Publications by authors named "Shashi B Gogia"

8 Publications

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Evidence-Based Health Informatics as the Foundation for the COVID-19 Response: A Joint Call for Action.

Methods Inf Med 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Center for Biomedical Data Science, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, United States.

Background:  As a major public health crisis, the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic demonstrates the urgent need for safe, effective, and evidence-based implementations of digital health. The urgency stems from the frequent tendency to focus attention on seemingly high promising digital health interventions despite being poorly validated in times of crisis.

Aim:  In this paper, we describe a joint call for action to use and leverage evidence-based health informatics as the foundation for the COVID-19 response and public health interventions. Tangible examples are provided for how the working groups and special interest groups of the International Medical Informatics Association (IMIA) are helping to build an evidence-based response to this crisis.

Methods:  Leaders of working and special interest groups of the IMIA, a total of 26 groups, were contacted via e-mail to provide a summary of the scientific-based efforts taken to combat COVID-19 pandemic and participate in the discussion toward the creation of this manuscript. A total of 13 groups participated in this manuscript.

Results:  Various efforts were exerted by members of IMIA including (1) developing evidence-based guidelines for the design and deployment of digital health solutions during COVID-19; (2) surveying clinical informaticians internationally about key digital solutions deployed to combat COVID-19 and the challenges faced when implementing and using them; and (3) offering necessary resources for clinicians about the use of digital tools in clinical practice, education, and research during COVID-19.

Discussion:  Rigor and evidence need to be taken into consideration when designing, implementing, and using digital tools to combat COVID-19 to avoid delays and unforeseen negative consequences. It is paramount to employ a multidisciplinary approach for the development and implementation of digital health tools that have been rapidly deployed in response to the pandemic bearing in mind human factors, ethics, data privacy, and the diversity of context at the local, national, and international levels. The training and capacity building of front-line workers is crucial and must be linked to a clear strategy for evaluation of ongoing experiences.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0041-1726414DOI Listing
May 2021

Telehealth and the COVID-19 Pandemic: International Perspectives and a Health Systems Framework for Telehealth Implementation to Support Critical Response.

Yearb Med Inform 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Sri Sathya Sai Central Trust, Puttaparthi, India.

Objectives: Telehealth implementation is a complex systems-based endeavour. This paper compares telehealth responses to (COrona VIrus Disease 2019) COVID-19 across ten countries to identify lessons learned about the complexity of telehealth during critical response such as in response to a global pandemic. Our overall objective is to develop a health systems-based framework for telehealth implementation to support critical response.

Methods: We sought responses from the members of the International Medical Informatics Association (IMIA) Telehealth Working Group (WG) on their practices and perception of telehealth practices during the times of COVID-19 pandemic in their respective countries. We then analysed their responses to identify six emerging themes that we mapped to the World Health Organization (WHO) model of health systems.

Results: Our analysis identified six emergent themes. (1) Government, legal or regulatory aspects of telehealth; (2) Increase in telehealth capacity and delivery; (3) Regulated and unregulated telehealth; (4) Changes in the uptake and perception of telemedicine; (5) Public engagement in telehealth responses to COVID-19; and (6) Implications for training and education. We discuss these themes and then use them to develop a systems framework for telehealth support in critical response.

Conclusion: COVID-19 has introduced new challenges for telehealth support in times of critical response. Our themes and systems framework extend the WHO systems model and highlight that telemedicine usage in response to the COVID-19 pandemic is complex and multidimensional. Our systems-based framework provides guidance for telehealth implementation as part of health systems response to a global pandemic such as COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0041-1726484DOI Listing
April 2021

Ethics in Telehealth: Comparison between Guidelines and Practice-based Experience -the Case for Learning Health Systems.

Yearb Med Inform 2020 Aug 17;29(1):44-50. Epub 2020 Apr 17.

School of Health Sciences, University of Canterbury, New Zealand.

Objectives: To understand ethical issues within the tele-health domain, specifically how well established macro level telehealth guidelines map with micro level practitioner perspectives.

Methods: We developed four overarching issues to use as a starting point for developing an ethical framework for telehealth. We then reviewed telemedicine ethics guidelines elaborated by the American Medical Association (AMA), the World Medical Association (WMA), and the telehealth component of the Health Professions council of South Africa (HPCSA). We then compared these guidelines with practitioner perspectives to identify the similarities and differences between them. Finally, we generated suggestions to bridge the gap between ethics guidelines and the micro level use of telehealth.

Results: Clear differences emerged between the ethics guidelines and the practitioner perspectives. The main reason for the differences were the different contexts where telehealth was used, for example, variability in international practice and variations in the complexity of patient-provider interactions. Overall, published guidelines largely focus on macro level issues related to technology and maintaining data security in patient-provider interactions while practitioner concern is focused on applying the guidelines to specific micro level contexts.

Conclusions: Ethics guidelines on telehealth have a macro level focus in contrast to the micro level needs of practitioners. Work is needed to close this gap. We recommend that both telehealth practitioners and ethics guideline developers better understand healthcare systems and adopt a learning health system approach that draws upon different contexts of clinical practice, innovative models of care delivery, emergent data and evidence-based outcomes. This would help develop a clearer set of priorities and guidelines for the ethical conduct of telehealth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0040-1701976DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7442533PMC
August 2020

Role of Artificial Intelligence within the Telehealth Domain.

Yearb Med Inform 2019 Aug 25;28(1):35-40. Epub 2019 Apr 25.

IBM Research, Brazil.

Objectives: This paper provides a discussion about the potential scope of applicability of Artificial Intelligence methods within the telehealth domain. These methods are focussed on clinical needs and provide some insight to current directions, based on reports of recent advances.

