Publications by authors named "Shaoyan Hu"

83 Publications

Enrichment Characteristics of Cr in Chromium Slag after Pre-Reduction and Melting/Magnetic Separation Treatment.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Aug 30;14(17). Epub 2021 Aug 30.

China ENFI Engineering Co., Ltd., Beijing 100038, China.

Concentrating the chromium in chromium slag and improving the chromium-iron ratio is beneficial for the further utilization of chromium slag. In this paper, chromium slag obtained from a chromite lime-free roasting plant was used as the raw material. Pellets made of the chromium slag and pulverized coal were reduced at different pre-reduction temperatures and then separated by a melting separation process or magnetic separation process, respectively. The mass and composition of the metallized pellets before separation, along with the alloy and tail slag after separation, were comprehensively analyzed. The experimental results showed that the output yield of alloy, iron recovery rate, and chromium content in the alloy were all higher when using melting separation than when using magnetic separation, because of the further reduction during the melting stage. More importantly, a relatively low pre-reduction temperature and selection of magnetic separation process were found to be more beneficial for chromium enrichment in slag; the highest chromium-iron ratio in tail slag can reach 2.88.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma14174937DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8434107PMC
August 2021

The clinical outcomes and genomic landscapes of acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients with E2A-PBX1: A 10-year retrospective study.

Am J Hematol 2021 Aug 18. Epub 2021 Aug 18.

Jiangsu Institute of Hematology, National Clinical Research Center for Hematologic Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, China.

The clinical outcomes and genomic features of E2A-PBX1 (TCF3-PBX1)-positive B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) patients remain unclear. A total of 137 patients carrying E2A-PBX1 among 3164 B-ALL patients between 2009 and 2019 were retrospectively analyzed. The 5-year overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) rates of the whole cohort were 68.6% and 61.0%, respectively. Age [DFS, p = 0.037; cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR), p = 0.005] and the level of minimal residual disease (MRD) after induction chemotherapy (OS, p = 0.020; DFS, p = 0.002; CIR, p = 0.006) were independent risk factors. In adolescents/adults, allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) at first complete remission (CR1) significantly improved the 5-year prognosis (OS, p < 0.001; DFS, p < 0.001; CIR, p < 0.001). Haploidentical HSCT decreased the CIR compared with human leukocyte antigen-matched HSCT in adolescents/adults (p = 0.017). Mutations in PBX1, PAX5, CTCF and SETD2, amplification of AKT3, and deletion of CDKN2A/B were common in the total cohort, while transcriptome differences were found in the cell cycle, nerve growth factor (NGF) signaling pathway and transcriptional regulation by TP53 between adolescents/adults and children. Patients with multiple subclones at diagnosis tended to have unfavorable 3-year prognoses (DFS, p = 0.010; CIR, p = 0.021). Leukemia clones with DNA repair gene mutations showed aggressive and treatment-refractory phenotypes in this subtype of ALL. Our study indicated that age, the level of MRD and DNA repair gene mutations were associated with E2A-PBX1-positive B-ALL outcomes. Allo-HSCT, especially haploidentical HSCT, could improve the prognosis of adolescent/adult patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajh.26324DOI Listing
August 2021

Pulse therapy with vincristine and dexamethasone for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (CCCG-ALL-2015): an open-label, multicentre, randomised, phase 3, non-inferiority trial.

Lancet Oncol 2021 09 27;22(9):1322-1332. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Hematology/Oncology, Shanghai Children's Medical Center, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, National Health Committee Key Laboratory of Pediatric Hematology & Oncology, Shanghai, China.

