Publications by authors named "Sheng Li"

1,683 Publications

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Operando mechanistic and dynamic studies of N/P co-doped hard carbon nanofibers for efficient sodium storage.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2021 Sep 21;57(75):9610-9613. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Key Laboratory of Zhenjiang, Institute for Energy Research, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, 212013, P. R. China.

Raman and electrochemical results reveal that Na adsorbs on the surface/defective sites of N/P-HCNF and inserts randomly into its turbostratic nanodomains in the dilute state without a staged formation, which can facilitate fast Na diffusion kinetics for efficient sodium storage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1cc03961jDOI Listing
September 2021

Transcriptomics analysis of genes induced by melatonin related to glucosinolates synthesis in broccoli hairy roots.

Plant Signal Behav 2021 Sep 21:1952742. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Basical Experimental Teaching Center, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, China.

Glucoraphanin (GRA) is found in the seeds and vegetative organs of broccoli ( L. var. Planch) as the precursor of anti-carcinogen sulforaphane (SF). The yield of GRA obtained from these materials is weak and the cost is high. In recent years, the production of plant secondary metabolites by large-scale hairy roots culture in vitro has succeeded in some species. Melatonin (MT) is a natural hormone which existed in numerous organisms. Studies have demonstrated that MT can improve the synthesis of secondary metabolites in plants. At present, it has not been reported that MT regulates the biosynthesis of glucoraphanin in broccoli hairy roots. In this study, the broccoli hairy roots that grew for 20 d were respectively treated by 500 µM MT for 0, 6, 12, 20 and 32. To explore the reason of changes in secondary metabolites and reveal the biosynthetic pathway of glucoraphanin at transcriptional level. Compared with 0 h, the yield of GRA under other treatments was increased, and the overall trend was firstly increased and then decreased. The total yield of GRA reached the highest at 12 h, which was 1.22-fold of 0 h. Then, the genome of broccoli as the reference, a total of 13234 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in broccoli hairy roots under treatment with 500 µM MT for 0, 6, 12, 20 and 32 h, respectively. Among these DEGs, 6266 (47.35%) were upregulated and 6968 (52.65%) were downregulated. It was found that the pathway of 'Glucosinolates biosynthesis (ko00966)' was enriched in the 16th place by Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway enrichment analysis of the upregulated DEGs. The expression of key genes in the GRA biosynthesis pathway was upregulated at all time points, and a deduced GRA biosynthesis pathway map was constructed for reference.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15592324.2021.1952742DOI Listing
September 2021

Juvenile hormone signaling promotes ovulation and maintains egg shape by inducing expression of extracellular matrix genes.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Sep;118(39)

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Insect Developmental Biology and Applied Technology, Institute of Insect Science and Technology and School of Life Sciences, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631, China;

It is well documented that the juvenile hormone (JH) can function as a gonadotropic hormone that stimulates vitellogenesis by activating the production and uptake of vitellogenin in insects. Here, we describe a phenotype associated with mutations in the JH receptor genes, and : the accumulation of mature eggs with reduced egg length in the ovary. JH signaling is mainly activated in ovarian muscle cells and induces gene expression in these cells. Meanwhile, JH signaling induces gene expression in the adult fat body, from which collagen IV is secreted and deposited onto the ovarian muscles. Laminin locally and collagen IV remotely contribute to the assembly of ovarian muscle extracellular matrix (ECM); moreover, the ECM components are indispensable for ovarian muscle contraction. Furthermore, ovarian muscle contraction externally generates a mechanical force to promote ovulation and maintain egg shape. This work reveals an important mechanism for JH-regulated insect reproduction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2104461118DOI Listing
September 2021

Identification of diagnostic and prognostic signatures derived from preoperative blood parameters for oral squamous cell carcinoma.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Aug;9(15):1220

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Oral Disease, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

Background: We aimed to develop novel diagnostic and prognostic signatures based on preoperative inflammatory, immunological, and nutritional parameters in blood (PIINPBs) by machine learning algorithms for patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC).

Methods: A total of 486 OSCC patients and 200 age and gender-matched non-OSCC patients who were diagnosed and treated at our institution for noninfectious, nontumor diseases were retrospectively enrolled and divided into training and validation cohorts. Based on PIINPB, 6 machine learning classifiers including random forest, support vector machine, extreme gradient boosting, naive Bayes, neural network, and logistic regression were used to derive diagnostic models, while least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) analyses were employed to construct prognostic signatures. A novel prognostic nomogram integrating a PIINPB-derived prognostic signature and selected clinicopathological parameters was further developed. Performances of these signatures were assessed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, calibrating curves, and decision tree.

Results: Diagnostic models developed by machine learning algorithms from 13 PIINPBs, which included counts of white blood cells (WBC), neutrophils (N), monocytes (M), lymphocytes (L), platelets (P), albumin (ALB), and hemoglobin (Hb), along with albumin-globulin ratio (A/G), neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), lymphocyte-monocyte ratio (LMR), systemic immune-inflammation index (SII), and prognostic nutritional index (PNI), displayed satisfactory discriminating capabilities in patients with or without OSCC, and among OSCC patients with diverse pathological grades and clinical stages. A prognostic signature based on 6 survival-associated PIINPBs (L, P, PNI, LMR, SII, A/G) served as an independent factor to predict patient survival. Moreover, a novel nomogram integrating prognostic signature and tumor size, pathological grade, cervical node metastasis, and clinical stage significantly enhanced prognostic power [3-year area under the curve (AUC) =0.825; 5-year AUC =0.845].

Conclusions: Our results generated novel and robust diagnostic and prognostic signatures derived from PIINPBs by machine learning for OSCC. Performance of these signatures suggest the potential for PIINPBs to supplement current regimens and provide better patient stratification and prognostic prediction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-21-631DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8421978PMC
August 2021

[Construction of green space ecological network in Dongting Lake region with comprehensive evaluation method].

Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao 2020 Aug;31(8):2687-2698

College of Landscape Architecture, Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Changsha 410004, China.

