Publications by authors named "Shawn M Boles"

7 Publications

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Successful participant recruitment strategies for an online smokeless tobacco cessation program.

Nicotine Tob Res 2006 Dec;8 Suppl 1:S35-41

Oregon Research Institute, 1715 Franklin Blvd, Eugene, OR 97403, USA.

An estimated 22% of Americans currently use smokeless tobacco (ST). Most live in small towns and rural areas that offer few ST cessation resources. Approximately 94 million Americans use the Internet for health-related information, and on-line access is growing among lower-income and less-educated groups. As part of a randomized clinical trial to assess the reach and effectiveness of Web-based programs for delivering an ST cessation intervention, the authors developed and evaluated several methods for overcoming the recruitment challenges associated with Web-based research. This report describes and evaluates these methods. Participants were recruited through: (a) Thematic promotional "releases" to print and broadcast media, (b) Google ads, (c) placement of a link on other Web sites, (d) limited purchase of paid advertising, (e) direct mailings to ST users, and (f) targeted mailings to health care and tobacco control professionals. Combined recruitment activities resulted in more than 23,500 hits on our recruitment website from distinct IP addresses over 15 months, which yielded 2,523 eligible ST users who completed the registration process and enrolled in the study. Self-reports revealed that at least 1,276 (50.6%) of these participants were recruited via mailings, 874 (34.6%) from Google ads or via search engines or links on another Web site, and 373 (14.8%) from all other methods combined. The use of thematic mailings is novel in research settings. Recruitment of study participants went quickly and smoothly. Google ads and mailings to media outlets were the methods that recruited the highest number of participants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14622200601039014DOI Listing
December 2006

Using radon risk to motivate smoking reduction II: randomized evaluation of brief telephone counseling and a targeted video.

Health Educ Res 2008 Apr 9;23(2):191-201. Epub 2007 Apr 9.

Oregon Research Institute, Eugene, OR, USA.

Radon and cigarette smoking have synergistic effects on lung cancer risk. Electric utility company bill stuffers offered free radon test kits to households with at least one smoker. Participating households (n = 1364) were randomized within a 2 x 2 design to evaluate the main effects of brief telephone counseling and a targeted video on smoking cessation and the establishment of new household smoking bans. Phone counseling was associated with cessation at 3-month follow-up but neither intervention led to 12-month or sustained cessation. While neither intervention had a significant effect on new bans, there were trends in the predicted direction and the combination of the two significantly increased new bans compared with no intervention. The presence of children in the household was associated with new bans. While few households had high levels of radon, such levels were associated with radon mitigation behaviors. Together with a previous study, these results suggest radon risk is a useful and inexpensive way to engage smoking households in risk reduction behaviors, especially the institution of household smoking bans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/her/cym016DOI Listing
April 2008

Defining participant exposure measures in Web-based health behavior change programs.

J Med Internet Res 2006 Aug 30;8(3):e15. Epub 2006 Aug 30.

Oregon Research Institute, 1715 Franklin Blvd, Eugene, OR 97403, USA.

Background: Published research on the use of Web-based behavior change programs is growing rapidly. One of the observations characterized as problematic in these studies is that participants often make relatively few website visits and spend only a brief time accessing the program. Properly structured websites permit the unobtrusive measurement of the ways in which participants access (are exposed to) program content. Research on participant exposure to Web-based programs is not merely of interest to technologists, but represents an important opportunity to better understand the broader theme of program engagement and to guide the development of more effective interventions.

Objectives: The current paper seeks to provide working definitions and describe initial patterns of various measures of participant exposure to ChewFree.com, a large randomized controlled trial of a Web-based program for smokeless tobacco cessation.

Methods: We examined measures of participant exposure to either an Enhanced condition Web-based program (interactive, tailored, and rich-media program) or a Basic condition control website (static, text-based material). Specific measures focused on email prompting, participant visits (number, duration, and pattern of use over time), and Web page viewing (number of views, types of pages viewed, and Web forum postings).

Results: Participants in the ChewFree.com Enhanced condition made more visits and spent more time accessing their assigned website than did participants assigned to the Basic condition website. In addition, exposure data demonstrated that Basic condition users thoroughly accessed program content, indicating that the condition provided a meaningful, face-valid control to the Enhanced condition.

Conclusions: We recommend that researchers conducting evaluations of Web-based interventions consider the collection and analysis of exposure measures in the broader context of program engagement in order to assess whether participants obtain sufficient exposure to relevant program content.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/jmir.8.3.e15DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1761946PMC
August 2006

Evaluation of an Internet-based smoking cessation program: lessons learned from a pilot study.

Nicotine Tob Res 2003 Apr;5(2):189-94

Oregon Research Institute Eugene OR 97403, USA.