Background: Vincristine plus dexamethasone pulses are generally used throughout maintenance treatment for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. However, previous studies remain inconclusive about the benefit of this maintenance therapy and the absence of randomised, controlled trials in patients with low-risk or high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukaemia provides uncertainty. We therefore aimed to determine if this therapy could be safely omitted beyond 1 year of treatment without leading to an inferior outcome in any risk subgroup of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

Methods: This open-label, multicentre, randomised, phase 3, non-inferiority trial involved 20 major medical centres across China. We enrolled patients who were aged 0-18 years with newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukaemia that was subsequently in continuous remission for 1 year after initial treatment. Patients with secondary malignancy or primary immunodeficiency were excluded. Eligible patients were classified as having low-risk, intermediate-risk, or high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukaemia based on minimal residual disease and immunophenotypic and genetic features of leukaemic cells. Randomisation and analyses were done separately for the low-risk and intermediate-to-high-risk cohorts. Randomisation was generated by the study biostatistician with a block size of six. Stratification factors included participating centre, sex, and age at diagnosis; the low-risk cohort was additionally stratified for ETV6-RUNX1 status, and the intermediate-to-high-risk cohort for cell lineage. Patients in each risk cohort were randomly assigned (1:1) to either receive (ie, the control group) or not receive (ie, the experimental group) seven pulses of intravenous vincristine (1·5 mg/m) plus oral dexamethasone (6 mg/m per day for 7 days) during the second year of treatment. The primary endpoint was difference in 5-year event-free survival between the experimental group and the control group for both the low-risk and intermediate-to-high-risk cohorts, with a non-inferiority margin of 0·05 (5%). The analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered with the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, ChiCTR-IPR-14005706.

Findings: Between Jan 1, 2015, and Feb 20, 2020, 6141 paediatric patients with newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukaemia were registered to this study. Approximately 1 year after diagnosis and treatment, 5054 patients in continuous remission were randomly assigned, including 2923 (1442 in the control group and 1481 in the experimental group) with low-risk acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and 2131 (1071 control, 1060 experimental) with intermediate-to-high risk acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Median follow-up for patients who were alive at the time of analysis was 3·7 years (IQR 2·8-4·7). Among patients with low-risk acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, no difference was observed in 5-year event-free survival between the control group and the experimental group (90·3% [95% CI 88·4-92·2] vs 90·2% [88·2-92·2]; p=0·90). The one-sided 95% upper confidence bound for the difference in 5-year event-free survival probability was 0·024, establishing non-inferiority. Among patients with intermediate-to-high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, no difference was observed in 5-year event-free survival between the control group and the experimental group (82·8% [95% CI 80·0-85·7] vs 80·8% [77·7-84·0]; p=0·90), but the one-sided 95% upper confidence bound for the difference in 5-year event-free survival probability was 0·055, giving a borderline inferior result for those in the experimental group. In the low-risk cohort, we found no differences in the rates of infections, symptomatic osteonecrosis, or other complications during the second year of maintenance treatment between patients in the control and experimental groups. Patients with intermediate-to-high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in the control group were more likely to develop grade 3-4 pneumonia (26 [2·4%] of 1071 vs ten [0·9%] of 1060) and vincristine-related peripheral neuropathy (17 [1·6%] vs six [0·6%]) compared with the experimental group. Incidence of grade 5 fatal infection was similar between the control group and the experimental group in both the low-risk cohort (two [0·1%] of 1442 vs five [0·3%] of 1481) and intermediate-to-high risk cohort (six [0·6%] of 1071 vs five [0·5%] of 1060).

Interpretation: Vincristine plus dexamethasone pulses might be omitted beyond 1 year of treatment for children with low-risk acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Additional studies are needed for intermediate-to-high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

Funding: VIVA China Children's Cancer Foundation, the National Natural Science Foundation of China, the China fourth round of Three-Year Public Health Action Plan (2015-2017), Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences Innovation Fund for Medical Sciences, US National Cancer Institute, St Baldrick's Foundation, and the American Lebanese Syrian Associated Charities.

Translation: For the Chinese translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(21)00328-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8416799PMC
September 2021

The updated beta-spectrin mutations in patients with hereditary spherocytosis by targeted next-generation sequencing.

J Hum Genet 2021 Jun 18. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

NHC Key Laboratory of Birth Defects and Reproductive Health, Chongqing Population and Family Planning Science and Technology Research Institute, Chongqing, China.

