Publications by authors named "Sharmin Kharrazi"

22 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Development of a new method for isolation of urban air particulates deposited in the human lung tissue.

Chemosphere 2021 Apr 27;280:130585. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Center for Air Pollution Research (CAPR), Institute for Environmental Research (IER), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Research Methodology and Data Analysis, Institute for Environmental Research (IER), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Particulate matters (PMs) are important pollutants in urban air pollution because of their variable composition. The pulmonary clearance of PMs is critical to prevent long-term immunological responses. This study established a new method for the isolation of probably deposited urban air particulates from the human lung tissue, to investigate the features of uncleared particulates. The lung samples were acellularized with SDS solution of various concentrations ranging from 1 to 10%to lyse cells and release the PMs. In addition, the extracellular matrix (ECM) that remained was digested by proteinase K enzyme. The results of this study demonstrated that an SDS solution of 4% is the optimum concentration for the isolation of settled PMs from the lung tissue. Moreover, the used enzymatic method could separate settled PMs from the lung ECM appropriately. The results exhibited that epithelial cells form 46% of the samples' weight on average, whereas just 20% of isolated PMs were found in this part of the tissue. Both groups of separated PMs tend to agglomerate, but it is significantly higher in cellular isolated PMs. The particles separated from ECM have an agglomeration tendency, which is observable only by FE-SEM imaging. Moreover, we found a major part of urban air PMs deposited in ECM. The established method in this study can be used in future investigations to isolate other types of PMs settled in the lung, such as occupationally inhaled carbonaceous particulates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.130585DOI Listing
April 2021

Colloidal synthesis of tunably luminescent AgInS-based/ZnS core/shell quantum dots as biocompatible nano-probe for high-contrast fluorescence bioimaging.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2020 Jun 3;111:110807. Epub 2020 Mar 3.

Natural Products and Medicinal Plants Research Center, North Khorasan University of Medical Sciences, Bojnurd, Iran; Medical Biomaterials Research Center (MBRC), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, 14177-55469 Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Tremendous demands for simultaneous imaging of biological entities, along with the drawback of photobleaching in fluorescent dyes, have encouraged scientists to apply novel and non-toxic colloidal quantum dots (QDs) in biomedical researches. Herein, a novel aqueous-phase approach for the preparation of multicomponent In-based QDs is reported. Absorption and photoluminescence emission spectra of the as-prepared QDs were tuned by alteration of QDs' composition as Zn-Ag-In-S/ZnS, Ag-In-S/ZnS and Cu-Ag-In-S/ZnS core/shell QDs. In order to reach reproducibly intense and tunable light-emissive colloidal QDs with green, amber, and red color, various optimization steps were carefully performed. The structural characterizations such as EDX, ICP-AES, XRD, TEM and FT-IR measurements were also carried out to demonstrate the success of the present method to prepare extremely quantum-confined QDs capped with functional groups. Then, to ensure their promising biomedical applications, the generated intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) by QDs were quantitatively and qualitatively measured in dark conditions and under 405 nm laser irradiation. Our results verified an enhancement in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cytotoxic effects in the presence of laser irradiation while their muted toxic effects in dark conditions confirmed biocompatible properties of un-excited In-based QDs. Moreover, bioimaging analysis revealed strong merits of the suggested synthetic route to achieve ideal fluorescent QDs as bright/multi-color optical nano-probes in imaging and transporting pumps in the cell membrane. This further emphasized the potential ability of the present AgInS-based/ZnS QDs in obtaining required results as theranostic agents for simultaneous treatment and imaging of cancer. The harmonized advantages in simplicity and effectiveness of synthesis procedure, excellent structural/optical properties enriched with confirmed biomedical merits in high contrast imaging and potential treatment highlight the present work.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2020.110807DOI Listing
June 2020

Corrigendum to "Targeted gold nanoparticles enable molecular CT imaging of head and neck cancer: An in vivo study" [Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. 114 (2019) 105554].

Int J Biochem Cell Biol 2020 Mar 23;120:105695. Epub 2020 Jan 23.

Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocel.2020.105695DOI Listing
March 2020

Dual-energy CT imaging of nasopharyngeal cancer cells using multifunctional gold nanoparticles.

