Publications by authors named "Sharon Bingham"

10 Publications

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Cannabidivarin Treatment Ameliorates Autism-Like Behaviors and Restores Hippocampal Endocannabinoid System and Glia Alterations Induced by Prenatal Valproic Acid Exposure in Rats.

Front Cell Neurosci 2019 9;13:367. Epub 2019 Aug 9.

Department of Biotechnology and Life Sciences, University of Insubria, Varese, Italy.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental condition whose primary features include social communication and interaction impairments with restricted or repetitive motor movements. No approved treatment for the core symptoms is available and considerable research efforts aim at identifying effective therapeutic strategies. Emerging evidence suggests that altered endocannabinoid signaling and immune dysfunction might contribute to ASD pathogenesis. In this scenario, phytocannabinoids could hold great pharmacological potential due to their combined capacities to act either directly or indirectly on components of the endocannabinoid system and to modulate immune functions. Among all plant-cannabinoids, the phytocannabinoid cannabidivarin (CBDV) was recently shown to reduce motor impairments and cognitive deficits in animal models of Rett syndrome, a condition showing some degree of overlap with autism, raising the possibility that CBDV might have therapeutic potential in ASD. Here, we investigated the ability of CBDV treatment to reverse or prevent ASD-like behaviors in male rats prenatally exposed to valproic acid (VPA; 500 mg/kg i.p.; gestation day 12.5). The offspring received CBDV according to two different protocols: symptomatic (0.2/2/20/100 mg/kg i.p.; postnatal days 34-58) and preventative (2/20 mg/kg i.p.; postnatal days 19-32). The major efficacy of CBDV was observed at the dose of 20 mg/kg for both treatment schedules. CBDV in symptomatic rats recovered social impairments, social novelty preference, short-term memory deficits, repetitive behaviors and hyperlocomotion whereas preventative treatment reduced sociability and social novelty deficits, short-term memory impairments and hyperlocomotion, without affecting stereotypies. As dysregulations in the endocannabinoid system and neuroinflammatory markers contribute to the development of some ASD phenotypes in the VPA model, neurochemical studies were performed after symptomatic treatment to investigate possible CBDV's effects on the endocannabinoid system, inflammatory markers and microglia activation in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Prenatal VPA exposure increased CB1 receptor, FAAH and MAGL levels, enhanced GFAP, CD11b, and TNF╬▒ levels and triggered microglia activation restricted to the hippocampus. All these alterations were restored after CBDV treatment. These data provide preclinical evidence in support of the ability of CBDV to ameliorate behavioral abnormalities resembling core and associated symptoms of ASD. At the neurochemical level, symptomatic CBDV restores hippocampal endocannabinoid signaling and neuroinflammation induced by prenatal VPA exposure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fncel.2019.00367DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6696797PMC
August 2019

Identification of [4-[4-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl]-6-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pyrimidinyl] amines and ethers as potent and selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2009 Aug 26;19(15):4504-8. Epub 2009 Feb 26.

Pain and Neuroexcitability Discovery Performance Unit, Neurosciences Centre of Excellence for Drug Discovery, GlaxoSmithKline, New Frontiers Science Park, Third Avenue, Harlow, Essex CM19 5AW, UK.

A novel series of [4-[4-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl]-6-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pyrimidine-based cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors, which have a different arrangement of substituents compared to the more common 1,2-diarylheterocycle based molecules, have been discovered. For example, 2-(butyloxy)-4-[4-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl]-6-(trifluoromethyl)pyrimidine (47), a member of the 2-pyrimidinyl ether series, has been shown to be a potent and selective inhibitor with a favourable pharmacokinetic profile, high brain penetration and good efficacy in rat models of hypersensitivity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2009.02.085DOI Listing
August 2009

Activation of the alpha7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor reverses complete freund adjuvant-induced mechanical hyperalgesia in the rat via a central site of action.

J Pain 2008 Jul;9(7):580-7

Neurology and Gastrointestinal Centre of Excellence for Drug Discovery, GlaxoSmithKline Pharmaceuticals, Harlow, Essex, United Kingdom.