Hereditary spherocytosis (HS) with hemolysis, splenomegaly, and jaundice as the main clinical symptoms varied in different population and SPTB mutated rate is common except for ANK1 in the Chinese population, whereas only a few studies have been reported. Here, 11 Chinese pediatric patients with newly SPTB mutations detected by targeted next generation sequencing technology were included and analyzed in our study. The characteristics of mutation separation were verified among family members by bidirectional Sanger sequencing. The detected 11 mutations were novel, all of which were heterozygotes, including five de novo mutations, five maternal mutations, and one paternal mutation. Meanwhile, the 11 different novel mutation sites distributed on and near the seven exons included four pathogenic sites and seven likely pathogenic sites. The detection of 11 novel mutation sites gene expanded the mutant spectrum of the SPTB gene, and provided corresponding clinical data, which laid a foundation for the subsequent studies on HS in Chinese population, especially in pediatric patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s10038-021-00946-6DOI Listing
June 2021

Arsenic Combined With All-Trans Retinoic Acid for Pediatric Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia: Report From the CCLG-APL2016 Protocol Study.

J Clin Oncol 2021 Jun 2:JCO2003096. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Anhui Provincial Children's Hospital, Hefei, China.

Purpose: Arsenic combined with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is the standard of care for adult acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). However, the safety and effectiveness of this treatment in pediatric patients with APL have not been reported on the basis of larger sample sizes.

Methods: We conducted a multicenter trial at 38 hospitals in China. Patients with newly diagnosed APL were stratified into two risk groups according to baseline WBC count and mutation. ATRA plus arsenic trioxide or oral arsenic without chemotherapy were administered to the standard-risk group, whereas ATRA, arsenic trioxide, or oral arsenic plus reduced-dose anthracycline were administered to the high-risk group. Primary end points were event-free survival and overall survival at 2 years.

Results: We enrolled 193 patients with APL. After a median follow-up of 28.9 months, the 2-year overall survival rate was 99% (95% CI, 97 to 100) in the standard-risk group and 95% (95% CI, 90 to 100) in the high-risk group ( = .088). The 2-year event-free survival was 97% (95% CI, 93 to 100) in the standard-risk group and 90% (95% CI, 83 to 96) in the high-risk group ( = .252). The plasma levels of arsenic were significantly elevated after treatment, with a stable effective level ranging from 42.9 to 63.2 ng/mL during treatment. In addition, plasma, urine, hair, and nail arsenic levels rapidly decreased to normal 6 months after the end of treatment.

Conclusion: Arsenic combined with ATRA is effective and safe in pediatric patients with APL, although long-term follow-up is still needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.20.03096DOI Listing
June 2021

Clinical characteristics of tumor lysis syndrome in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

Sci Rep 2021 05 6;11(1):9656. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Hematology and Oncology, Children's Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) is a common and fatal complication of childhood hematologic malignancies, especially acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The clinical features, therapeutic regimens, and outcomes of TLS have not been comprehensively analyzed in Chinese children with ALL. A total of 5537 children with ALL were recruited from the Chinese Children's Cancer Group, including 79 diagnosed with TLS. The clinical characteristics, treatment regimens, and survival of TLS patients were analyzed. Age distribution of children with TLS was remarkably different from those without TLS. White blood cells (WBC) count ≥ 50 × 10/L was associated with a higher risk of TLS [odds ratio (OR) = 2.6, 95% CI = 1.6-4.5]. The incidence of T-ALL in TLS children was significantly higher than that in non-TLS controls (OR = 4.7, 95% CI = 2.6-8.8). Hyperphosphatemia and hypocalcemia were more common in TLS children with hyperleukocytosis (OR = 2.6, 95% CI = 1.0-6.9 and OR = 5.4, 95% CI = 2.0-14.2, respectively). Significant differences in levels of potassium (P = 0.004), calcium (P < 0.001), phosphorus (P < 0.001) and uric acid (P < 0.001) were observed between groups of TLS patients with and without increased creatinine. Laboratory analysis showed that older age was associated with a higher level of creatinine. Calcium level was notably lower in males. WBC count, lactate dehydrogenase, and creatinine levels were significantly higher in T-ALL subgroup, whereas procalcitonin level was higher in B-ALL children. Older age, infant, a higher level of WBC and T-ALL were risk factors TLS occurrence. Hyperleukocytosis has an impact on the severity of TLS, while renal injury may be an important feature in the process of TLS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-88912-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8102476PMC
May 2021