IET Nanobiotechnol 2019 Dec;13(9):957-961

Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

The purpose of this study is to measure the concentration of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) attached to folic acid through cysteamin as the linker (FA-Cys-AuNPs) and AuNPs in KB human nasopharyngeal cancer cells using dual-energy CT (DECT). In this study, nanoparticles with a size of ∼15nm were synthesized and characterised using UV-Vis, TEM, FTIR and ICP-OES analyses. The non-toxicity of nanoparticles was confirmed by MTT assay under various concentrations (40100µg/ml) and incubation times (6, 12 and 24h). To develop an algorithm for revealing different concentrations of AuNPs in cells, a corresponding physical phantom filled with 0.5ml vials containing FA-Cys-AuNPs was used. The CT scan was performed at two energy levels (80 and 140 kVp). One feature of DECT is material decomposition, which allows separation and identification of different elements. The values obtained from the DECT algorithm were compared with values quantitatively measured by ICP-OES. Cells were also incubated with AuNPs and FA-Cys-AuNPs at different concentrations and incubation times. Subsequently, by increasing the incubation time in the presence of FA-Cys-AuNPs, in comparison with AuNPs, DECT pixels were increased. Thus, FA-Cys-AuNPs could be a suitable candidate for targeted contrast agent in DECT molecular imaging of nasopharyngeal cancer cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1049/iet-nbt.2019.0067DOI Listing
December 2019

Supramolecular Insights into Domino Effects of [email protected] Oxidative Stress in Melanoma Cancer Cells.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2019 Dec 4;11(50):46408-46418. Epub 2019 Dec 4.

Department of Medical Nanotechnology, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine (SATiM) , Tehran University of Medical Sciences , 1417755469 Tehran , Iran.

Recent studies suggest that cancer cell death accompanied by organelle dysfunction might be a promising approach for cancer therapy. The Golgi apparatus has a key role in cell function and may initiate signaling pathways to mitigate stress and, if irreparable, start apoptosis. It has been shown that Golgi disassembly and fragmentation under oxidative stress act as indicators for stress-mediated cell death pathways through cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase. The present study shows that UV-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation by [email protected] nanoparticles (NPs) transform the Golgi structures from compressed perinuclear ribbons into detached vesicle-like structures distributed in the entire cytoplasm of melanoma cells. This study also demonstrates that [email protected] NP-induced Golgi fragmentation cooccurs with G2 block of cell cycle progression, preventing cells from entering the mitosis phase. Additionally, the increased intracellular ROS production triggered by [email protected] NPs upon UV exposure promoted autophagy. Taken together, [email protected] NPs induce stress-related Golgi fragmentation and autophagy, finally leading to melanoma cell apoptosis. Intracellular oxidative stress generated by [email protected] NPs upon UV irradiation may thus represent a targeted approach to induce cancer cell death through organelle destruction in melanoma cells, while fibroblast cells remained largely unaffected.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.9b13420DOI Listing
December 2019

Targeted gold nanoparticles enable molecular CT imaging of head and neck cancer: An in vivo study.

Int J Biochem Cell Biol 2019 09 2;114:105554. Epub 2019 Jul 2.

Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

The development of various cost-effective multifunctional contrast agent for specific targeting molecular imaging of tumors presents a great challenge. We report here the in vivo targeting imaging of folic acid (FA) gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) through cysteamine (Cys) linking for targeted of human nasopharyngeal head and neck cancer by computed tomography (CT). The toxicity of nanoparticles in kidney, heart, spleen, brain and liver was evaluated by H&E (hematoxylin and eosin) assay. We showed that the formed FA-Cys-AuNPs with an Au core size of ˜13 nm are non-cytotoxic in the particle concentration of 3 × 10 μg/ ml. The nude mice were scanned using a 64-slice CT scan with parameters (80 kVp, slice thickness: 0.625 mm, mAs: 200, pitch: 1). CT scan was performed before and after (Three and six hours) I.V (Intra Venous) injection of AuNPs and FA-Cys-AuNPs. The distribution of nanoparticles in the nude mice was evaluated by imaging and coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) analysis. The findings clearly illustrated that a small tumor, which is undetectable via computed tomography, is enhanced by X-ray attenuation and becomes visible (4.30-times) by the molecularly targeted AuNPs. It was further demonstrated that active tumor cells targeting (FA-Cys-AuNPs) is more specific and efficient (2.03-times) than passive targeting AuNPs. According to the results, FA-Cys-AuNPs can be employed as a promising contrast agent in CT scan imaging and maybe in radiotherapy that require enhanced radiation dose.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocel.2019.06.002DOI Listing
September 2019

Intracellular ROS Induction by [email protected] Core-Shell Nanoparticles: Frontiers of Permanent Optically Active Holes in Breast Cancer Theranostic.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2018 Jul 16;10(29):24370-24381. Epub 2018 Jul 16.

