Publications by authors named "Sharon F Welbel"

11 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Identification of Presymptomatic and Asymptomatic Cases Using Cohort-Based Testing Approaches at a Large Correctional Facility-Chicago, Illinois, USA, May 2020.

Clin Infect Dis 2021 03;72(5):e128-e135

Cermak Health Services, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) continues to cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Correctional and detention facilities are at high risk of experiencing outbreaks. We aimed to evaluate cohort-based testing among detained persons exposed to laboratory-confirmed cases of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in order to identify presymptomatic and asymptomatic cases.

Methods: During 1-19 May 2020, 2 testing strategies were implemented in 12 tiers or housing units of the Cook County Jail, Chicago, Illinois. Detained persons were approached to participate in serial testing (n = 137) and offered tests at 3 time points over 14 days (day 1, days 3-5, and days 13-14). The second group was offered a single test and interview at the end of a 14-day quarantine period (day 14 group) (n = 87).

Results: 224 detained persons were approached for participation and, of these, 194 (87%) participated in ≥1 interview and 172 (77%) had ≥1 test. Of the 172 tested, 19 were positive for SARS-CoV-2. In the serial testing group, 17 (89%) new cases were detected, 16 (84%) on day 1, 1 (5%) on days 3-5, and none on days 13-14; in the day 14 group, 2 (11%) cases were identified. More than half (12/19; 63%) of the newly identified cases were presymptomatic or asymptomatic.

Conclusions: Our findings highlight the utility of cohort-based testing promptly after initiating quarantine within a housing tier. Cohort-based testing efforts identified new SARS-CoV-2 asymptomatic and presymptomatic infections that may have been missed by symptom screening alone.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa1802DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7799274PMC
March 2021

Tuberculosis Mortality in the United States: Epidemiology and Prevention Opportunities.

Ann Am Thorac Soc 2018 06;15(6):683-692

California Department of Public Health, Tuberculosis Control Branch, Richmond, California.

More information on risk factors for death from tuberculosis in the United States could help reduce the tuberculosis mortality rate, which has remained steady for more than a decade. To identify risk factors for tuberculosis-related death in adults. We performed a retrospective study of 1,304 adults with tuberculosis who died before treatment completion and 1,039 frequency-matched control subjects who completed tuberculosis treatment in 2005 to 2006 in 13 states reporting 65% of U.S. tuberculosis cases. We used in-depth record abstractions and a standard algorithm to classify deaths in persons with tuberculosis as tuberculosis-related or not. We then compared these classifications to causes of death as coded in death certificates. We used multivariable logistic regression to calculate adjusted odds ratios for predictors of tuberculosis-related death among adults compared with those who completed tuberculosis treatment. Of 1,304 adult deaths, 942 (72%) were tuberculosis related, 272 (21%) were not, and 90 (7%) could not be classified. Of 847 tuberculosis-related deaths with death certificates available, 378 (45%) did not list tuberculosis as a cause of death. Adjusting for known risks, we identified new risks for tuberculosis-related death during treatment: absence of pyrazinamide in the initial regimen (adjusted odds ratio, 3.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.9-6.0); immunosuppressive medications (adjusted odds ratio, 2.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-5.6); incomplete tuberculosis diagnostic evaluation (adjusted odds ratio, 2.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.5-3.3), and an alternative nontuberculosis diagnosis before tuberculosis diagnosis (adjusted odds ratio, 1.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-2.2). Most persons who died with tuberculosis had a tuberculosis-related death. Intensive record review revealed tuberculosis as a cause of death more often than did death certificate diagnoses. New tools, such as a tuberculosis mortality risk score based on our study findings, may identify patients with tuberculosis for in-hospital interventions to prevent death.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1513/AnnalsATS.201705-405OCDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6531349PMC
June 2018

Pseudo-outbreak of Mycobacterium gordonae Following the Opening of a newly constructed hospital at a Chicago Medical Center.

Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2015 Feb;36(2):198-203

3Rush University Medical Center,Chicago,IL,USA.

OBJECTIVE To identify the source of a pseudo-outbreak of Mycobacterium gordonae DESIGN Outbreak investigation. SETTING University Hospital in Chicago, Ilinois. PATIENTS Hospital patients with M. gordonae-positive clinical cultures. METHODS An increase in isolation of M. gordonae from clinical cultures was noted immediately following the opening of a newly constructed hospital in January 2012. We reviewed medical records of patients with M. gordonae-positive cultures collected between January and December 2012 and cultured potable water specimens in new and old hospitals quantitatively for mycobacteria. RESULTS Of 30 patients with M. gordonae-positive clinical cultures, 25 (83.3%) were housed in the new hospital; of 35 positive specimens (sputum, bronchoalveolar lavage, gastric aspirate), 32 (91.4%) had potential for water contamination. M. gordonae was more common in water collected from the new vs. the old hospital [147 of 157 (93.6%) vs. 91 of 113 (80.5%), P=.001]. Median concentration of M. gordonae was higher in the samples from the new vs. the old hospital (208 vs. 48 colony-forming units (CFU)/mL; P<.001). Prevalence and concentration of M. gordonae were lower in water samples from ice and water dispensers [13 of 28 (46.4%) and 0 CFU/mL] compared with water samples from patient rooms and common areas [225 of 242 (93%) and 146 CFU/mL, P<.001]. CONCLUSIONS M. gordonae was common in potable water. The pseudo-outbreak of M. gordonae was likely due to increased concentrations of M. gordonae in the potable water supply of the new hospital. A silver ion-impregnated 0.5-μm filter may have been responsible for lower concentrations of M. gordonae identified in ice/water dispenser samples. Hospitals should anticipate that construction activities may amplify the presence of waterborne nontuberculous mycobacterial contaminants.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/ice.2014.28DOI Listing
February 2015

Protecting health care workers from tuberculosis: a 10-year experience.