A Low Level of Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells at Engraftment Is a Valuable Prognostic Indicator in Children Receiving Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 07 22;27(7):611.e1-611.e12. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Hematology, Children Hospital, Soochow University, Suzhou, China. Electronic address:

Early prediction and intervention are known to be critical for acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) prevention and treatment. Significant progress has been made in the development of human plasma biomarkers for the risk stratification of aGVHD severity. Whether donor-derived immune cells may predict the occurrence of severe aGVHD early after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) remains poorly understood. The objective of this retrospective study was to evaluate the results of allo-HSCT in pediatric patients with different counts and frequencies of dendritic cell (DC) subsets at engraftment in pediatric patients at the Children's Hospital of Soochow University. A total of 45 patients as a discovery cohort were enrolled from March 2018 to December 2018 at the hospital. The validation cohort (30 patients) was enrolled from December 2019 to May 2020. Plasma samples collected from 2016 to 2018 were used for testing ST2 and Reg3α in pediatric patients undergoing allo-HSCT. Patients with grade II-IV aGVHD (n = 18; termed severe aGVHD) showed 3- and 6-fold fewer frequency and numbers, respectively, of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) in the peripheral blood (PB) at the engraftment time than patients with grade 0-I aGVHD (n = 27; termed no/mild aGVHD). Using a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, we identified the threshold of pDC level at 0.3 cell/μL as a cutoff to evaluate the difference in patients with high (>0.3 cell/μL) versus low (<0.3 cell/μL) pDC counts. Of these 45 patients, 21 (46.7%) had a high number of pDCs and 24 (53.3%) had low pDCs. The patients with low pDCs at the time of engraftment had a significantly higher probability of developing severe aGVHD (P < .05). The sensitivity of distinguishing severe aGVHD from no/mild aGVHD was 75%, and the specificity was 94%. In addition, the low pDC patients had higher transplantation-related mortality compared with the high pDC patients (12.5% versus 0%). Using an additional cohort of 30 allo-HSCT patients, we validated this observation. Our findings demonstrate that donor pDC count in PB at the time of engraftment is a valuable biomarker for predicting severe aGVHD in pediatric patients undergoing allo-HSCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.04.012DOI Listing
July 2021

BRD4 PROTAC degrader ARV-825 inhibits T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia by targeting 'Undruggable' Myc-pathway genes.

Cancer Cell Int 2021 Apr 22;21(1):230. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Hematology, Children's Hospital of Soochow University, No.92 Zhongnan Street, SIP, Suzhou, 215003, Jiangsu, China.

Background: T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is an aggressive disease with a high risk of induction failure and poor outcomes, with relapse due to drug resistance. Recent studies show that bromodomains and extra-terminal (BET) protein inhibitors are promising anti-cancer agents. ARV-825, comprising a BET inhibitor conjugated with cereblon ligand, was recently developed to attenuate the growth of multiple tumors in vitro and in vivo. However, the functional and molecular mechanisms of ARV-825 in T-ALL remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate the therapeutic efficacy and potential mechanism of ARV-825 in T-ALL.

Methods: Expression of the BRD4 were determined in pediatric T-ALL samples and differential gene expression after ARV-825 treatment was explored by RNA-seq and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. T-ALL cell viability was measured by CCK8 assay after ARV-825 administration. Cell cycle was analyzed by propidium iodide (PI) staining and apoptosis was assessed by Annexin V/PI staining. BRD4, BRD3 and BRD2 proteins were detected by western blot in cells treated with ARV-825. The effect of ARV-825 on T-ALL cells was analyzed in vivo. The functional and molecular pathways involved in ARV-825 treatment of T-ALL were verified by western blot and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP).