Centre for X-Ray Analytics, Department of Material Meet Life , Swiss Federal Laboratories for Material Science and Technology (Empa) , 9014 St. Gallen , Switzerland.

In this study, we investigated whether ZnO coating on Ag nanoparticles (NPs) tunes electron flux and hole figuration at the metal-semiconductor interface under UV radiation. This effect triggers the photoactivity and generation of reactive oxygen species from [email protected] NPs, which results in enhanced cytotoxic effects and apoptotic cell death in human breast cancer cells (MDA-MB231). In this context, upregulation of apoptotic cascade proteins (i.e., Bax/Bcl2 association, p53, cytochrome c, and caspase-3) along with activation of oxidative stress proteins suggested the occurrence of apoptosis by [email protected] NPs in cancer cells through the mitochondrial pathway. Also, preincubation of breast cancer cells with [email protected] NPs in dark conditions muted NP-related toxic effects and consequent apoptotic fate, highlighting biocompatible properties of unexcited [email protected] NPs. Furthermore, the diagnostic efficacy of [email protected] NPs as computed tomography (CT)/optical nanoprobes was investigated. Results confirmed the efficacy of the photoactivated system in obtaining desirable outcomes from CT/optical imaging, which represents novel theranostic NPs for simultaneous imaging and treatment of cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.8b03822DOI Listing
July 2018

Folic acid-cysteamine modified gold nanoparticle as a nanoprobe for targeted computed tomography imaging of cancer cells.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2018 Aug 27;89:182-193. Epub 2018 Mar 27.

Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Research Center for Molecular and Cellular Imaging (RCMCI), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Development of various cost-effective multifunctional nanoprobes for efficient targeted molecular imaging of tumors remains a great challenge in medicine. Herein, we report a simple method of forming folic acid-targeted multifunctional gold nanoparticles via cost-effective cysteamine as a template for tumor molecular computed tomography (CT) imaging technique. The formed multifunctional cysteamine-folic acid conjugated gold nanoparticles (FA-Cys-AuNPs) were characterized via different techniques. Colony assay, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), MTT, and flow cytometry analysis were used to evaluate the cytocompatibility of the particles. We showed that the formed FA-Cys-AuNPs with an Au core size of ~15 nm are non-cytotoxic in a given concentration range and revealed greater X-ray attenuation intensity than iodine-based contrast agent under the same concentration of the active element. At 80 kVp, FA-Cys-AuNPs enable 1.77-times greater contrast per unit mass compared with iodine at a concentration of 2000 μg/ml, and importantly, the developed FA-Cys-AuNPs can be used as a contrast media for targeted CT imaging of folic acid receptor-expressing cancer cells in vitro. CT values of the targeted cells were 2-times higher than that of non-targeted cells at 80 kVp. These findings propose that the designed FA-Cys-AuNPs can be used as a promising contrast agent for molecular CT imaging. This data can be also considered for the application of gold nanostructures in radiation dose enhancement where nanoparticles with high X-ray attenuation are applied.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2018.03.015DOI Listing
August 2018

Maternal exposure to silver nanoparticles are associated with behavioral abnormalities in adulthood: Role of mitochondria and innate immunity in developmental toxicity.

Neurotoxicology 2018 05 14;66:66-77. Epub 2018 Mar 14.