Green space ecological network is important for improving the fragmentation of regional ecological space, biodiversity loss, imbalance of supply and demand in ecosystem services, and ensuring regional ecology. With Dongting Lake region as an example, the ecological sources were evaluated and identified, and basic ecological resistance of grid element was calculated from the perspectives of comprehensive ecosystem service function evaluation, potential biodiversity comprehensive index evaluation and morphological spatial pattern analysis with the support of 3S technology. We corrected the basic ecological resistance by night light index, used the minimum cumulative resistance model to identify ecological corridors, and constructed a weighted evaluation model, eva-luated the degree of aggregation and dispersion of the sources, as well as the contribution of ecological connection of the corridors. Furthermore, we compared and evaluated the structural characteristic index of the integrated networks, the potential "source sink" networks and the planning networks. The results showed that the spatial distribution of the sources was uneven, with forest land, shrubland and wetland acounting for 95.9% of the total area. The Dongting Lake wetland located in the middle of the region was at high ecological risk. The closer the source was to the center of the ecological network system and the smaller the average minimum cumulative resistance was to other sources, the stronger the advantages of aggregation and dispersion. The denser the distribution of medium and high ecological quality sources was around the high ecological quality sources, the higher the aggregation and dispersion. The closer the corridor was to the high ecological quality sources, the greater contribution of ecological connection. Forest land, shrubland, especially river played an important role in connecting natural ecosystem and human social system. The "source-sink" planning greenways formed a supplement to the "source-sink" potential ecological corridors. Compared with the "source-sink" potential network, the α, β, γ and ρ index of the integrated network was increased by 123.1%, 25.8%, 26.2% and 74.6% respectively. Compared with the "source-sink" planning network, the α, β, γ and ρ index was increased by 190.0%, 31.1%, 32.5% and 114.6% respectively. The results could provide reference for the construction of green space ecological network and planning of land use in Dongting Lake region.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13287/j.1001-9332.202008.012DOI Listing
August 2020

High-Sensitivity Cardiac Troponin T Is a Risk Factor for Major Adverse Cardiovascular Events and All-Cause Mortality: A 9.5-Year Follow-Up Study.

Cardiol Res Pract 2021 25;2021:6647987. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Department of Geriatric Cardiology, The Second Medical Center and National Clinical Research Center for Geriatric Diseases, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China.

Background: The relationship between high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) and different cardiovascular events has been observed in several large community studies, and the results have been controversial. However, there is currently no cross-sectional or longitudinal follow-up study on hs-cTnT in the Chinese population.

Methods: We analyzed the association of plasma hs-cTnT levels with major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) and all-cause mortality in 1325 subjects from a longitudinal follow-up community-based population in Beijing, China.

Results: In the Cox proportional hazards models analysis, the risk of MACEs increased with the increase of hs-cTnT levels (HR, 1.223, 95% CI, 1.054-1.418, =0.008). Increased hs-cTnT levels were associated with coronary events (HR, 1.391, 95% CI, 1.106-1.749, =0.005) in Model 4. Cox proportional risk regression model analysis revealed that increased hs-cTnT levels were associated with an increased risk of mortality (HR, 1.763, 95% CI, 1.224-2.540, =0.002), even after adjusting hs-CRP and NT-proBNP. The area under the ROC curve for predicting MACEs was 0.559 (95% CI, 0.523-0.595, =0.001). The areas under the ROC curve for predicting coronary events and mortality were 0.629 (95% CI, 0.580-0.678, < 0.001) and 0.644 (95% CI, 0.564-0.725, < 0.001), respectively.

Conclusions: Our findings in the Chinese cohort support that hs-cTnT is a risk factor for major adverse cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/6647987DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8413051PMC
August 2021

Tuning lipid layer formation on particle surfaces by using DNA-containing recruiter molecules.

Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2021 Aug 30;208:112084. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon, 34141 South Korea. Electronic address:

Biofunctional interfaces containing DNA-conjugated molecules have been explored for various bioengineering applications. However, there is still a lack of understanding of the interaction between DNA conjugates and surrounding biomolecules. In this study, we prepare DNA-containing recruiter molecules and incorporate them onto DNA immobilized gold nanoparticles through DNA hybridization. Liposomes composed of different phospholipids are then applied to investigate supported lipid layer formation on these recruiter-containing surfaces. We find that the morphology and the amount of lipid layers formed are determined by both the liposome concentration and the type of recruiter molecule. When liposomes are applied in excess above a critical concentration, surface chemistry determines the lipid layers formed, leading to lipid multilayers on hydrophilic DNA recruiter containing surfaces and lipid monolayers on hydrophobic DNA-lipid recruiter containing surfaces. When the liposome concentration is below the critical value, the surface molecules take on a more direct role and recruit lipids through hydrophobic interaction. The total amount of the lipid layers formed is further modulated by the overall charge and the fluidity of the liposomes applied. These results provide quantitative analysis on the interaction of DNA conjugates with lipid molecules and introduce a new approach to fine-tune lipid layer formation behavior.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfb.2021.112084DOI Listing
August 2021

Decreased Monocyte Count is Associated with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Development, Macrosomia and Inflammation.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2021 Sep 3. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Department of Endocrinology, Shanghai Fifth People's Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200240, China.

Objective: The immune system plays a central role in the pathophysiology of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Monocytes, the main innate immune cells, are especially important in the maintenance of a normal pregnancy. Here, we investigated the potential effect of monocytes in GDM.Materials and Methods: Monocyte count was monitored throughout pregnancy in 214 women with GDM and 926 women without in a case-control and cohort study. Circulating levels of inflammatory cytokines, placenta-derived macrophages and their products were measured.