The potential contribution of the Internet to smoking cessation seems huge, given that a majority of Americans now have both computers and telephones. Despite the proliferation of Web sites offering smoking cessation support, there is little empirical evidence regarding the efficacy of Internet-delivered cessation programs. We developed a cessation Web site and conducted a short-term evaluation of it, examining recruitment approaches, Web site use patterns, alternative retention incentives and re-contact modes, satisfaction, and cessation rate. The intervention included modules on social support and cognitive-behavioral coping skills configured to take advantage of the interactive and multimedia capabilities of the Internet. Cessation and satisfaction data were obtained from a subsample of 370 subjects followed for 3 months. The program was rated as easy to use, and the social support group component was used most frequently. The cessation rate (abstinence for the previous 7 days) at 3 months was 18%, with nonrespondents (n=161) considered smokers. Among a variety of traditional and Internet-based recruitment strategies, the most successful made use of Internet user groups and search engines. Methodological and procedural issues posed in conducting research on the Internet are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1462220031000073694DOI Listing
April 2003

The D-Net diabetes self-management program: long-term implementation, outcomes, and generalization results.

Prev Med 2003 Apr;36(4):410-9

Kaiser Permanente Colorado and AMC Cancer Research Center, Denver, CO 80237-8066, USA.

Background: A prerequisite to translating research findings into practice is information on consistency of implementation, maintenance of results, and generalization of effects. This follow-up report is one of the few experimental studies to provide such information on Internet-based health education.

Methods: We present follow-up data 10 months following randomization on the "Diabetes Network (D-Net)" Internet-based self-management project, a randomized trial evaluating the incremental effects of adding (1) tailored self-management training or (2) peer support components to a basic Internet-based, information-focused comparison intervention. Participants were 320 adult type 2 diabetes patients from participating primary care offices, mean age 59 (SD = 9.2), who were relatively novice Internet users.

Results: All intervention components were consistently implemented by staff, but participant website usage decreased over time. All conditions were significantly improved from baseline on behavioral, psychosocial, and some biological outcomes; and there were few differences between conditions. Results were robust across on-line coaches, patient characteristics, and participating clinics.

Conclusions: The basic D-Net intervention was implemented well and improvements were observed across a variety of patients, interventionists, and clinics. There were, however, difficulties in maintaining usage over time and additions of tailored self-management and peer support components generally did not significantly improve results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0091-7435(02)00056-7DOI Listing
April 2003

Do Internet-based support interventions change perceptions of social support?: An experimental trial of approaches for supporting diabetes self-management.

Am J Community Psychol 2002 Oct;30(5):637-54

Oregon Research Institute, Eugene 97403-1983, USA.

Internet-based support groups are a rapidly growing segment of mutual aid programs for individuals with chronic illnesses and other challenges. Previous studies have informed us about the content of online exchanges between support group members, but we know little about the ability of these interventions to change participants' perceptions of support. A randomized trial of 160 adult Type 2 diabetes patients provided novice Internet users with computers and Internet access to 1 of 4 conditions: (a) diabetes information only, (b) a personal self-management coach, (c) a social support intervention, or (d) a personal self-management coach and the support intervention. After 3 months, individuals in the 2 support conditions reported significant increases in support on a diabetes-specific support measure and a general support scale. Participants' age was significantly related to change in social support, but intervention effects were still significant after accounting for this relationship. This report is a critical first step in evaluating the long-term effects of Internet-based support for diabetes self-management. The discussion identifies directions for future research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1016369114780DOI Listing
October 2002

Screening HMO women overdue for both mammograms and pap tests.

Prev Med 2002 Jan;34(1):40-50

Kaiser Permanente Northwest Center for Health Research, Portland, Oregon 97227, USA.

Background: Regular screening has the potential to reduce breast and cervical cancer mortality, but despite health plan programs to encourage screening, many women remain unscreened. Tailored communications have been identified as a promising approach to promote mammography and Pap test screening.

Methods: The study used a four-group randomized design to compare with Usual Care the separate and combined effects of two tailored, motivational interventions to increase screening-a clinical office In-reach intervention and a sequential letter/telephone Outreach intervention. Subjects were 510 female HMO members ages 52-69 who had had no mammogram in the past 2 years and no Pap smear in the past 3 years. Primary outcomes were the percentage of women in each condition who received a mammogram, a Pap smear, or both screening tests during the 14-month study period.

Results: Thirty-two percent of the Combined group, 39% of the Outreach group, and 26% of the In-reach group obtained both services versus 19% of Usual Care participants. Overall, compared with Usual Care, both Outreach (P = 0.006) and Combined (P = 0.05) screened significantly more women. For subjects ages 65-69, Outreach rates were lower than those of Usual Care.

Conclusion: A tailored letter-telephone Outreach appears to be more effective at screening women ages 52-64 than a tailored office-based intervention, in large part because most In-reach women did not have clinic visits at which to receive the intervention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/pmed.2001.0949DOI Listing
January 2002