Publications by authors named "Shayan Shakeri"

2 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Verification of intramuscular electromyography electrode placement for neuromuscular partitions of infraspinatus.

J Electromyogr Kinesiol 2019 Dec 9;49:102354. Epub 2019 Sep 9.

University of Toronto, Department of Surgery, Division of Anatomy, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

The infraspinatus muscle is composed of three neuromuscular partitions: superior, middle and inferior. Although methods for fine-wire EMG electrode insertion into these partitions have been developed and used, it has yet to be verified. The purpose of this cadaveric EMG needle placement study was to assess the accuracy and reproducibility of a protocol used to target the three partitions of infraspinatus. On seven shoulder specimens, two investigators inserted needles into each superior, middle and inferior partition according to a previously developed protocol. Each was blinded to the other's insertion sites. The specimens were dissected and the location of each needle was digitized and modeled in 3D. Of the 42 needles that were inserted, 32 were placed in the targeted partition. The highest accuracy rate occurred for the middle partition (100%), followed by the inferior (71.4%) and then the superior (57.1%). When the needles were not placed in the targeted partition, they were located in the neighboring partition within infraspinatus or the teres minor muscle. The current study showed the middle partition could be targeted accurately, whereas the superior and inferior partitions were more challenging. Ultrasound guidance may be necessary to ensure accurate placement into all parts of infraspinatus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jelekin.2019.102354DOI Listing
December 2019

Muscle architecture of vastus medialis obliquus and longus and its functional implications: A three-dimensional investigation.

Clin Anat 2019 May 19;32(4):515-523. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Division of Anatomy, Department of Surgery, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Vastus medialis (VM) has two partitions, longus (VML), and obliquus (VMO), which have been implicated in knee pathologies. However, muscle architecture of VMO and VML has not been documented volumetrically. The aims of this study were to determine and compare the muscle architecture of VMO and VML in three-dimensional (3D) space, and to elucidate their relative functional capabilities. Twelve embalmed specimens were used in this study. Each specimen was serially dissected, digitized (Microscribe™ MX), and modeled in 3D (Autodesk Maya®). Architectural parameters: fiber bundle length (FBL), proximal (PPA)/distal (DPA) pennation angle, and physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) were compared using descriptive statistics/t-tests. Sarcomere lengths (SLs) were measured and compared from six biopsy sites of VM. VMO and VML were found to have superficial and deep parts based on fiber bundle attachments to aponeuroses, medial patellar retinaculum, and adductor magnus tendon. The superficial part of VMO was further subdivided into superior and inferior partitions. Architecturally, VMO was found to have significantly shorter mean FBL, greater mean PPA and DPA, and smaller mean PCSA than VML. VML was found to be connected to the fascia lata by thin fascial bands, not present in VMO. SLs of VMO and VML were comparable. VMO and VML are architecturally and functionally distinct, as evidenced by marked differences in their musculoaponeurotic geometry, attachment sites, and architectural parameters. VMO likely contributes greater to medial patellar stabilization, whereas VML, with a larger relative excursion and force-generating capability, to the extension of the knee. Clin. Anat. 32:515-523, 2019. © 2019 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ca.23344DOI Listing
May 2019