Results: Throughout pregnancy, monocyte count was significantly decreased in women with GDM, and closely associated with glucose level, insulin resistance and newborn weight. First-trimester monocyte count outperformed that of the second and third trimester as a risk factor and diagnostic predictor of GDM and macrosomia in both the case-control and cohort study. In addition, our cohort study showed that as first-trimester monocyte count decreased, GDM and macrosomia incidence, glucose level and newborn weight increased in a stepwise manner. Risk of GDM started to decrease rapidly when first-trimester monocyte count exceeded 0.48 × 10 9/L. Notably, CD206 and IL-10 were significantly lower, while CD80, CD86, TNF-α and IL-6 were higher in both GDM placental tissue and peripheral blood. First-trimester monocyte count was positively related to IL-10 and CD206, but negatively related to CD80, CD86, TNF-α and IL-6.

Conclusions: Decreased monocyte count throughout pregnancy was closely-associated with the development of GDM, macrosomia and the chronic inflammatory state of GDM. First-trimester monocyte count has great potential as an early diagnostic marker of GDM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/clinem/dgab657DOI Listing
September 2021

Differences in gene expression and variable splicing events of ovaries between large and small litter size in Chinese Xiang pigs.

Porcine Health Manag 2021 Sep 1;7(1):52. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, 100193, Beijing, China.

Background: Although lots of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and genes present roles in litter size of some breeds, the information might not make it clear for the huge diversity of reproductive capability in pig breeds. To elucidate the inherent mechanisms of heterogeneity of reproductive capability in litter size of Xiang pig, we performed transcriptome analysis for the expression profile in ovaries using RNA-seq method.

Results: We identified 1,419 up-regulated and 1,376 down-regulated genes in Xiang pigs with large litter size. Among them, 1,010 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were differently spliced between two groups with large or small litter sizes. Based on GO and KEGG analysis, numerous members of genes were gathered in ovarian steroidogenesis, steroid biosynthesis, oocyte maturation and reproduction processes.

Conclusions: Combined with gene biological function, twelve genes were found out that might be related with the reproductive capability of Xiang pig, of which, eleven genes were recognized as hub genes. These genes may play a role in promoting litter size by elevating steroid and peptide hormones supply through the ovary and facilitating the processes of ovulation and in vivo fertilization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40813-021-00226-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8411529PMC
September 2021

A novel and efficient method to induce allospecific CD8 memory T lymphocytes.

J Clin Lab Anal 2021 Aug 31:e23972. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi University of Chinese Medicine, Nanning, China.

The aim of the current study was to establish a simple method for effectively inducing memory T lymphocytes by the intraperitoneal injection of spleen lymphocytes into mice. In total, 75 mice were divided into the following groups: an injection group administered three doses of spleen lymphocytes (1 × 10 , 5 × 10 , and 1 × 10 cells), a transplantation group in which a 0.25-cm skin section from C57BL/6 mice was transplanted onto the back of the recipient, and a control group in which an equal volume of phosphate-buffered saline was injected. At 1, 2, or 3 months following transplantation, the following parameters were evaluated: quantity of T lymphocytes, percentage of cluster of differentiation 8 (CD8 ) memory T cells, and proliferation index of purified CD8 memory T cells. No significant differences among groups were detected at 1 month (p > .05). However, the injection group administered 1 × 10 cells exhibited the highest proportion of CD8 memory T cells among all groups at 2 months, and the proportions of CD8 T cells were higher in the three injection groups than in the skin transplantation and control groups at 3 months. The proportions of memory T cells were higher in the injection groups administered 5 × 10 or 1 × 10 cells than in the skin transplantation and control groups at 3 months. The newly established method effectively induces memory T lymphocytes via the intraperitoneal injection of spleen lymphocytes in vivo and has potential applications in the field of immunotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcla.23972DOI Listing
August 2021

Morphological, Functional, and Tissue Characterization of Silent Myocardial Involvement in Patients With Primary Biliary Cholangitis.

Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 Aug 28. Epub 2021 Aug 28.

State Key Laboratory for Oncogenes and Related Genes, Shanghai Cancer Institute; Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Division of Cardiology, Key Laboratory of Coronary Heart Disease, Shanghai Municipal Education Commission; Key Laboratory of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Ministry of Health, Shanghai Institute of Digestive Disease, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: Cirrhotic cardiomyopathy is a major complication and cause of morbidity in end-stage primary biliary cholangitis (PBC). However, it is unclear whether there is clinically silent myocardial involvement at the early stage of PBC before cirrhosis and cardiac manifestations. This prospective, three-center, multi-modality cardiac imaging study on the early identification of myocardial impairment in PBC (EARLY-MYO-PBC) was designed to identify silent myocardial impairment in PBC patients without cardiac manifestations.

Methods: A total of 112 subjects (56 with PBC and 56 age- and sex-matched controls) undergoing cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) were enrolled. Demographic, serologic, and cardiac imaging data were prospectively collected. All participants had no cardiac discomfort or previous heart disease and had normal electrocardiographic findings.

Results: Subclinical myocardial involvement, as evidenced by cardiac morphologic, functional, and tissue characterization changes on CMR, including hyperdynamic left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (median, 75% in PBC patients vs 69% in controls, P = .029), subclinical myocardial edema by T2-short tau inversion recovery (21% vs 2% in controls, P = .001), elevated extracellular matrix indices (30% vs 26% in controls, P < .001), and impaired myocardial viability by positive late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) (36%), was detected in PBC patients. Importantly, a mid-wall "stripe" at the LV septum was identified as a PBC-specific LGE pattern that differs from other known cardiomyopathies. In multivariate analysis, gp210 positivity (odds ratio [OR] = 9.909, P = .010), lower hemoglobin (OR = 0.919, P = .004), and body mass index (OR = 0.638, P = .005) were independent predictors of cardiac abnormalities in PBC.

Conclusions: This study demonstrates clinically silent cardiac impairment with specific CMR patterns in PBC, allowing optimal screening for early myocardial impairment and potentially timely therapies. (Trial registration no.: NCT03545672).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cgh.2021.08.035DOI Listing
August 2021

Recovering the Free-Field Acoustic Characteristics of a Vibrating Structure from Bounded Noisy Underwater Environments.