Am J Infect Control 2009 Oct 28;37(8):668-73. Epub 2009 Apr 28.

Department of Medicine/Infectious Disease, Rush Medical College, and John H Stroger Jr. Hospital of Cook County, Chicago, IL 60612, USA.

Background: Cook County Hospital (CCH) is an inner-city, large public hospital. Twenty-five percent of Chicago's tuberculosis (TB) cases are diagnosed at CCH. We wanted to review and analyze interventions implemented over a 10-year period at CCH to prevent TB infection in health care workers.

Methods: We performed a retrospective review of interventions to prevent health care-associated tuberculosis. We collated and analyzed tuberculin skin test conversions in our employees for the same time period.

Results: From 1990 to 2002, we cared for over 1800 in-patients with tuberculosis. During 1992-1997, multiple interventions to eliminate health care-associated spread of tuberculosis were implemented. Tuberculin skin test conversions in our employees decreased markedly from January 1994 through December 2002. Two drops in tuberculin skin test conversion rates occurred: one after introduction of basic administrative and engineering controls and a second after we experienced a decrease in missed TB cases and the introduction of N-95 personal respirators with 1-time qualitative fit testing.

Conclusion: Our annual health care worker skin test conversion rate fell significantly when our primary interventions were relatively simple administrative and engineering controls. Educating health care workers to promptly recognize patients with TB and placing exhaust fans to create negative-pressure respiratory isolation rooms were probably our 2 most potent infection control measures.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajic.2009.01.004DOI Listing
October 2009

Effect of education on hand hygiene beliefs and practices: a 5-year program.

Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2007 Jan 15;28(1):88-91. Epub 2006 Dec 15.

John H. Stroger Jr. Hospital of Cook County, Chicago, IL 60612, USA.

To evaluate infection control and hand hygiene understanding at 3 public hospitals, we surveyed 4,345 healthcare workers (HCWs) 3 times during a 5-year infection control intervention. The preference for the use of alcohol hand rub for hand hygiene increased dramatically; in nurses, it increased from 14% to 34%; in physicians, 4.3% to 51%; and in allied HCWs, 12% to 44%. Study year, infection control interactive education-session attendance, infection control knowledge, and being a physician or allied HCW independently predicted a preference for alcohol hand rub.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/510792DOI Listing
January 2007

Multicenter intervention program to increase adherence to hand hygiene recommendations and glove use and to reduce the incidence of antimicrobial resistance.

Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2007 Jan 3;28(1):42-9. Epub 2007 Jan 3.

Collaborative Research Unit, Department of Medicine, Stroger Hospital of Cook County, Chicago, IL 60612, USA.

Objective: To determine whether a multimodal intervention could improve adherence to hand hygiene and glove use recommendations and decrease the incidence of antimicrobial resistance in different types of healthcare facilities.

Design: Prospective, observational study performed from October 1, 1999, through December 31, 2002. We monitored adherence to hand hygiene and glove use recommendations and the incidence of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria among isolates from clinical cultures. We evaluated trends in and predictors for adherence and preferential use of alcohol-based hand rubs, using multivariable analyses.

Setting: Three intervention hospitals (a 660-bed acute and long-term care hospital, a 120-bed community hospital, and a 600-bed public teaching hospital) and a control hospital (a 700-bed university teaching hospital).Intervention. At the intervention hospitals, we introduced or increased the availability of alcohol-based hand rub, initiated an interactive education program, and developed a poster campaign; at the control hospital, we only increased the availability of alcohol-based hand rub.

Results: We observed 6,948 hand hygiene opportunities. The frequency of hand hygiene performance or glove use significantly increased during the study period at the intervention hospitals but not at the control hospital; the maximum quarterly frequency of hand hygiene performance or glove use at intervention hospitals (74%, 80%, and 77%) was higher than that at the control hospital (59%). By multivariable analysis, preferential use of alcohol-based hand rubs rather than soap and water for hand hygiene was more likely among workers at intervention hospitals compared with nonintervention hospitals (adjusted odds ratio, 4.6 [95% confidence interval, 3.3-6.4]) and more likely among physicians (adjusted odds ratio, 1.4 [95% confidence interval, 1.2-1.8]) than among nurses at intervention hospitals. A significantly reduced incidence of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria among isolates from clinical culture was found at a single intervention hospital, which had the greatest increase in the frequency of hand hygiene performance.