Results: BRD4 expression was higher in pediatric T-ALL samples compared with T-cells from healthy donors. High BRD4 expression indicated a poor outcome. ARV-825 suppressed cell proliferation in vitro by arresting the cell cycle and inducing apoptosis, with elevated poly-ADP ribose polymerase and cleaved caspase 3. BRD4, BRD3, and BRD2 were degraded in line with reduced cereblon expression in T-ALL cells. ARV-825 had a lower IC50 in T-ALL cells compared with JQ1, dBET1 and OTX015. ARV-825 perturbed the H3K27Ac-Myc pathway and reduced c-Myc protein levels in T-ALL cells according to RNA-seq and ChIP. In the T-ALL xenograft model, ARV-825 significantly reduced tumor growth and led to the dysregulation of Ki67 and cleaved caspase 3. Moreover, ARV-825 inhibited cell proliferation by depleting BET and c-Myc proteins in vitro and in vivo.

Conclusions: BRD4 indicates a poor prognosis in T-ALL. The BRD4 degrader ARV-825 can effectively suppress the proliferation and promote apoptosis of T-ALL cells via BET protein depletion and c-Myc inhibition, thus providing a new strategy for the treatment of T-ALL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12935-021-01908-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8061034PMC
April 2021

The advantage of chimeric antigen receptor T cell therapy in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia with E2A-HLF fusion gene positivity: a case series.

Transl Pediatr 2021 Mar;10(3):686-691

Department of Hematology & Oncology, Children's Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, China.

The E2A-HLF fusion gene is a very poor biomarker in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) because of its high relapse risk, even with the most intensive chemotherapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Here, we analyzed four cases diagnosed with E2A-HLF fusion gene-positive B-ALL and treated with the CCCG-ALL-2015 protocol based on high-risk stratification from Jun 2017 to May 2020 retrospectively. Three cases (Case 1, 2, 3) were insensitive to conventional therapy and inhibitors with high-level MRD on days 19 and 46, but they all achieved complete remission at the molecular level with Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) T cell therapy regardless of primary resistance or recurrence. Although remission was initially achieved for Case 4, chemotherapeutics was not sensitive after recurrence. However, CAR-T cell therapy gave him the chance to obtain complement remission again. Cytokine release syndrome (CRS) with fever, chills, acute kidney injury, hypotension and capillary leak syndrome and CAR-T related encephalopathy syndrome (CRE) with seizures and encephaledema occurred after CAR-T cell therapy, but symptoms disappeared with effective intensive care. Overall, CAR-T cell therapy enabled the patients to achieve complement remission with controllable adverse events. Our results indicated that CAR-T cell therapy is a feasible and effective therapy for patients with E2A-HLF-positive B-ALL and prompted the authors to report these cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/tp-20-323DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8041607PMC
March 2021

CD4-Targeted T Cells Rapidly Induce Remissions in Mice with T Cell Lymphoma.

Biomed Res Int 2021 27;2021:6614784. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Department of Hematology, Children's Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, China.

Objective: To explore the immune cell therapy for T cell lymphoma, we developed CD4-specific chimeric antigen receptor- (CAR-) engineered T cells (CD4CART), and the cytotoxic effects of CD4CART cells were determined in vitro and in vivo.

Methods: CD4CART cells were obtained by transduction of lentiviral vector encoding a single-chain antibody fragment (scFv) specific for CD4 antigen, costimulatory factor CD28 fragment, and intracellular signal transduction domain of CD3 fragments. Control T cells were obtained by transduction of reporter lentiviral vector. The cytotoxicity, tumor growth, and survival rate of mice with T cell lymphoma were analyzed after adoptive T cell transfer in vivo.

Results: CD4CART cells had potent cytotoxic activity against CD4+ T1301 tumor T cells in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, adoptive CD4CART cell transfer significantly suppressed tumor growth and improved animal survival with T cell lymphoma, compared to the mice who received control T cells and PBS.