Authors:
Wei Lin Sheng Li

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Aug 17;21(16). Epub 2021 Aug 17.

State Key Laboratory of Structural Analysis for Industrial Equipment, School of Naval Architecture, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, China.

The vibrational behavior of an underwater structure in the free field is different from that in bounded noisy environments because the fluid-structure interaction is strong in the water and the vibration of the structure caused by disturbing fields (the reflections by boundaries and the fields radiated by sources of disturbances) cannot be ignored. The conventional free field recovery (FFR) technique can only be used to eliminate disturbing fields without considering the difference in the vibrational behavior of the structure in the free field and the complex environment. To recover the free-field acoustic characteristics of a structure from bounded noisy underwater environments, a method combining the boundary element method (BEM) with the vibro-acoustic coupling method is presented. First, the pressures on the measurement surface are obtained. Second, the outgoing sound field and the rigid body scattered sound field are calculated by BEM. Then, the vibro-acoustic coupling method is employed to calculate the elastically radiated scattered sound field. Finally, the sound field radiated by the structure in the free field is recovered by subtracting the rigid body scattered sound field and the elastically radiated scattered sound field from the outgoing sound field. The effectiveness of the proposed method is validated by simulation results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s21165521DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8401715PMC
August 2021

Regional scalable priorities for national biodiversity and carbon conservation planning in Asia.

Sci Adv 2021 Aug 26;7(35). Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Centre for Biodiversity and Conservation Science, University of Queensland, St Lucia, Queensland 4072, Australia.

To achieve the goals of the post-2020 global biodiversity framework, we must identify representative targets that effectively protect biodiversity and can be implemented at a national level. We developed a framework to identify synergies between biodiversity and carbon across the Asian region and proposed a stepwise approach based on scalable priorities at regional, biome, and national levels that can complement potential Convention on Biological Diversity targets of protecting 30% land in the post-2020 global biodiversity framework. Our targets show that 30% of Asian land could effectively protect over 70% of all assessed species relative to only 11% now (based on analysis of 8932 terrestrial vertebrates), in addition to 2.3 to 3.6 hundred billion metric tons of carbon. Funding mechanisms are needed to ensure such targets to support biodiversity-carbon mutually beneficial solutions at the national level while reflecting broader priorities, especially in hyperdiverse countries where priorities exceed 30% of land.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abe4261DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8388611PMC
August 2021

Human antibody recognition of H7N9 influenza virus hemagglutinin following natural infection.

JCI Insight 2021 Aug 26. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Vanderbilt Vaccine Center, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, United States of America.

Avian H7N9 influenza viruses cause sporadic outbreaks of human infections and threaten to cause a major pandemic. The breadth of B cell responses to natural infection and the dominant antigenic sites recognized during first exposure to H7 HA following infection are incompletely understood. Here, we studied the B cell response to H7 HA of two individuals who had recovered from natural H7N9 virus infection. We used competition-binding, hydrogen-deuterium mass spectrometry, and single-particle negative stain electron microscopy to identify the patterns of molecular recognition of the antibody responses to H7 hemagglutinin. We found that circulating H7-reactive B cells recognized a diverse antigenic landscape on the HA molecule, including HA head domain epitopes in antigenic Sites A, B, and the trimer interface-II region and epitopes in the stem region. Most H7 antibodies exhibited little heterosubtypic breadth, but many recognized a wide diversity of unrelated H7 strains. We tested the antibodies for functional activity and identified clones with diverse patterns of inhibition, including neutralizing, hemagglutination or egress inhibiting, or HA trimer-disrupting activities. Thus, the human B cell response to primary H7 natural infection is diverse, highly functional, and broad for recognition of diverse H7 strains.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/jci.insight.152403DOI Listing
August 2021

Muscle Fiber Diameter and Density Alterations after Stroke Examined by Single-Fiber EMG.

Neural Plast 2021 13;2021:3045990. Epub 2021 Aug 13.

University of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, Qingdao, China.

This study presents single-fiber electromyography (EMG) analysis for assessment of paretic muscle changes after stroke. Single-fiber action potentials (SFAPs) were recorded from the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle bilaterally in 12 individuals with hemiparetic stroke. The SFAP parameters, including the negative peak duration and the peak-peak amplitude, were measured and further used to estimate muscle fiber diameter through a model based on the quadratic function. The SFAP parameters, fiber density, and muscle fiber diameter derived from the model were compared between the paretic and contralateral muscles. The results show that SFAPs recorded from the paretic muscle had significantly smaller negative peak duration than that from the contralateral muscle. As a result, the derived muscle fiber diameter of the paretic muscle was significantly smaller than that of the contralateral muscle. The fiber density of the paretic muscle was significantly higher than that of the contralateral muscle. These results provide further evidence of remodeled motor units after stroke and suggest that paretic muscle weakness can be due to both complex central and peripheral neuromuscular alterations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/3045990DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8380495PMC
August 2021

CD86 Molecule Might Be a Novel Immune-Related Prognostic Biomarker for Patients With Bladder Cancer by Bioinformatics and Experimental Assays.

Front Oncol 2021 6;11:679851. Epub 2021 Aug 6.

Department of Urology, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.