Experimental Medicine Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Iran Nanosafety Network (INSN) of Iran Nanotechnology Initiative Council (INIC), Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) are currently used in a wide range of consumer products. Considering the small size of Ag-NPs, they are able to pass through variety of biological barriers and exert their effects. In this regard, the unique physicochemical properties of Ag-NPs along with its high application in the industry have raised concerns about their negative effects on human health. Therefore, it investigated whether prenatal exposure to low doses of Ag-NPs is able to induce any abnormality in the cognitive and behavioral performance of adult offspring. We gavaged pregnant NMRI mice with, 1) Deionized water as vehicle, 2) Ag-NPs 10 nm (0.26 mg/kg/day), 3) Ag-NPs 30 nm (0.26 mg/kg/day), and 4) AgNO (0.26 mg/kg/day) from gestational day (GD) 0 until delivery day. At the postnatal day (PD) 1, our results showed that high concentration of silver is present in the brain of pups. Further, we observed mitochondrial dysfunction and upregulation of the genes relevant to innate immune system in the brain. At PD 60, results revealed that prenatal exposure to Ag-NPs provoked severe cognitive and behavioral abnormalities in male offspring. In addition, we found that prenatal exposure to Ag-NPs was associated with abnormal mitochondrial function and significant up-regulation of the genes relevant to innate immunity in the brain. Although the Ag-NPs have been considered as safe compounds at low doses, our results indicate that prenatal exposure to low doses of Ag-NPs is able to induce behavioral and cognitive abnormalities in adulthood. Also, we found that these effects are at least partly associated with hippocampal mitochondrial dysfunction and the activation of sterile inflammation during early stages of life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuro.2018.03.006DOI Listing
May 2018

Evaluation of size, morphology, concentration, and surface effect of gold nanoparticles on X-ray attenuation in computed tomography.

Phys Med 2018 Jan 20;45:127-133. Epub 2017 Dec 20.

Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Research Center for Molecular and Cellular Imaging (RCMCI), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Increasing attention has been focused on the use of nanostructures as contrast enhancement agents in medical imaging, especially in computed tomography (CT). To date, gold nanoparticles (GNPs) have been demonstrated to have great potential as contrast agents for CT imaging. This study was designed to evaluate any effect on X-ray attenuation that might result from employing GNPs with a variety of shapes, sizes, surface chemistries, and concentrations. Gold nanorods (GNRs) and spherical GNPs were synthesized for this application. X-ray attenuation was quantified by Hounsfield unit (HU) in CT. Our findings indicated that smaller spherical GNPs (13 nm) had higher X-ray attenuation than larger ones (60 nm) and GNRs with larger aspect ratio exhibited great effect on X-ray attenuation. Moreover, poly ethylene glycol (PEG) coating on GNRs declined X-ray attenuation as a result of limiting the aggregation of GNRs. We observed X-ray attenuation increased when mass concentration of GNPs was elevated. Overall, smaller spherical GNPs can be suggested as a better alternative to Omnipaque, a good contrast agent for CT imaging. This data can be also considered for the application of gold nanostructures in radiation dose enhancement where nanoparticles with high X-ray attenuation are applied.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmp.2017.12.001DOI Listing
January 2018

Correction to: Promising Antibacterial Effects of Silver Nanoparticle-Loaded Tea Tree Oil Nanoemulsion: a Synergistic Combination Against Resistance Threat.

AAPS PharmSciTech 2018 10;19(7):3322

Department of Medical Nanotechnology, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

With regrets, there is an error in the name of one of the authors which has only been noticed after publication.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1208/s12249-018-0950-2DOI Listing
October 2018

Promising Antibacterial Effects of Silver Nanoparticle-Loaded Tea Tree Oil Nanoemulsion: a Synergistic Combination Against Resistance Threat.

AAPS PharmSciTech 2018 04 7;19(3):1133-1140. Epub 2017 Dec 7.

Department of Medical Nanotechnology, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Highly resistant pathogens may be developed in patients with immune disorders after prolonged exposure to antibiotics, a growing threat worldwide. In order to overcome these problems, this study introduces a new class of engineered nanosystems comprising of tea tree oil nanoemulsion (TTO NE) loaded with Ag nanoparticles (NPs). Silver shows a strong toxicity towards a wide range of microorganisms. Also, TTO NE could be employed as a promising and safe antimicrobial agent for local therapies of bacterial infections. The nanosystem was prepared by low-energy method. Mean droplet size of the NE was found to be 17.7 nm. Results of the antibacterial assays showed promising ability of the designed nanosystem for eradication of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (95%). Also, it was shown that introducing colloidal Ag NPs to the TTO NE exerted a synergistic effect against Escherichia coli (FIC 0.48) while only an additive effect was observed against Staphylococcus aureus (FIC 0.75). The antibacterial effects of TTO NE+Ag NPs together with their compatibility with human cells can present them as a suitable candidate to fight against the antibacterial resistance threat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1208/s12249-017-0922-yDOI Listing
April 2018

Radiofrequency electric field hyperthermia with gold nanostructures: role of particle shape and surface chemistry.

Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol 2018 Nov 10;46(7):1452-1462. Epub 2017 Sep 10.

e Department of Pharmaceutics, Aerosol Research Laboratory, School of Pharmacy , Tehran University of Medical Sciences , Tehran , Iran.

Hyperthermia treatment of cancerous cells has been recently developed drastically with the help of nanostructures. Heating of gold nanoparticles in non-invasive radiofrequency electric field (RF-EF) is a promising and unique technique for cancer hyperthermia. However, because of differences between particles (i.e. their surface chemistry and dispersion medium) and between RF-EF sources, the research community has not reached a consensus yet. Here, we report the results of investigations on heating of gold nanoparticles and gold nanorods under RF-EF and feasibility of in-vitro cancer hyperthermia. The heating experiments were performed to investigate the role of particle shape and surface chemistry (CTAB, citrate and PEG molecules). In-vitro hyperthermia was performed on human pancreatic cancer cell (MIA Paca-2) with PEG-coated GNPs and GNRs at concentrations that were found non-toxic based on the results of cytotoxicity assay. Application of RF-EF on cells treated with PEG-GNPs and PEG-GNRs proved highly effective in killing cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21691401.2017.1373656DOI Listing
November 2018

Construction of genetically engineered M13K07 helper phage for simultaneous phage display of gold binding peptide 1 and nuclear matrix protein 22 ScFv antibody.

Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2017 Nov 24;159:770-780. Epub 2017 Aug 24.

Department of Medical Biotechnology, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

The most common techniques of antibody phage display are based on the use of M13 filamentous bacteriophages. This study introduces a new genetically engineered M13K07 helper phage displaying multiple copies of a known gold binding peptide on p8 coat proteins. The recombinant helper phages were used to rescue a phagemid vector encoding the p3 coat protein fused to the nuclear matrix protein 22 (NMP22) ScFv antibody. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-vis absorbance spectroscopy, and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis revealed that the expression of gold binding peptide 1 (GBP1) on major coat protein p8 significantly enhances the gold-binding affinity of M13 phages. The recombinant bacteriophages at concentrations above 5×10 pfu/ml red-shifted the UV-vis absorbance spectra of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs); however, the surface plasmon resonance of gold nanoparticles was not changed by the wild type bacteriophages at concentrations up to 10 pfu/ml. The phage ELISA assay demonstrated the high affinity binding of bifunctional bacteriophages to NMP22 antigen at concentrations of 10 and 10 pfu/ml. Thus, the p3 end of the bifunctional bacteriophages would be able to bind to specific target antigen, while the AuNPs were assembled along the coat of virus for signal generation. Our results indicated that the complex of antigen-bacteriophages lead to UV-vis spectral changes of AuNPs and NMP22 antigen in concentration range of 10-80μg/ml can be detected by bifunctional bacteriophages at concentration of 10 pfu/ml. The ability of bifunctional bacteriophages to bind to antigen and generate signal at the same time, makes this approach applicable for identifying different antigens in immunoassay techniques.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfb.2017.08.034DOI Listing
November 2017

Organelles and chromatin fragmentation of human umbilical vein endothelial cell influence by the effects of zeta potential and size of silver nanoparticles in different manners.

Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol 2017 Jun 10;45(4):817-823. Epub 2016 May 10.

a Department of Medical Nanotechnology , School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences , Tehran , Iran.