Conclusion: CD4CART cells have potent cytotoxic effects on T cell lymphoma. The study provided an experimental basis for CD4CART-mediated therapy of T cell lymphoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/6614784DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8019637PMC
May 2021

High Expression of Interleukin-3 Receptor Alpha Chain (CD123) Predicts Favorable Outcome in Pediatric B-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Lacking Prognosis-Defining Genomic Aberrations.

Front Oncol 2021 16;11:614420. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Department of Hematology, Children's Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, China.

Background: Aberrant expression of CD123 (IL-3Rα) was observed in various hematological malignancies including acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), which is the most common malignancy in childhood. Although widely used for minimal residual disease (MRD) monitoring, the prognostic value of CD123 has not been fully characterized in pediatric B-ALL. This retrospective study aims to evaluate the association between the CD123 expression of leukemic blasts and the outcomes of the pediatric B-ALL patients.

Methods: A total of 976 pediatric B-ALL, including 328 treated with CCLG-ALL-2008 protocol and 648 treated with CCCG-ALL-2015 protocol, were recruited in this retrospective study. CD123 expression was evaluated by flow cytometry. Patients with >50, 20-50, or <20% of CD123 expressing blasts were grouped into CD123, CD123, and CD123, respectively. The correlation between CD123 expression and the patients' clinical characteristics, overall survival (OS), event-free survival (EFS), and relapse-free survival (RFS) were studied statistically.

Results: Of 976 pediatric B-ALL, 53.4% from the CCLG-ALL-2008 cohort and 49.2% from the CCCG-ALL-2015 cohort were CD123. In the CCLG-ALL-2008 cohort, CD123 was significantly associated with chromosome hyperdiploidy (p < 0.0001), risk stratification (p = 0.004), and high survival rate (p = 0.005). By comparing clinical outcomes, patients with CD123 displayed favorable prognosis, with a significantly better OS (p = 0.005), EFS (p = 0.017), and RFS (p = 0.045), as compared to patients with CD123 and CD123. The prognostic value of CD123 expression was subsequently confirmed in the CCCG-ALL-2015 cohort. Univariate and multivariate cox regression model analysis showed that high CD123 expression was independently associated with favorable EFS (OR: 0.528; 95% CI: 0.327 to 0.853; p = 0.009) in this cohort. In patients without prognosis-defining genomic abnormalities, high CD123 expression strongly indicated superior survival rates and was identified as an independent prognosis factor for EFS and RFS in both cohorts.

Conclusions: A group of B-ALL lacks prognosis-defining genomic aberrations, which proposes a challenge in risk stratification. Our findings revealed that high CD123 expression of leukemic blasts was associated with favorable clinical outcomes in pediatric B-ALL and CD123 could serve as a promising prognosis predictor, especially in patients without prognosis-defining genetic aberrations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.614420DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8008053PMC
March 2021

Minimally myelosuppressive regimen for remission induction in pediatric AML: long-term results of an observational study.

Blood Adv 2021 04;5(7):1837-1847

Department of Hematology and Oncology, Children's Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, China.

Treatment refusal and death as a result of toxicity account for most treatment failures among children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in resource-constrained settings. We recently reported the results of treating children with AML with a combination of low-dose cytarabine and mitoxantrone or omacetaxine mepesuccinate with concurrent granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) (low-dose chemotherapy [LDC]) for remission induction followed by standard postremission strategies. We have now expanded the initial cohort and have provided long-term follow-up. Eighty-three patients with AML were treated with the LDC regimen. During the study period, another 100 children with AML received a standard-dose chemotherapy (SDC) regimen. Complete remission was attained in 88.8% and 86.4% of patients after induction in the LDC and SDC groups, respectively (P = .436). Twenty-two patients in the LDC group received SDC for the second induction course. Significantly more high-risk AML patients were treated with the SDC regimen (P = .035). There were no significant differences between the LDC and SDC groups in 5-year event-free survival (61.4% ± 8.7% vs 65.2% ± 7.4%, respectively; P = .462), overall survival (72.7% ± 6.9% vs 72.5% ± 6.2%, respectively; P = .933), and incidence of relapse (20.5% ± 4.5% vs 17.6% ± 3.9%, respectively; P = .484). Clearance of mutations based on the average variant allele frequency at complete remission in the LDC and SDC groups was 1.9% vs 0.6% (P < .001) after induction I and 0.17% vs 0.078% (P = .052) after induction II. In conclusion, our study corroborated the high remission rate reported for children with AML who received at least 1 course of LDC. The results, although preliminary, also suggest that long-term survival of these children is comparable to that of children who receive SDC regimens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020003453DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8045515PMC
April 2021