As one of the most common malignancies in the urinary system, bladder cancer (BC) occupies a high mortality and recurrence rate. BC carries an ominous prognosis. Thus, we aimed to identify a novel immune-related prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for immunotherapy in the present study. We first constructed a co-expression network based on immune-related genes (IRGs). Two key modules showed high association with the clinical feature interested us most were further identified. Forty-five IRGs were screened out and regarded as hub genes in the co-expression network. We further constructed a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network, and five independent methods were used for hub gene identification. Three hub genes were identified in the present study. CD86 molecule (CD86) was screened out by performing overall survival (OS) analysis. Subsequent analyses by using some bioinformatics and experimental assays confirmed that CD86 was an immune-related prognostic biomarker, which might be a novel target for immunotherapy in BC. A small molecule drug named was also identified, which showed potential for BC treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.679851DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8378807PMC
August 2021

GINS1 Induced Sorafenib Resistance by Promoting Cancer Stem Properties in Human Hepatocellular Cancer Cells.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 3;9:711894. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research (Ministry of Education/Beijing), Department of Interventional Therapy, Peking University Cancer Hospital and Institute, Beijing, China.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is characterized by a high rate of incidence and recurrence, and resistance to chemotherapy may aggravate the poor prognosis of HCC patients. Sorafenib resistance is a conundrum to the treatment of advanced/recurrent HCC. Therefore, studies on the molecular pathogenesis of HCC and the resistance to sorafenib are of great interest. Here, we report that GINS1 was highly expressed in HCC tumors, associated with tumor grades, and predicted poor patient survival using Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) databases exploration. Cell cycle, cell proliferation assay and xenograft mouse model indicated that knocking down GINS1 induced in G1/S phase cell cycle arrest and decreased tumor cells proliferation and . Spheroid formation assay results showed that GINS1 promoted the stem cell activity of HCC tumor cells. Furthermore, GEO database (GSE17112) analysis showed that HRAS oncogenic gene set was enriched in GINS1 high-expressed cancer cells, and quantitative real-time PCR, and Western blot results proved that GINS1 enhanced HCC progression through regulating HRAS signaling pathway. Moreover, knocking down endogenous GINS1 with shGINS1 increased the sensitivity of HCC cells to sorafenib, and restoring HRAS or stem associated pathway partly recovered the sorafenib resistance. Overall, the collective findings highlight GINS1 functions in hepatocarcinogenesis and sorafenib resistance, and indicate its potential use of GINS1 in drug-resistant HCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.711894DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8369484PMC
August 2021

Lattice Boltzmann simulation of three-phase flows with moving contact lines on curved surfaces.

Phys Rev E 2021 Jul;104(1-2):015310

School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, 28 West Xianning Road, Xi'an 710049, China.

A numerical method for simulating three-phase flows with moving contact lines on arbitrarily complex surfaces is developed in the framework of the lattice Boltzmann method. In this method, the immiscible three-phase flow is modeled through a multiple-relaxation-time color-gradient model, which not only allows for a full range of interfacial tensions but also produces stable outcomes for a wide range of viscosity ratios. A characteristic line model is introduced to implement the wetting boundary condition, which is not only easy to implement but is also able to handle arbitrarily complex boundaries with prescribed contact angles. The developed method is first validated by the simulation of a Janus droplet resting on a flat surface, a perfect Janus droplet deposited on a cylinder, and the capillary intrusion of ternary fluids for various viscosity ratios. It is then used to study a compound droplet subject to a uniform incoming flow passing through a multipillar structure, where three different values of surface wettability are considered. The simulated results show that the surface wettability has significant impact on the droplet dynamic behavior and final fluid distribution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.104.015310DOI Listing
July 2021

Modified arteriosclerosis score predicts the outcomes of diabetic kidney disease.

BMC Nephrol 2021 Aug 18;22(1):281. Epub 2021 Aug 18.

The Second School of Clinical Medicine, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, 510515, China.

Background: The significance of renal arteriosclerosis in the prediction of the renal outcomes of diabetic kidney disease (DKD) remains undetermined.

Methods: We enrolled 174 patients with DKD from three centres from January 2010 to July 2017. The severity and extent of arteriosclerosis were analysed on sections based on dual immunohistochemical staining of CD31 and α-smooth muscle actin. An X-tile plot was used to determine the optimal cut-off value. The primary endpoint was renal survival (RS), defined as the duration from renal biopsy to end-stage renal disease or death.

Results: The baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 135 qualified patients was 45 (29 ~ 70) ml/min per 1.73 m, and the average 24-h urine protein was 4.52 (2.45 ~ 7.66) g/24 h. The number of glomeruli in the biopsy specimens was 21.07 ± 9.7. The proportion of severe arteriosclerosis in the kidney positively correlated with the Renal Pathology Society glomerular classification (r = 0.28, P < 0.012), interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy (IFTA) (r = 0.39, P < 0.001), urine protein (r = 0.213, P = 0.013), systolic BP (r = 0.305, P = 0.000), and age (r = 0.220, P = 0.010) and significantly negatively correlated with baseline eGFR (r = - 0.285, P = 0.001). In the multivariable model, the primary outcomes were significantly correlated with glomerular class (HR: 1.72, CI: 1.15 ~ 2.57), IFTA (HR: 1.96, CI: 1.26 ~ 3.06) and the modified arteriosclerosis score (HR: 2.21, CI: 1.18 ~ 4.13). After risk adjustment, RS was independently associated with the baseline eGFR (HR: 0.97, CI: 0.96 ~ 0.98), urine proteinuria (HR: 1.10, CI: 1.04 ~ 1.17) and the modified arteriosclerosis score (HR: 2.01, CI: 1.10 ~ 3.67), and the nomogram exhibited good calibration and acceptable discrimination (C-index = 0.82, CI: 0.75 ~ 0.87).

