Publications by authors named "Shawn A Zamani"

2 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Birth cohort-specific trends of sun-related behaviors among individuals from an international consortium of melanoma-prone families.

BMC Public Health 2021 04 23;21(1):692. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Dermatology, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Background: Individuals from melanoma-prone families have similar or reduced sun-protective behaviors compared to the general population. Studies on trends in sun-related behaviors have been temporally and geographically limited.

Methods: Individuals from an international consortium of melanoma-prone families (GenoMEL) were retrospectively asked about sunscreen use, sun exposure (time spent outside), sunburns, and sunbed use at several timepoints over their lifetime. Generalized linear mixed models were used to examine the association between these outcomes and birth cohort defined by decade spans, after adjusting for covariates.

Results: A total of 2407 participants from 547 families across 17 centers were analyzed. Sunscreen use increased across subsequent birth cohorts, and although the likelihood of sunburns increased until the 1950s birth cohort, it decreased thereafter. Average sun exposure did not change across the birth cohorts, and the likelihood of sunbed use increased in more recent birth cohorts. We generally did not find any differences in sun-related behavior when comparing melanoma cases to non-cases. Melanoma cases had increased sunscreen use, decreased sun exposure, and decreased odds of sunburn and sunbed use after melanoma diagnosis compared to before diagnosis.

Conclusions: Although sunscreen use has increased and the likelihood of sunburns has decreased in more recent birth cohorts, individuals in melanoma-prone families have not reduced their overall sun exposure and had an increased likelihood of sunbed use in more recent birth cohorts. These observations demonstrate partial improvements in melanoma prevention and suggest that additional intervention strategies may be needed to achieve optimal sun-protective behavior in melanoma-prone families.
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April 2021

Dietary Polyunsaturated Fat Intake in Relation to Head and Neck, Esophageal, and Gastric Cancer Incidence in the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study.

Am J Epidemiol 2020 10;189(10):1096-1113

Recent epidemiologic studies have examined the association of fish consumption with upper gastrointestinal cancer risk, but the associations with n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) subtypes remain unclear. Using the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study (United States, 1995-2011), we prospectively investigated the associations of PUFA subtypes, ratios, and fish with the incidence of head and neck cancer (HNC; n = 2,453), esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA; n = 855), esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (n = 267), and gastric cancer (cardia: n = 603; noncardia: n = 631) among 468,952 participants (median follow-up, 15.5 years). A food frequency questionnaire assessed diet. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression. A Benjamini-Hochberg (BH) procedure was used for false-discovery control. Long-chain n-3 PUFAs were associated with a 20% decreased HNC and EA risk (for HNC, quintile5 vs. 1 hazard ratio = 0.81, 95% confidence interval: 0.71, 0.92, and BH-adjusted Ptrend = 0.001; and for EA, quintile5 vs. 1 hazard ratio = 0.79, 95% confidence interval: 0.64, 0.98, and BH-adjusted Ptrend = 0.1). Similar associations were observed for nonfried fish but only for high intake. Further, the ratio of long-chain n-3:n-6 was associated with a decreased HNC and EA risk. No consistent associations were observed for gastric cancer. Our results indicate that dietary long-chain n-3 PUFA and nonfried fish intake are associated with lower HNC and EA risk.
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October 2020