Recently, it has been disclosed that silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have the potential to inhibit infection and cancerous cells and eventually penetrate through injected site into the capillary due to their small size. This study focuses on the effect of size and zeta potential of bare and citrate-coated AgNPs on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) as main capillary cells. AgNPs with high and low concentrations and no citrate coating were synthesized by using simple wet chemical method and named as AgNP/HC, AgNP/LC, and AgNP, respectively. Citrate coated particles showed larger zeta potential of -22 mV and AgNp/HC showed the smallest size of 13.2 nm. UV-Visible spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering (DLS) were performed to evaluate particle size and hydrodynamic diameter of NPs in water and cell culture media. Results indicated that higher concentrations of citrate decreased hydrodynamic diameter and NP agglomeration. reactive oxygen species (ROS) production of all AgNPs was similar at 28 ppm although it was significantly higher than control group. Their effects on cell membrane and chromosomal structure were studied using LDH measurement and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining, as well. Results demonstrated that AgNP/LC was less toxic to cells owing to higher value of IC, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), and less release of LDH. Cancerous (Human Caucasian neuroblastoma) and immortal cells (Mouse embryonic fibroblast cell line) were about twice more sensitive than HUVECs to toxic effects of AgNPs. DAPI staining results showed that AgNP and AgNP/HC induced highest and lowest breaking of chromosome. Overall results suggest that viability of HUVECs will be higher than 90% when viability of cancerous cells is 50% in AgNPs chemotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21691401.2016.1178132DOI Listing
June 2017

Harnessing the Cancer Radiation Therapy by Lanthanide-Doped Zinc Oxide Based Theranostic Nanoparticles.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2016 Feb 1;8(5):3123-34. Epub 2016 Feb 1.

Department of Materials, University of Oxford , Oxford OX1 3PH, U.K.

In this paper, doping of europium (Eu) and gadolinium (Gd) as high-Z elements into zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) was designed to optimize restricted energy absorption from a conventional radiation therapy by X-ray. Gd/Eu-doped ZnO NPs with a size of 9 nm were synthesized by a chemical precipitation method. The cytotoxic effects of Eu/Gd-doped ZnO NPs were determined using MTT assay in L929, HeLa, and PC3 cell lines under dark conditions as well as exposure to ultraviolet, X-ray, and γ radiation. Doped NPs at 20 μg/mL concentration under an X-ray dose of 2 Gy were as efficient as 6 Gy X-ray radiation on untreated cells. It is thus suggested that the doped NPs may be used as photoinducers to increase the efficacy of X-rays within the cells, consequently, cancer cell death. The doped NPs also could reduce the received dose by normal cells around the tumor. Additionally, we evaluated the diagnostic efficacy of doped NPs as CT/MRI nanoprobes. Results showed an efficient theranostic nanoparticulate system for simultaneous CT/MR imaging and cancer treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.5b10056DOI Listing
February 2016

Electrochemical DNA biosensor based on gold nanorods for detecting hepatitis B virus.

Anal Bioanal Chem 2015 Jan 16;407(2):455-61. Epub 2014 Nov 16.

Department of Medical Nanotechnology, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

The purpose of this work was to fabricate an electrochemical DNA biosensor for detecting hepatitis B virus. Gold nanorods (GNRs), which are known for their conductivity, were used to increase surface area and consequently increase the immobilization of single-stranded DNA (ss-DNA) on the modified gold electrode. The GNRs were characterized via transmission electron microscopy. The morphology of the gold electrode before and after modification with GNRs was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Atomic-force microscopy was used to evaluate the morphology of the GNR electrode surface before and after interaction with ss-DNA. Cyclic voltammetry was used to monitor DNA immobilization and hybridization, using [Co(phen)3](3+) as an electrochemical indicator. The target DNA sequences were quantified at a linear range from 1.0 × 10(-12) to 10.0 × 10(-6) mol L(-1), with a detection limit of 2.0 × 10(-12) mol L(-1) by 3σ. The biosensor had good specificity for distinguishing complementary DNA in the presence of non-complementary and mismatched DNA sequences.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00216-014-8303-9DOI Listing
January 2015

Effect of gold nanoparticles on photodynamic efficiency of 5-aminolevolenic acid photosensitiser in epidermal carcinoma cell line: an in vitro study.

IET Nanobiotechnol 2013 Dec;7(4):151-6

In the recent years, enhanced functionality of treatment systems based on nanostructures has attracted a lot of interest. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is one such treatment method. Here, the authors report the results of the investigations on synthesis and characterisation of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) and their application in PDT along with 5-aminolevolenic acid (5-ALA) (as photosensitiser) with no conjugation. Three sizes of GNPs were synthesised and their cytotoxicity was investigated by using MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay on epidermal carcinoma cell line. The results showed that the PDT efficiency of ALA increased in presence of GNPs. This effect was more considerable for 4 nm particles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1049/iet-nbt.2013.0021DOI Listing
December 2013

Spectroscopic and microscopic analyses of rod-shaped gold nanoparticles interacting with single-stranded DNA oligonucleotides.