Conclusions: The severity and proportion of arteriosclerosis may be helpful prognostic indicators for DKD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12882-021-02492-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8375127PMC
August 2021

Emissions and light absorption of carbonaceous aerosols from on-road vehicles in an urban tunnel in south China.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Oct 2;790:148220. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry and Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Protection and Resources Utilization, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640, China; CAS Center for Excellence in Deep Earth Science, Guangzhou 510640, China; Center for Excellence in Regional Atmospheric Environment, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China. Electronic address:

With changing numbers, compositions, emission standards and fuel quality of on-road vehicles, it is imperative to accordingly characterize and update vehicular emissions of carbonaceous aerosols for better understanding their health and climatic effects. In this study, a 7-day field campaign was conducted in 2019 in a busy urban tunnel (>30,000 vehicles day) in south China with filter-based aerosol samples collected every 2 h at both the inlet and the outlet for measuring carbonaceous aerosols and their light absorbing properties. Observed fleet average emission factor (EF) of total carbon (TC) was 13.4 ± 8.3 mg veh km, and 17.4 ± 11.3 mg veh km if electric and LPG-driven vehicles were excluded; and fleet average EF of organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) was 8.5 ± 6.6 and 4.9 ± 2.6 mg veh km (11.0 ± 8.8 and 6.3 ± 3.6 mg veh km if excluding electric and LPG vehicles), respectively. Regression analysis revealed an average TC-EF of 319.8 mg veh km for diesel vehicles and 2.1 mg veh km for gasoline vehicles, and although diesel vehicles only shared ~4% in the fleet compositions, they still dominate on-road vehicular carbonaceous aerosol emissions due to their over 150 times higher average TC-EF than gasoline vehicles. Filter-based light absorption measurement demonstrated that on average brown carbon (BrC) could account for 19.1% of the total carbonaceous light absorption at 405 nm, and the average mass absorption efficiency of EC at 635 nm and that of OC at 405 nm were 5.2 m g C and 1.0 m g C, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.148220DOI Listing
October 2021

Making a Case for Studying Gender-Neutral Pronouns in Speech-Language Pathology.

Lang Speech Hear Serv Sch 2021 Aug 9:1-5. Epub 2021 Aug 9.

Communication Sciences & Disorders Department, University of Delaware, Newark.

Purpose The purpose of this article is to review current policies and research in the field of speech-language pathology in regard to targeting gender-neutral pronouns in language therapy and propose further research on the topic. Method Official documents from the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association for the practice of speech-language pathology were searched for information about pediatric language therapy and ethical requirements of practice as they relate to targeting gender-neutral pronouns in treatment. Conclusions Based on the current standards, it is ethical and within the scope of practice for speech-language pathologists to target gender-neutral pronouns in language treatment. Research on the topic is needed to establish evidence-based practice guidelines. Recommendations are provided for potential research questions and methodologies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1044/2021_LSHSS-21-00021DOI Listing
August 2021

Azathioprine pretreatment ameliorates myocardial ischaemia reperfusion injury in diabetic rats by reducing oxidative stress, apoptosis, and inflammation.

Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 2021 Aug 9. Epub 2021 Aug 9.

Department of Basic Medicine, Sichuan Vocational College of Health and Rehabilitation, Zigong, China.

This study was presented to observe the therapeutic effects of azathioprine (AZA) pretreatment on myocardial ischaemia reperfusion (I/R) damage in diabetic rats. All rats were randomly separated into control + sham operation; control +I/R; diabetes mellitus (DM) +I/R and DM +I/R + AZA groups. Diabetic rat models were established by intraperitoneally injecting 60 mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ). Diabetic rats were given 3 mg/kg AZA daily by gavage for 5 days. Then, myocardial I/R rat models were constructed. Myocardial infarction size and myocardial damage were respectively detected by TTC and H&E staining. Cardiac injury markers (CK-MB and MPO) and oxidative stress factors (SOD and MDA) were measured via ELISA. The protein expression of apoptotic markers (Caspase8, Caspase3, BAX and Bcl2), inflammatory factors (TLR4 and TNF-α) and AKT1/GSK3β in myocardial tissues was measured by western blot, immunohistochemistry or immunofluorescence. Data showed that AZA pretreatment could lessen myocardial infarction size and myocardial damage, and could down-regulate serum CK-MB, MPO, SOD and MDA levels in diabetic rats under I/R. Furthermore, AZA pretreatment decreased Caspase8, Caspase3, BAX, TLR4 and TNF-α expression, and increased Bcl2 expression in myocardial tissues of diabetic rats following I/R. Also, AZA pretreatment lowered AKT1, p-AKT1, GSK3β and p-GSK3β expression in diabetic heart after I/R. This study found that AZA may reduce myocardial injury in diabetic rats following I/R via reducing oxidative stress, cardiomyocyte apoptosis, and inflammatory response, which could be related to AKT1/GSK3β pathway inactivation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1440-1681.13569DOI Listing
August 2021

The Encounter of Biomolecules in Metal-Organic Framework Micro/Nano Reactors.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Aug 9. Epub 2021 Aug 9.

Key Laboratory of Flexible Electronics (KLOFE) & Institute of Advanced Materials (IAM), Nanjing Tech University (NanjingTech), 30 South Puzhu Road, Nanjing 211816, P.R. China.

In nature, biochemical reactions often take place in confined spaces, as typically exemplified by cells. As numerous cellular reactors can be integrated to maintain the living system, researchers have made constant efforts to construct cell-like structures for achieving similar transformations in vitro. Micro/nano reactors engineered by polymers and colloids are becoming popular and being applied in many fields, especially there has been an increasing trend toward constructing metal-organic framework (MOF) micro/nano reactors with the thriving of MOF nanotechnologies. Because of the uniform pores of MOFs, the transmission of substances can be regulated more accurately. Along with properties of large specific surface area, functional diversity and precise control of the particle size, MOFs are also ideal platforms for building distinct microenvironments for biological substances. Compared with traditional polymersomes and colloidosomes, the unique characteristics of MOFs render them potent micro/nano reactor shell materials, mimicking cells for applications in enzymatic catalysis, sensing, nanotherapy, vaccine, biodegradation, etc. This review highlights recent signs of progress on the design of MOF micro/nano reactors and their applications in biology, discusses the existing problems, and prospects their promising properties for smarter multifunctional applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c09660DOI Listing
August 2021

The Bilingual Home Language Boost Through the Lens of the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Front Psychol 2021 20;12:667836. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Language Learning and Bilingualism Laboratory, Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, University of Delaware, Newark, DE, United States.