Methods: Examples of telehealth innovations involving Artificial Intelligence to support or supplement remote health care delivery were identified from recent literature by the authors, on the basis of expert knowledge. Observations from the examples were synthesized to yield an overview of contemporary directions for the perceived role of Artificial Intelligence in telehealth.

Results: Two major focus areas for related contemporary directions were established. These were first, quality improvement for existing clinical practice and service delivery, and second, the development and support of new models of care. Case studies from each focus area have been chosen for illustration purposes.

Conclusion: Examples of the role of Artificial Intelligence in delivery of health care remotely include use of tele-assessment, tele-diagnosis, tele-interactions, and tele-monitoring. Further developments of underlying algorithms and validation of methods will be required for wider adoption. Certain key social and ethical considerations also need consideration more generally in the health system, as Artificial-Intelligence-enabled-telehealth becomes more commonplace.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0039-1677897DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6697552PMC
August 2019

Balancing Health Information Exchange and Privacy Governance from a Patient-Centred Connected Health and Telehealth Perspective.

Yearb Med Inform 2018 Aug 22;27(1):48-54. Epub 2018 Apr 22.

University of Canterbury School of Health Sciences, Christchurch, New Zealand.

Objectives:  Connected healthcare is an essential part of patient-centred care delivery. Technology such as telehealth is a critical part of connected healthcare. However, exchanging health information brings the risk of privacy issues. To better manage privacy risks we first need to understand the different patterns of patient-centred care in order to tailor solutions to address privacy risks.

Methods:  Drawing upon published literature, we develop a business model to enable patient-centred care via telehealth. The model identifies three patient-centred connected health patterns. We then use the patterns to analyse potential privacy risks and possible solutions from different types of telehealth delivery.

Results:  Connected healthcare raises the risk of unwarranted access to health data and related invasion of privacy. However, the risk and extent of privacy issues differ according to the pattern of patient-centred care delivery and the type of particular challenge as they enable the highest degree of connectivity and thus the greatest potential for privacy breaches.

Conclusion:  Privacy issues are a major concern in telehealth systems and patients, providers, and administrators need to be aware of these privacy issues and have guidance on how to manage them. This paper integrates patient-centred connected health care, telehealth, and privacy risks to provide an understanding of how risks vary across different patterns of patient-centred connected health and different types of telehealth delivery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0038-1641195DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6115230PMC
August 2018

Methods for Faster and Efficient Data Entry in Electronic Medical Records.

Stud Health Technol Inform 2017 ;245:1264

Indian Spinal Injuries Centre, New Delhi, India.

Data entry remains the slowest link in the value chain inhibiting growth of Electronic Medical Records and attendant benefits towards Meaningful use. We designed templates for user forms customized by specialty. Here, we demonstrate the functionality of our software and provide instructions on how these can be adopted by other developers.
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June 2018

Compression therapy for ulcers: The science and the art.

Indian J Plast Surg 2012 May;45(2):275-82

Sanwari Bai Surgical Centre, New Delhi, India.

Introduction: Chronic ulcers are characterized by being resistant to all forms of treatment. Recent improvement in compression techniques, notably use of multilayer bandaging has created a need for a re-look into it's use.

Materials And Methods: The authors present two case reports of successful management of chronic ulcers using compression through bandaging where all other forms of treatment had failed. This is followed by a review of literature based on previous articles as well as more recent ones found through Pubmed.

Conclusion: It is suggested that, at least in India, compression through proper multilayer bandaging, should be a choice far higher in the treatment ladder than so previously. However, if the technique is improper, it may be harmful so the option is to be exercised with care and only by those who have received adequate training. The need of a team approach, and alongside, wider introduction of more and better training facilities for therapists and nurses is underlined.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0970-0358.101296DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3495378PMC
May 2012

Development, implementation and benefits of a rheumatology-specific electronic medical record application with automated display of outcome measures.

Int J Rheum Dis 2010 Oct;13(4):347-60

A&R Clinic for Arthritis and Rheumatism and Department of Rheumatology, ISIC Superspeciality Hospital, Vasant Kunj, New Delhi, India.

Objectives: To make a rheumatology-specific electronic medical record (EMR) application for easy clinical data entry, automated display of outcome measures in real-time that generates well laid-out print-outs; and provides an easily retrievable database for clinical analysis and research.

Methods: Highly labour-intensive 'MS-WORD ' template used earlier provided the basic framework for developing rheumatology-EMR applications. The authors, a rheumatologist and a soft tissue surgeon with expertise in developing medical software, successfully created a rheumatology-EMR application over a period of 2½ years using the same basic flow of work as used in the old 'MS-WORD ' template.

Results: The resulting EMR application form has a standard medical record documenting demographic data, complete diagnosis, appropriate dates, visit number, disease status, history, physical examination, investigations, follow-up and prescription page (with automatic updates wherever applicable). Mathematical calculations required for outcome measures (DAS, DAS28, CDAI, SDAI, AS-DAS, BASDAI, BASFI, BASMI, SLE-DAI and others) are embedded in the software, with automated updating as the examination of the musculoskeletal system proceeds in real time. Following implementation of this EMR application, more patients are being seen, patient waiting lists have been reduced; more time is available for academic and teaching work, without compromising the quality of notes, and print-outs for patients. Data retrieval has simplified clinical research with increased numbers of abstracts being presented and research papers being published.

Conclusion: Healthcare workers with understanding of the basic principles of computers and softwares should interact with software engineers who are either themselves medical doctors or are familiar with the workflow and clinical evaluation processes to create an efficient speciality-specific EMR application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1756-185X.2010.01551.xDOI Listing
October 2010