mRNA in VD rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13702/j.1000-0607.1902956DOI Listing
January 2020

Altered Cerebello-Motor Network in Familial Cortical Myoclonic Tremor With Epilepsy Type 1.

Mov Disord 2020 06 4;35(6):1012-1020. Epub 2020 Mar 4.

Center for Cognition and Brain Disorders, Institutes of Psychological Sciences, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China.

Background: Intronic pentanucleotide insertion in the sterile alpha motif domain-containing 12 gene was recently identified as the genetic cause of familial cortical myoclonic tremor with epilepsy type 1.

Objectives: We thereafter conducted a multimodal MRI research to further understand familial cortical myoclonic tremor with epilepsy type 1.

Methods: We enrolled 31 patients carrying heterozygous pathogenic intronic pentanucleotide insertion in the sterile alpha motif domain-containing 12 gene and 31 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. We compared multimodal MRI metrics, including voxel-based morphometry, fractional anisotropy of diffuse tensor imaging, frequency-dependent percent amplitude fluctuation, and seed-based functional connectivity of resting-state functional MRI.

Results: Significant decreased gray matter volume was found in the cerebellum. Percent amplitude fluctuation analysis showed significant interaction effect of "Frequency by Group" in three regions, including the vermis VIII, left cerebellar lobule VIII, and left precentral gyrus. Specifically, the lowest-frequency band exhibited significant increased percent amplitude fluctuation in patients in the two cerebellar subregions, whereas the highest-frequency band exhibited decreased percent amplitude fluctuation in the precentral gyrus in patients. Discriminative analysis by support vector machine showed a mean accuracy of 82% (P = 1.0 ). An increased functional connectivity between vermis VIII and the left precentral gyrus was found in patients with familial cortical myoclonic tremor with epilepsy type 1. A positive correlation between the percent amplitude fluctuation in the left cerebellar lobule VIII and duration of cortical tremor was also found.

Conclusion: The cerebellum showed both structural and functional damages. The distinct change of spontaneous brain activity, that is, increased ultra-low-frequency amplitude in the cerebellum and the decreased higher-frequency amplitude in the motor cortex, might be a pathophysiological feature of familial cortical myoclonic tremor with epilepsy type 1. © 2020 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mds.28014DOI Listing
June 2020

Spatial Characteristics and Factor Analysis of Pollution Emission from Heavy-Duty Diesel Trucks in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region, China.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2019 12 6;16(24). Epub 2019 Dec 6.

State Key Laboratory of Resources and Environmental Information System, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China.

Heavy-duty diesel trucks (HDDTs) contribute significantly to NO and particulate matter (PM) pollution. Although existing studies have emphasized that HDDTs play a dominant role in vehicular pollution, the spatial distribution pattern of HDDT emissions and their related socioeconomic factors are unclear. To fill this research gap, this study investigates the spatial distribution pattern and spatial autocorrelation characteristics of NO, PM, and SO emissions from HDDTs in 200 districts and counties of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region. We used the spatial lag model to calculate the significances and directions of the pollutants from HDDTs and their related socioeconomic factors, namely, per capita GDP, population density, urbanization rate, and proportions of secondary and tertiary industries. Then, the geographical detector technique was applied to quantify the strengths of the significant socioeconomic factors of HDDT emissions. The results show that (1) NO, PM, and SO pollutants emitted by HDDTs in the BTH region have spatial heterogeneity, i.e., low in the north and high in the east and south. (2) The pollutants from HDDTs in the BTH region have significant spatial autocorrelation characteristics. The spatial dependence effect was obvious; for every 1% increase in the HDDT emissions in the surrounding districts and counties, the local HDDT emissions increased by 0.39%. (3) Related factors analysis showed that the proportion of tertiary industries had a significant negative correlation, whereas the proportion of secondary industries and urbanization rate had significant positive correlations with HDDT emissions. Population density and per capita GDP did not pass the significance test. (4) The order of effect intensities of the significant socioeconomic factors was proportion of tertiary industry > proportion of secondary industry > urbanization rate. This study guides scientific decision making for pollution control of HDDTs in the BTH region.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16244973DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6950242PMC
December 2019