IET Nanobiotechnol 2013 Jun;7(2):42-9

Department of Medical Nanotechnology, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS), Tehran, P.O. Box 1978647653, Iran.

The application of rod-shaped gold nanoparticles as probes and carriers in biological systems have recently attracted great interest. UV-vis spectroscopy, circular dichroism, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy were used to study optical and structural properties of rod-shaped gold nanoparticles when interacting with DNA oligomers in phosphate sodium salt buffer. The morphological transformation process of rod-shaped gold nanoparticles resulting from the interaction with single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) showed the role of hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) in nanostructures as the main interacting agent. The obtained results confirmed that the CTAB coat of rod-shaped gold nanoparticles have powerful positive charges for conjugations with surface negative charges of phosphate groups on ssDNA oligomers. The CTAB also inhibit the formation of covalent sulphide bonds between the gold core of rod-shaped nanoparticles and alkanethiol oligonucleotides. The authors found that when the nanorods were exposed to ssDNA oligonucleotides, the gold nanorods changed their shapes and sizes, and exposed some microscopic malformations which could be used in the development of colorimetric assays of nucleic acids.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1049/iet-nbt.2012.0009DOI Listing
June 2013

A new solid phase micro extraction for simultaneous head space extraction of ultra traces of polar and non-polar compounds.

Anal Chim Acta 2011 Mar 18;689(1):117-21. Epub 2011 Jan 18.

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran.

The results of the innovative study on a new stationary phase with high efficiency based on ZnO nano and micro rod coating on fused silica are reported in this paper. ZnO nanorods with a diameter in the range of 70-300 nm and the length of about 500 nm, have been grown on fused silica fibers using a hydrothermal process. The extraction properties of the fiber were investigated using headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) mode coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry detection (GC-MS) for 1,4-dichloro-nitrobenzene, biphenyl and acenaphthene. The calibration curves were linear up to 10(2)-10(7) ng L(-1) (R(2)>0.995) with detection limits of 10(-3) ng L(-1) for biphenyl and acenaphthene and 10 ng L(-1) for 1,4-dichloro-nitrobenzene. The RSD for single fiber and fiber-to-fiber were less than 7.0 and 11.5%, respectively. The high stability of the ZnO coating is proved at relatively high temperatures (up to 300°C) with a high extraction capacity and long lifespan (more than 100 times). Promising recoveries (91-102%) were obtained in environmental water samples analysis by applying the proposed technique.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2011.01.013DOI Listing
March 2011

Chemical mapping of individual semiconductor nanostructures.

Small 2006 Mar;2(3):401-5

INRS Energie, Matériaux et Télécommunications, Université du Québec, 1650 Boul. Lionel Boulet, J3X 1S2 Varennes, QC, Canada.

We demonstrate experimentally the power of a novel analytical tool for X-ray spectromicroscopy. This provides a minimally intrusive elemental mapping of surfaces at the nanoscale and holds the promise of remarkable versatility. We have applied our procedure to the characterization of Ge(Si) islands on Si(111) substrates, with the aim of investigating the surface stoichiometry gradients and gaining insight into the intermixing dynamics. By identifying Si-richer edges with respect to the centers, we are able to associate alloying in these islands to surface transport processes.
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March 2006

Structural and optical investigations of SiO2-CdS core-shell particles.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2004 Oct;278(1):107-14

Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411007, India.

Cadmium sulfide nanoparticles (approximately 5 nm), chemically capped using thioglycerol molecules, have been anchored onto silica particles (approximately 80 nm) functionalized with 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane. Transmission electron microscopy clearly showed that at a low concentration of cadmium sulfide, nanoparticles were discretely and more or less uniformly attached onto the silica particles. At a high concentration of cadmium sulfide nanoparticles, an approximately 6-nm-thick compact shell of cadmium sulfide was formed on the silica particles. In both cases the nanocrystalline nature of cadmium sulfide particles was preserved, as is evident from X-ray diffraction and optical absorption spectra.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2004.05.037DOI Listing
October 2004