Conclusions: During a 3-year period, a multimodal intervention program increased adherence to hand hygiene recommendations, especially to the use of alcohol-based hand rubs. In one hospital, a concomitant reduction was found in the incidence of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria among isolates from clinical cultures.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/510809DOI Listing
January 2007

Management of outbreaks of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection in the neonatal intensive care unit: a consensus statement.

Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2006 Feb 8;27(2):139-45. Epub 2006 Feb 8.

Chicago Department of Public Health, Chicago, IL 60612, USA.

Objective: In 2002, the Chicago Department of Public Health (CDPH; Chicago, Illinois) convened the Chicago-Area Neonatal MRSA Working Group (CANMWG) to discuss and compare approaches aimed at control of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). To better understand these issues on a regional level, the CDPH and the Evanston Department of Health and Human Services (EDHHS; Evanston, Illinois) began an investigation.

Design: Survey to collect demographic, clinical, microbiologic, and epidemiologic data on individual cases and clusters of MRSA infection; an additional survey collected data on infection control practices.

Setting: Level III NICUs at Chicago-area hospitals.

Participants: Neonates and healthcare workers associated with the level III NICUs.

Methods: From June 2001 through September 2002, the participating hospitals reported all clusters of MRSA infection in their respective level III NICUs to the CDPH and the EDHHS.

Results: Thirteen clusters of MRSA infection were detected in level III NICUs, and 149 MRSA-positive infants were reported. Infection control surveys showed that hospitals took different approaches for controlling MRSA colonization and infection in NICUs.

Conclusion: The CANMWG developed recommendations for the prevention and control of MRSA colonization and infection in the NICU and agreed that recommendations should expand to include future data generated by further studies. Continuing partnerships between hospital infection control personnel and public health professionals will be crucial in honing appropriate guidelines for effective approaches to the management and control of MRSA colonization and infection in NICUs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/501216DOI Listing
February 2006

Computer algorithms to detect bloodstream infections.

Emerg Infect Dis 2004 Sep;10(9):1612-20

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

We compared manual and computer-assisted bloodstream infection surveillance for adult inpatients at two hospitals. We identified hospital-acquired, primary, central-venous catheter (CVC)-associated bloodstream infections by using five methods: retrospective, manual record review by investigators; prospective, manual review by infection control professionals; positive blood culture plus manual CVC determination; computer algorithms; and computer algorithms and manual CVC determination. We calculated sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, plus the kappa statistic (kappa) between investigator review and other methods, and we correlated infection rates for seven units. The kappa value was 0.37 for infection control review, 0.48 for positive blood culture plus manual CVC determination, 0.49 for computer algorithm, and 0.73 for computer algorithm plus manual CVC determination. Unit-specific infection rates, per 1,000 patient days, were 1.0-12.5 by investigator review and 1.4-10.2 by computer algorithm (correlation r = 0.91, p = 0.004). Automated bloodstream infection surveillance with electronic data is an accurate alternative to surveillance with manually collected data.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3320282PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1009.030978DOI Listing
September 2004

Unnecessary use of central venous catheters: the need to look outside the intensive care unit.

Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2004 Mar;25(3):266-8

Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

We developed criteria for justifiable CVC use and evaluated CVC use in a public hospital. Unjustified CVC-days were more common for non-ICU patients compared with ICU patients. Also, insertion-site dressings were less likely to be intact on non-ICU patients. Interventions to reduce CVC-associated bloodstream infections should include non-ICU patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/502390DOI Listing
March 2004

Impact of ring wearing on hand contamination and comparison of hand hygiene agents in a hospital.

Clin Infect Dis 2003 Jun 22;36(11):1383-90. Epub 2003 May 22.

Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA.

We determined risk factors for hand contamination and compared the efficacy of 3 randomly allocated hand hygiene agents in a group of surgical intensive care unit nurses. We cultured samples of one of the subjects' hands before and samples of the other hand after hand hygiene was performed. Ring wearing was associated with 10-fold higher median skin organism counts; contamination with Staphylococcus aureus, gram-negative bacilli, or Candida species; and a stepwise increased risk of contamination with any transient organism as the number of rings worn increased (odds ratio [OR] for 1 ring worn, 2.6; OR for >1 ring worn, 4.6). Compared with use of plain soap and water, hand contamination with any transient organism was significantly less likely after use of an alcohol-based hand rub (OR, 0.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.1-0.8) but not after use of a medicated hand wipe (OR, 0.9; 95% CI, 0.5-1.6). Ring wearing increased the frequency of hand contamination with potential nosocomial pathogens. Use of an alcohol-based hand rub resulted in significantly less frequent hand contamination.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/374852DOI Listing
June 2003

Adherence with hand hygiene: does number of sinks matter?

Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2003 Mar;24(3):224-5

Cook County Hospital, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

We observed adherence with hand hygiene in 14 units at 4 hospitals with varying sink-to-bed ratios (range, 1:1 to 1:6). Adherence was less than 50% in all units and there was no significant trend toward improved hand hygiene with increased sink-to-bed ratios.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/502193DOI Listing
March 2003
-->