Unlabelled: The role of specific nicotinic receptor (nAChR) subtypes in antinociception has not been fully elucidated because of the lack, until recently, of selective tool compounds. (R)-N-(1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl)(5-(2-pyridyl)thiopene-2-carboxamide) (compound B) is reported to be an agonist selective for the alpha(7)nAChR and in the present study was found to be efficacious in inflammatory pain models in 2 species. Compound B reversed complete Freund adjuvant-induced reductions in paw withdrawal thresholds in rat and mouse in a dose-related manner, producing maximum reversals of 65% +/- 4% at 10 mg/kg and 87% +/- 15% at 20 mg/kg. When rats and mice were predosed with the centrally penetrant, broad-spectrum nicotinic receptor antagonist mecamylamine, the efficacy of the agonist was significantly inhibited, producing reversals of only 11% +/- 5% at 10 mg/kg and 5% +/- 13% at 20 mg/kg, confirming activity via nicotinic receptors. Rats were also predosed systemically with the selective low-brain penetrant alpha(7)-antagonist methyllycaconitine, which had no effect on agonist activity (90% +/- 18% at 10 mg/kg), suggesting a central involvement. This hypothesis was further established with methyllycaconitine completely inhibited the agonist effect when dosed intrathecally (1% +/- 7%).

Perspective: These studies provide good rationale for the utility of selective, central nervous system penetrant agonists at the alpha(7)-nicotinic receptor for the treatment of inflammatory pain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpain.2008.01.336DOI Listing
July 2008

Novel histamine H3 receptor antagonists GSK189254 and GSK334429 are efficacious in surgically-induced and virally-induced rat models of neuropathic pain.

Pain 2008 Aug 31;138(1):61-69. Epub 2007 Dec 31.

Neurology and GI Centre of Excellence for Drug Discovery, GlaxoSmithKline, Third Avenue, Harlow, Essex CM19 5AW, UK School of Veterinary Medicine, College of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Summerhall, Edinburgh EH9 1QH, UK.

Several studies have implicated a potential role for histamine H(3) receptors in pain processing, although the data are somewhat conflicting. In the present study we investigated the effects of the novel potent and highly selective H(3) receptor antagonists GSK189254 (6-[(3-cyclobutyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-3-benzazepin-7-yl)oxy]-N-methyl-3-pyridinecarboxamide hydrochloride) and GSK334429 (1-(1-methylethyl)-4-([1-[6-(trifluoromethyl)-3-pyridinyl]-4-piperidinyl]carbonyl)hexahydro-1H-1,4-diazepine) in two rat models of neuropathic pain, namely the chronic constriction injury (CCI) model and the varicella-zoster virus (VZV) model. Both GSK189254 (0.3, 3 and/or 10mg/kg p.o.) and GSK334429 (1, 3 and 10mg/kg p.o.) significantly reversed the CCI-induced decrease in paw withdrawal threshold (PWT) measured using an analgesymeter and/or von Frey hairs. In addition, GSK189254 (3mg/kg p.o.) and GSK334429 (10mg/kg p.o.) both reversed the VZV-induced decrease in PWT using von Frey hairs. We also investigated the potential site of action of this analgesic effect of H(3) antagonists using autoradiography. Specific binding to H(3) receptors was demonstrated with [(3)H]-GSK189254 in the dorsal horn of the human and rat spinal cord, and in human dorsal root ganglion (DRG), consistent with the potential involvement of H(3) receptors in pain processing. In conclusion, we have shown for the first time that chronic oral administration of selective H(3) antagonists is effective in reversing neuropathic hypersensitivity in disease-related models, and that specific H(3) receptor binding sites are present in the human DRG and dorsal horn of the spinal cord. These data suggest that H(3) antagonists such as GSK189254 and GSK334429 may be useful for the treatment of neuropathic pain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pain.2007.11.006DOI Listing
August 2008

The role of the cylooxygenase pathway in nociception and pain.

Semin Cell Dev Biol 2006 Oct 23;17(5):544-54. Epub 2006 Sep 23.

Neurology and Gastrointestinal CEDD, GlaxoSmithKline, Coldharbour Road, Harlow, Essex CM19 5AW, UK.

Cycloxygenase (COX) pathways have long been targeted for the treatment of inflammatory pain, initially through the use of NSAIDs. With the demonstration of two major COX isoforms, COX-1 and COX-2, involved in the production of prostanoids, but with different distribution and regulation, selective COX-2 inhibitors have been developed. This review covers factors influencing COX enzyme activity, the role of their products in the development and maintenance of pain and discusses recent safety concerns of COX-2 inhibitors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.semcdb.2006.09.001DOI Listing
October 2006

Prostanoid receptor EP1 and Cox-2 in injured human nerves and a rat model of nerve injury: a time-course study.

BMC Neurol 2006 Jan 4;6. Epub 2006 Jan 4.

Peripheral Neuropathy Unit, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Hospital, London W12 0NN, UK.