Usage-based accounts of language acquisition suggest that bilingual language proficiency is dynamic and susceptible to changes in language use. The COVID-19 pandemic led to unprecedented modifications in the language learning environment of developing bilinguals. Drawing on this unique opportunity, we analyzed existing data of two matched groups of Mandarin-English bilingual children (ages 4 to 8 years, = 38), one tested before (pre-COVID group) and the other during (COVID group) the pandemic. The dataset comprises responses to a language environment questionnaire, and scores on a sentence comprehension task and a sentence recall task in the bilinguals' two languages. Questionnaire data revealed a richer Mandarin language environment for children in the COVID group compared to peers in the pre-COVID group. On both comprehension and production tasks, the two groups performed comparably in English but the COVID group showed better performance in Mandarin than the pre-COVID group. Within the pre-COVID group, English was stronger than Mandarin in both comprehension and production. Within the COVID group, the two languages were balanced in comprehension and Mandarin was stronger than English in production. Moreover, language use variables were correlated with production performance in both languages. These patterns illustrate the intimate relationships between language use and bilingual language proficiency through the lens of COVID-19 induced language environment modification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.667836DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8329553PMC
July 2021

Simultaneous determination of skimmin, apiosylskimmin, 7-hydroxycoumarin and 7-hydroxycoumarin glucuronide in rat plasma by liquid chromatography-Orbitrap mass spectrometry and its application to pharmacokinetics.

Biomed Chromatogr 2021 Aug 4:e5223. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Department of Drug Metabolism, Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, P. R. China.

The effective fraction of coumarin glycosides from Hydrangea paniculata Sieb (HP) has been under development for the treatment of chronic kidney disease for years. Skimmin and apiosylskimmin are the main coumarin glycosides of HP, and the major metabolites in rats are 7-hydroxycoumarin (7-HC) and 7-hydroxycoumarin glucuronide (7-HCG). In this study, a sensitive and reliable liquid chromatography-Orbitrap mass spectrometry method was developed for the simultaneous determination of skimmin, apiosylskimmin, 7-HC and 7-HCG in rat plasma. The chromatographic separation was performed on a Zobax SB C column (2.1 × 100 mm, 3.5 μm) at a flow rate of 0.3 ml/min with a gradient mobile phase of water and acetonitrile containing 0.2% formic acid. Skimmin, apiosylskimmin and 7-HCG were detected in targeted-selected-ion-monitoring mode at positive ions m/z of 325.0911, 457.1331 and 339.0703, respectively. 7-HC and the internal standard were detected in parallel-reaction-monitoring mode at m/z 163.0387 → 119.0492 and 260.1641 → 116.1071 to overcome the carryover of 7-HC. Linearity was obtained for the analytes within the ranges 20-2,000 ng/ml for skimmin, 5-500 ng/ml for apiosylskimmin and 7-HC and 100-10,000 ng/ml for 7-HCG. Validation parameters were all in line with the criteria of international guidance. The method has been applied to the pharmacokinetic study of HP in rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bmc.5223DOI Listing
August 2021

Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells promote remyelination in spinal cord by driving oligodendrocyte progenitor cell differentiation via TNFα/RelB-Hes1 pathway: a rat model study of 2,5-hexanedione-induced neurotoxicity.

Stem Cell Res Ther 2021 08 4;12(1):436. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Integrative Laboratory, Affiliated Zhongshan Hospital of Dalian University, Dalian, 116001, People's Republic of China.

Background: N-hexane, with its metabolite 2,5-hexanedine (HD), is an industrial hazardous material. Chronic hexane exposure causes segmental demyelination in the peripheral nerves, and high-dose intoxication may also affect central nervous system. Demyelinating conditions are difficult to treat and stem cell therapy using bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) is a promising novel strategy. Our previous study found that BMSCs promoted motor function recovery in rats modeling hexane neurotoxicity. This work aimed to explore the underlying mechanisms and focused on the changes in spinal cord.

Methods: Sprague Dawley rats were intoxicated with HD (400 mg/kg/day, i.p, for 5 weeks). A bolus of BMSCs (5 × 10 cells/kg) was injected via tail vein. Demyelination and remyelination of the spinal cord before and after BMSC treatment were examined microscopically. Cultured oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) were incubated with HD ± BMSC-derived conditional medium (BMSC-CM). OPC differentiation was studied by immunostaining and morphometric analysis. The expressional changes of Hes1, a transcription factor negatively regulating OPC-differentiation, were studied. The upstream Notch1 and TNFα/RelB pathways were studied, and some key signaling molecules were measured. The correlation between neurotrophin NGF and TNFα was also investigated. Statistical significance was evaluated using one-way ANOVA and performed using SPSS 13.0.

Results: The demyelinating damage by HD and remyelination by BMSCs were evidenced by electron microscopy, LFB staining and NG2/MBP immunohistochemistry. In vitro cultured OPCs showed more differentiation after incubation with BMSC-CM. Hes1 expression was found to be significantly increased by HD and decreased by BMSC or BMSC-CM. The change of Hes1 was found, however, independent of Notch1 activation, but dependent on TNFα/RelB signaling. HD was found to increase TNFα, RelB and Hes1 expression, and BMSCs were found to have the opposite effect. Addition of recombinant TNFα to OPCs or RelB overexpression similarly caused upregulation of Hes1 expression. The secretion of NGF by BMSC and activation of NGF receptor was found important for suppression of TNFα production in OPCs.

Conclusions: Our findings demonstrated that BMSCs promote remyelination in the spinal cord of HD-exposed rats via TNFα/RelB-Hes1 pathway, providing novel insights for evaluating and further exploring the therapeutical effect of BMSCs on demyelinating neurodegenerative disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13287-021-02518-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8336089PMC
August 2021

Pharmacodynamic, pharmacokinetic, and phase 1a study of bisthianostat, a novel histone deacetylase inhibitor, for the treatment of relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma.

Acta Pharmacol Sin 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Hematology, Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 200127, China.