Prognostic factors for CNS control in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated without cranial irradiation.

Blood 2021 Jul;138(4):331-343

Departments of Oncology, Global Pediatric Medicine, Biostatistics and Pharmaceutical Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN.

To identify the prognostic factors that are useful to improve central nervous system (CNS) control in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), we analyzed the outcome of 7640 consecutive patients treated on Chinese Children's Cancer Group ALL-2015 protocol between 2015 and 2019. This protocol featured prephase dexamethasone treatment before conventional remission induction and subsequent risk-directed therapy, including 16 to 22 triple intrathecal treatments, without prophylactic cranial irradiation. The 5-year event-free survival was 80.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 78.9-81.7), and overall survival 91.1% (95% CI, 90.1-92.1). The cumulative risk of isolated CNS relapse was 1.9% (95% CI, 1.5-2.3), and any CNS relapse 2.7% (95% CI, 2.2-3.2). The isolated CNS relapse rate was significantly lower in patients with B-cell ALL (B-ALL) than in those with T-cell ALL (T-ALL) (1.6%; 95% CI, 1.2-2.0 vs 4.6%; 95% CI, 2.9-6.3; P < .001). Independent risk factors for isolated CNS relapse included male sex (hazard ratio [HR], 1.8; 95% CI, 1.1-3.0; P = .03), the presence of BCR-ABL1 fusion (HR, 3.8; 95% CI, 2.0-7.3; P < .001) in B-ALL, and presenting leukocyte count ≥50×109/L (HR, 4.3; 95% CI, 1.5-12.2; P = .007) in T-ALL. Significantly lower isolated CNS relapse was associated with the use of total intravenous anesthesia during intrathecal therapy (HR, 0.2; 95% CI, 0.04-0.7; P = .02) and flow cytometry examination of diagnostic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) (HR, 0.2; 95% CI, 0.06-0.6; P = .006) among patients with B-ALL. Prephase dexamethasone treatment, delayed intrathecal therapy, use of total intravenous anesthesia during intrathecal therapy, and flow cytometry examination of diagnostic CSF may improve CNS control in childhood ALL. This trial was registered with the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR-IPR-14005706).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2020010438DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8323972PMC
July 2021

Management of ETV6-ABL1-positive childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia: report of two cases, a literature review and a call for action.

Br J Haematol 2021 04 3;193(1):197-200. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Department of Hematology and Oncology, Children's Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, People's Republic of China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.17271DOI Listing
April 2021

Low-dose decitabine for refractory prolonged isolated thrombocytopenia after HCT: a randomized multicenter trial.

Blood Adv 2021 03;5(5):1250-1258

National Clinical Research Center for Hematologic Diseases, Jiangsu Institute of Hematology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, China.

Refractory prolonged isolated thrombocytopenia (RPIT) is an intractable complication after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), which often leads to poor prognosis. A clinical study was designed to validate the efficacy and safety of low-dose decitabine for RPIT after HCT and explore the related underlying mechanisms. Eligible patients were randomly allocated to receive 1 of 3 interventions: arm A, low-dose decitabine (15 mg/m2 daily IV for 3 consecutive days [days 1-3]) plus recombinant human thrombopoietin (300 U/kg daily); arm B, decitabine alone; or arm C, conventional treatment. The primary end point was the response rate of platelet recovery at day 28 after treatment. Secondary end points included megakaryocyte count 28 days after treatment and survival during additional follow-up of 24 weeks. Among the 91 evaluable patients, response rates were 66.7%, 73.3%, and 19.4% for the 3 arms, respectively (P < .001). One-year survival rates in arms A (64.4% ± 9.1%) and B (73.4% ± 8.8%) were similar (P = .662), and both were superior to that in arm C (41.0% ± 9.8%; P = .025). Megakaryocytes, endothelial cells (ECs), and cytokines relating to megakaryocyte migration and EC damage were improved in patients responding to decitabine. This study showed low-dose decitabine improved platelet recovery as well as overall survival in RPIT patients after transplantation. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT02487563.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020002790DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7948276PMC
March 2021

