Publications by authors named "Sheena Ruzive"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Tuberculosis infection and disease in South African adolescents with perinatally acquired HIV on antiretroviral therapy: a cohort study.

J Int AIDS Soc 2021 Mar;24(3):e25671

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, University of Cape Town, Cape, South Africa.

Introduction: There are limited data on Tuberculosis (TB) in adolescents with perinatally acquired HIV (APHIV). We examined the incidence and determinants of TB infection and disease in the Cape Town Adolescent Antiretroviral Cohort (CTAAC).

Methods: Youth between nine and fourteen years on antiretroviral therapy (ART) for more than six months in public sector care, and age-matched HIV-negative adolescents, were enrolled between July 2013 through March 2015 and followed six-monthly. Data were censored on 31 October 2018. Symptom screening, chest radiograph, viral load, CD4 count, QuantiFERON (QFT) and sputum for Xpert MTB/RIF, microscopy, culture and sensitivity were performed annually. TB infection was defined by a QFT of >0.35 IU/mL. TB diagnosis was defined as confirmed (culture or Xpert MTB/RIF positive) or unconfirmed (clinical diagnosis and started on TB treatment). Analyses examined the incidence and determinants of TB infection and disease.

Results: Overall 496 HIV+ and 103 HIV-negative participants (median age at enrolment 12 years (interquartile range, IQR 10.6 to 13.3) were followed for a median of 3.1 years (IQR 3.0 to 3.4); 50% (298/599) were male. APHIV initiated ART at median age 4.4 years (IQR 2.1 to 7.6). At enrolment, 376/496 (76%) had HIV viral load <40 copies/mL, median CD4 count was 713 cells/mm and 179/559 (32%) were QFT+, with no difference by HIV status (APHIV 154/468, 33%; HIV negative 25/91, 27%; p = 0.31). The cumulative QFT+ prevalence was similar (APHIV 225/492, 46%; 95%CI 41% to 50%; HIV negative 44/98, 45%; 95% CI 35% to 55%; p = 0.88). APHIV had a higher incidence of all TB disease than HIV-negative adolescents (2.2/100PY, 95% CI 1.6 to 3.1 vs. 0.3/100PY, 95% CI 0.04 to 2.2; IRR 7.36, 95% CI 1.01 to 53.55). The rate of bacteriologically confirmed TB in APHIV was 1.3/100 PY compared to 0.3/100PY for HIV-negative adolescents, suggesting a fourfold increased risk of developing TB disease in APHIV despite access to ART. In addition, a positive QFT at enrolment was not predictive of TB in this population.

Conclusions: High incidence rates of TB disease occur in APHIV despite similar QFT conversion rates to HIV-negative adolescents. Strategies to prevent TB in this vulnerable group must be strengthened.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jia2.25671DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7957181PMC
March 2021

Disease extent and anti-tubercular treatment response correlates with -specific CD4 T-cell phenotype regardless of HIV-1 status.

Clin Transl Immunology 2020 28;9(9):e1176. Epub 2020 Sep 28.

Wellcome Centre for Infectious Disease Research in Africa Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine University of Cape Town Observatory South Africa.

Objectives: The development of non-sputum-based assays for tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis and treatment monitoring is a key priority. Recent data indicate that whole blood-based assays to assess the phenotype of (Mtb)-specific CD4 T cells hold promise for this purpose and require further investigation in well-characterised TB cohorts. In this study, we investigated the relationship between the phenotypic signature of Mtb-specific CD4 responses, TB disease extent and treatment response.

Methods: Using flow cytometry, we measured the expression of phenotypic and functional markers (HLA-DR, CD27, CD153, KLRG1, IL-2, MIP-1β, TNF-α and IFN-γ) on Mtb-specific CD4 T-cells in whole blood from 161 participants of varying TB and HIV status. TB disease extent was graded as a continuum using the Xpert value, C-reactive protein, Timika radiographic score and monocyte/lymphocyte ratio.

Results: The phenotypic profile of Mtb-specific CD4 T cells pre-anti-tubercular treatment (ATT) strongly correlated with disease extent, irrespective of HIV status. ATT associated with major changes in the phenotype of Mtb-specific CD4 T cells, with decreased expression of HLA-DR and increased CD27 and CD153 expression. Principal component analysis showed an almost complete separation between latent TB infection (LTBI) and active TB (aTB) pre-ATT groups, whereas the profile of the aTB post-ATT group overlapped with the LTBI group. However, in patients experiencing treatment failure or relapse, no significant changes were observed in Mtb-specific CD4 T-cell phenotype pre- and post-ATT.

Conclusion: Whole blood-based assays of Mtb-specific CD4 T-cell activation and maturation markers can be used as non-sputum-based biomarkers of disease extent and treatment monitoring in TB, regardless of HIV-1 status.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cti2.1176DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7520805PMC
September 2020

Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific CD4 T cells expressing CD153 inversely associate with bacterial load and disease severity in human tuberculosis.

Mucosal Immunol 2021 03 16;14(2):491-499. Epub 2020 Jul 16.

Wellcome Centre for Infectious Disease Research in Africa, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Observatory, Cape Town, 7925, South Africa.

Recent data from mice and non-human primate models of tuberculosis suggested that CD153, a TNF super family member, plays an important role in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) control. However, this molecule has not been comprehensively evaluated in humans. Here, we show that the proportion of Mtb-specific CD4 T cells expressing CD153 was significantly reduced in active TB patients compared to latently infected persons. Importantly, the CD153+ Mtb-specific CD4 response inversely correlated with lung bacterial load, inferred by Xpert cycle threshold, irrespective of HIV status. Antitubercular treatment partially restored CD153 expression on Mtb-specific CD4 T cells. This is the first report of a subset of Mtb-specific CD4 T cells showing strong negative correlation with bacterial burden. Building on substantial evidence from animal models implicating CD153 as a mediator of host protection, our findings suggest it may play a similar role in humans and its measurement may be useful to evaluate TB vaccine efficacy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41385-020-0322-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7855386PMC
March 2021

Changes in Host Immune-Endocrine Relationships during Tuberculosis Treatment in Patients with Cured and Failed Treatment Outcomes.

Front Immunol 2017 15;8:690. Epub 2017 Jun 15.

SA MRC Centre for TB Research, DST/NRF Centre of Excellence for Biomedical Tuberculosis Research, Division of Molecular Biology and Human Genetics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa.

A bidirectional communication between the immune and endocrine systems exists and facilitates optimum responses in the host during infections. This is in part achieved through changes in secretion patterns of hypothalamic hormones induced by inflammatory cytokines. The aim of this study was to elucidate the immune-endocrine alterations during tuberculosis (TB) treatment in patients with cured and failed TB treatment outcomes. Blood samples were collected from 27 cured and 10 failed patients and hormone as well as cytokine concentrations quantified at baseline, week 4, and month 6 of TB treatment. Hormone profiles of the two treatment outcome groups were different from each other prior to as well as during TB treatment. Treatment response effects were observed for cortisol, estradiol, T3, T4 ghrelin, leptin, amylin, adiponectin, and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). Trends suggest that T4, amylin, and DHEA concentrations were different between treatment outcomes, although these did not reach statistical significance. Relationships between endocrine and inflammatory markers and the biological pathways involved differed between cured and failed treatment patients. These results highlight the complex interaction between the endocrine and immune system during active TB disease and throughout treatment and suggest that endocrine markers in conjunction with inflammatory markers may be useful in predicting unfavorable treatment outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2017.00690DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5475380PMC
June 2017
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