Background: Recent studies show that inflammatory processes may contribute to neuropathic pain. Cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) is an inducible enzyme responsible for production of prostanoids, which may sensitise sensory neurones via the EP1 receptor. We have recently reported that while macrophages infiltrate injured nerves within days of injury, they express increased Cox-2-immunoreactivity (Cox-2-IR) from 2 to 3 weeks after injury. We have now investigated the time course of EP1 and Cox-2 changes in injured human nerves and dorsal root ganglia (DRG), and the chronic constriction nerve injury (CCI) model in the rat.

Methods: Tissue sections were immunostained with specific antibodies to EP1, Cox-2, CD68 (human macrophage marker) or OX42 (rat microglial marker), and neurofilaments (NF), prior to image analysis, from the following: human brachial plexus nerves (21 to 196 days post-injury), painful neuromas (9 days to 12 years post-injury), avulsion injured DRG, control nerves and DRG, and rat CCI model tissues. EP1 and NF-immunoreactive nerve fibres were quantified by image analysis.

Results: EP1:NF ratio was significantly increased in human brachial plexus nerve fibres, both proximal and distal to injury, in comparison with uninjured nerves. Sensory neurones in injured human DRG showed a significant acute increase of EP1-IR intensity. While there was a rapid increase in EP1-fibres and CD-68 positive macrophages, Cox-2 increase was apparent later, but was persistent in human painful neuromas for years. A similar time-course of changes was found in the rat CCI model with the above markers, both in the injured nerves and ipsilateral dorsal spinal cord.

Conclusion: Different stages of infiltration and activation of macrophages may be observed in the peripheral and central nervous system following peripheral nerve injury. EP1 receptor level increase in sensory neurones, and macrophage infiltration, appears to precede increased Cox-2 expression by macrophages. However, other methods for detecting Cox-2 levels and activity are required. EP1 antagonists may show therapeutic effects in acute and chronic neuropathic pain, in addition to inflammatory pain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2377-6-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1361784PMC
January 2006

The cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor GW406381X [2-(4-ethoxyphenyl)-3-[4-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl]-pyrazolo[1,5-b]pyridazine] is effective in animal models of neuropathic pain and central sensitization.

J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2005 Mar 30;312(3):1161-9. Epub 2004 Nov 30.

Pain Research Department, Neurology and Gastrointestinal Centre of Excellence for Drug Discovery, GlaxoSmithKline Pharmaceuticals, 3rd Avenue, Harlow, Essex CM19 5AW, UK.

The pathogenic form of the cyclooxygenase (COX) enzyme, COX-2, is also constitutively present in the spinal cord and has been implicated in chronic pain states in rat and man. A number of COX-2 inhibitors, including celecoxib and rofecoxib, are already used in man for the treatment of inflammatory pain. Preclinically, the dual-acting COX-2 inhibitor, GW406381X [2-(4-ethoxyphenyl)-3-[4-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl]-pyrazolo[1,5-b]pyridazine, where X denotes the free base], is as effective as rofecoxib and celecoxib in the rat established Freund's Complete Adjuvant model with an ED(50) of 1.5 mg/kg p.o. compared with 1.0 mg/kg p.o. for rofecoxib and 6.6 mg/kg p.o. for celecoxib. However, in contrast to celecoxib (5 mg/kg p.o. b.i.d.) and rofecoxib (5 mg/kg p.o. b.i.d.), which were without significant effect, GW406381X (5 mg/kg p.o. b.i.d.) fully reversed mechanical allodynia in the chronic constriction injury model and reversed thermal hyperalgesia in the mouse partial ligation model, both models of neuropathic pain. GW406381X, was also effective in a rat model of capsaicin-induced central sensitization, when given intrathecally (ED(50) = 0.07 mug) and after chronic but not acute oral dosing. Celecoxib and rofecoxib had no effect in this model. Several hypotheses have been proposed to try to explain these differences in efficacy, including central nervous system penetration, enzyme kinetics, and potency. The novel finding of effectiveness of GW406381X in these models of neuropathic pain/central sensitization, in addition to activity in inflammatory pain models and together with its central efficacy, suggests dual activity of GW406381X compared with celecoxib and rofecoxib, which may translate into greater efficacy in a broader spectrum of pain states in the clinic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/jpet.104.075267DOI Listing
March 2005

Allodynia in rats infected with varicella zoster virus--a small animal model for post-herpetic neuralgia.

Brain Res Brain Res Rev 2004 Oct;46(2):234-42

Center for Infectious Disease, School of Veterinary Medicine, Division of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 1QH, UK.