HDAC inhibitors (HDACis) have been intensively studied for their roles and potential as drug targets in T-cell lymphomas and other hematologic malignancies. Bisthianostat is a novel bisthiazole-based pan-HDACi evolved from natural HDACi largazole. Here, we report the preclinical study of bisthianostat alone and in combination with bortezomib in the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM), as well as preliminary first-in-human findings from an ongoing phase 1a study. Bisthianostat dose dependently induced acetylation of tubulin and H3 and increased PARP cleavage and apoptosis in RPMI-8226 cells. In RPMI-8226 and MM.1S cell xenograft mouse models, oral administration of bisthianostat (50, 75, 100 mg·kg·d, bid) for 18 days dose dependently inhibited tumor growth. Furthermore, bisthianostat in combination with bortezomib displayed synergistic antitumor effect against RPMI-8226 and MM.1S cell in vitro and in vivo. Preclinical pharmacokinetic study showed bisthianostat was quickly absorbed with moderate oral bioavailability (F% = 16.9%-35.5%). Bisthianostat tended to distribute in blood with V value of 0.31 L/kg. This distribution parameter might be beneficial to treat hematologic neoplasms such as MM with few side effects. In an ongoing phase 1a study, bisthianostat treatment was well tolerated and no grade 3/4 nonhematological adverse events (AEs) had occurred together with good pharmacokinetics profiles in eight patients with relapsed or refractory MM (R/R MM). The overall single-agent efficacy was modest, stable disease (SD) was identified in four (50%) patients at the end of first dosing cycle (day 28). These preliminary in-patient results suggest that bisthianostat is a promising HDACi drug with a comparable safety window in R/R MM, supporting for its further phase 1b clinical trial in combination with traditional MM therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41401-021-00728-yDOI Listing
August 2021

An herbal preparation ameliorates heart failure with preserved ejection fraction by alleviating microvascular endothelial inflammation and activating NO-cGMP-PKG pathway.

Phytomedicine 2021 Oct 20;91:153633. Epub 2021 Jun 20.

First Teaching Hospital of Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, National Clinical Research Center for Chinese Medicine Acupuncture and Moxibustion, Tianjin 300193, China.; Hubei Key Laboratory of Economic Forest Germplasm Improvement and Resources Comprehensive Utilization, Huanggang Normal University, Huanggang 438000, China.. Electronic address:

Background: Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is a heterogeneous disease presenting a substantial challenge to clinicians. Currently, there is no safe and efficacious HFpEF treatment. In this study, we reported a standardized herbal medicinal product, QiShenYiQi (QSYQ), that can be used in the treatment of HFpEF.

Methods: HFpEF mice were established by infusing a combination of N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) and feeding them a high-fat diet for 14 weeks. In the 10th week, the HFpEF mice were given dapagliflozin or QSYQ via oral gavage for four weeks. The blood pressure, echocardiography, hemodynamics, leukocyte infiltration, and oxidative stress in HFpEF mice were evaluated. Besides, inflammatory factors, endothelial adhesion factors, and endothelial-mesenchymal transformation (EndMT) markers were investigated.

Results: QSYQ significantly attenuated concentric cardiac remodeling while improving diastolic function and left ventricular compliance in HFpEF mice. QSYQ also inhibited inflammation and immunocyte recruitment during HFpEF. The infiltration of CD8, CD4 T cells, and CD11b/c monocytes was substantially mitigated in the myocardium of QSYQ-treated mice. TNF-α, MCP-1, NF-κB, and NLRP3 levels also reduced after QSYQ treatment. Furthermore, QSYQ significantly reversed the elevated expression of endothelial adhesion factors and EndMT occurrence. These effects of QSYQ were demonstrated by the activation of NO-cGMP-PKG pathway and reduction of eNOS uncoupling in the HFpEF heart.

Conclusion: These results provide novel evidence that QSYQ treatment improves HFpEF by inhibiting microvascular endothelial inflammation and activating NO-cGMP-PKG pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2021.153633DOI Listing
October 2021

Oxygen vacancies boosted the electrochemical kinetics of NbO for superior lithium storage.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2021 Aug 27;57(66):8182-8185. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Key Laboratory of Zhenjiang, Institute for Energy Research, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, 212013, P. R. China.

The introduction of oxygen vacancies (OVs) into NbO can not only provide more active sites for lithium storage but also change the electronic structure of NbO to boost electron/ion transport kinetics. Consequently, the defective NbO exhibits high lithium storage capacity, superior rate capability, and cycling stability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1cc02299gDOI Listing
August 2021

Modulation of fatty acid elongation in cockroaches sustains sexually dimorphic hydrocarbons and female attractiveness.

PLoS Biol 2021 Jul 27;19(7):e3001330. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas and Key Laboratory of Integrated Pest Management on Crops in Northwestern Loess Plateau, Ministry of Agriculture, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi, China.

Insect cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) serve as important intersexual signaling chemicals and generally show variation between the sexes, but little is known about the generation of sexually dimorphic hydrocarbons (SDHCs) in insects. In this study, we report the molecular mechanism and biological significance that underlie the generation of SDHC in the German cockroach Blattella germanica. Sexually mature females possess more C29 CHCs, especially the contact sex pheromone precursor 3,11-DimeC29. RNA interference (RNAi) screen against the fatty acid elongase family members combined with heterologous expression of the genes in yeast revealed that both BgElo12 and BgElo24 were involved in hydrocarbon (HC) production, but BgElo24 is of wide catalytic activities and is able to provide substrates for BgElo12, and only the female-enriched BgElo12 is responsible for sustaining female-specific HC profile. Repressing BgElo12 masculinized the female CHC profile, decreased contact sex pheromone level, and consequently reduced the sexual attractiveness of female cockroaches. Moreover, the asymmetric expression of BgElo12 between the sexes is modulated by sex differentiation cascade. Specifically, male-specific BgDsx represses the transcription of BgElo12 in males, while BgTra is able to remove this effect in females. Our study reveals a novel molecular mechanism responsible for the formation of SDHCs and also provide evidences on shaping of the SDHCs by sexual selection, as females use them to generate high levels of contact sex pheromone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3001330DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8315507PMC
July 2021
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