The most common complication of herpes zoster is post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN), which has been defined as severe pain occurring 1 month after rash onset or persisting for greater than 3 months. PHN is classed as a neuropathic pain that is associated with mechanical allodynia where normally innocuous tactile stimuli are perceived as painful. The development of therapies to treat PHN has been hampered by the lack of animal models, which mimic the clinical situation. We have previously reported that varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection in the rat results in mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia. Here, we report that following VZV infection of the left footpad rats develop a chronic mechanical allodynia, which is present for longer than 60 days post-infection and which resolves by 100 days PI. The model is robust and reproducible with animals consistently developing allodynia by 3 days PI and continuing to present with symptoms for at least 30 days. The reproducible nature of the induction and course of the allodynia allows the use of this model to determine the effect of various compounds on, and to investigate the pathogenic mechanisms underlying the development of VZV-induced allodynia. Comparative studies using HSV-1 show that the induction of the chronic allodynia is VZV-specific and is not a result is of virus replication-induced tissue damage or accompanying inflammation. Therefore, we propose that the rat VZV infection model could prove useful in studying the mechanisms underlying post-herpetic neuralgia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresrev.2004.07.008DOI Listing
October 2004

Identification of 2,3-diaryl-pyrazolo[1,5-b]pyridazines as potent and selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2004 Nov;14(21):5445-8

Neurology and Gastrointestinal Diseases, Centre of Excellence for Drug Discovery, GlaxoSmithKline, New Frontiers Science Park, Third Avenue, Harlow, Essex CM19 5AW, UK.

GW406381 (8), currently undergoing clinical evaluation for the treatment of inflammatory pain is a member of a novel series of 2,3-diaryl-pyrazolo[1,5-b]pyridazine based cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors, which have been shown to be highly potent and selective. Several examples of the series, in addition to possessing favourable pharmacokinetic profiles and analgesic activity in vivo, have also demonstrated relatively high brain penetration in the rat compared with the clinically available compounds, which may ultimately prove beneficial in the treatment of pain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2004.07.089DOI Listing
November 2004

Evidence for a selective role of the delta-opioid agonist [8R-(4bS*,8aalpha,8abeta, 12bbeta)]7,10-Dimethyl-1-methoxy-11-(2-methylpropyl)oxycarbonyl 5,6,7,8,12,12b-hexahydro-(9H)-4,8-methanobenzofuro[3,2-e]pyrrolo[2,3-g]isoquinoline hydrochloride (SB-235863) in blocking hyperalgesia associated with inflammatory and neuropathic pain responses.

J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2003 Dec 9;307(3):1079-89. Epub 2003 Oct 9.

Department of Neurobiology Research, GlaxoSmithKline Chemicals, Milano, Italy.

The specific involvement of the delta-opioid receptor in the control of nociception was explored by investigating the pharmacological activity in vivo of a selective, orally active, and centrally penetrant delta-opioid agonist. [8R-(4bS*,8aalpha,8abeta,12bbeta)]7,10-dimethyl-1-methoxy-11-(2-methylpropyl)oxycarbonyl 5,6,7,8,12,12b-hexahydro-(9H)-4,8-methanobenzofuro[3,2-e]pyrrolo[2,3-g]isoquinoline hydrochloride (SB-235863) is a new pyrrolomorphinan with high affinity (Ki = 4.81 +/- 0.39 nM) for the delta-opioid receptor, full agonist activity, and binding selectivity versus the mu- and kappa-opioid receptors of 189-fold and 52-fold, respectively. Perorally administered SB-236863 was inactive in the rat tail-flick and hot-plate tests of acute pain response, but potently reversed thermal hyperalgesia in rats resulting from a carrageenan-induced inflammatory response. This activity could be blocked by the delta-opioid antagonist naltrindole (3 mg/kg s.c.), but selective mu- and kappa-opioid antagonists were ineffective. Naltrindole (1 microg i.c.v.) also blocked the activity of 10 mg/kg (p.o.) SB-235863, showing that the compound activates delta-opioid receptor sites in the central nervous system. SB-235863 was additionally effective at reversing chronic hyperalgesia in the Seltzer rat model of partial sciatic nerve ligation after peroral administration. These data show that the delta-opioid receptor plays a selective role in regulating evoked and lasting changes in nociceptive pain signaling. Classical side effects of mu- and kappa-opioid receptor activation (slowing of gastrointestinal transit and motor incoordination, respectively) were not observed after administration of 70 mg/kg (p.o.) SB-235863, nor was evoked seizure activity affected. These results suggest a selective and limited role of delta-opioid receptors in the modulation of nociception.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/jpet.103.055590DOI Listing
December 2003
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