Influence of KIT mutations on prognosis of pediatric patients with core-binding factor acute myeloid leukemia: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Transl Pediatr 2020 Dec;9(6):726-733

Department of Hematology and Oncology, Children's Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, China.

Background: KIT mutations are common in children with core-binding factor (CBF) acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The relationship between KIT mutations and their prognostic value has generated intense attention during the past years. Although studies have evaluated the role of KIT mutations, their prognostic implications remain unclear. To clarify this issue, we conducted this meta-analysis.

Methods: We electronically searched the PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library databases. Twelve studies met our selection criteria. These studies involved 1,123 children with CBF-AML including 256 children with KIT mutations. We investigated the effects of KIT mutations on the complete remission (CR), relapse, event-free survival (EFS), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS) rates of pediatric CBF-AML patients.

Results: KIT mutations were not associated with CR [relative risk: 1.01, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.94-1.09, P=0.761], but were associated with higher relapse risk [hazard ratio (HR): 1.69, 95% CI: 1.32-2.16, P=0.000], lower OS (HR: 3.05, 95% CI: 1.23-7.60, P=0.016), lower DFS (HR: 1.65, 95% CI: 1.07-2.54, P=0.024), and lower EFS (HR: 3.08, 95% CI: 1.02-9.32, P=0.046).

Conclusions: Our analysis suggested that KIT mutations had an adverse prognostic effect in pediatric CBF-AML patients. The initial diagnostic workup for these patients should include tests for the detection of KIT mutations, and the treatment may need to be adjusted when these mutations are found to be present.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/tp-20-102DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7804481PMC
December 2020

Extracellular vesicles derived from miR-199a-5p-modified adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells alleviate immune thrombocytopenia by inhibiting T helper 17 differentiation.

Lab Invest 2021 03 5;101(3):318-327. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Jiangsu Institute of Hematology, Suzhou, 215000, China.

The abnormal differentiation of T helper 17 (Th17) cells is considered a vital promoter of immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) progression. Therefore, this study investigated the role of miR-199a-5p in Th17 differentiation and determined whether extracellular vesicles (EVs) derived from miR-199a-5p-modified adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) could relieve ITP by inhibiting Th17 differentiation. The miR-199a-5p level was lessened in the spleen tissues of mice with ITP, while the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) expression and the population of Th17 in CD4T cells were boosted. Functionally, miR-199a-5p overexpression lowered IL-17 secretion and the proportion of Th17/CD4T cells. Further investigation showed that miR-199a-5p directly targeted STAT3 mRNA, and negatively modulated its expression. STAT3 overexpression was found to facilitate Th17 differentiation, which was subsequently abolished by miR-199a-5p overexpression. EVs isolated from miR-199a-5p-modified ADSCs (miR-199a-5p-EVs) highly expressed miR-199a-5p and could restrain CD4T cells polarized toward a Th17 phenotype in vitro. Administering of miR-199a-5p-EVs elevated platelet counts and decreased the proportion of Th17/CD4T cells in mice with ITP. Taken together, EVs derived from miR-199a-5p-modified ADSCs vividly repressed Th17 differentiation by transferring miR-199a-5p to CD4T cells, thus ameliorating experimental ITP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41374-020-00515-zDOI Listing
March 2021

PROTAC Bromodomain Inhibitor ARV-825 Displays Anti-Tumor Activity in Neuroblastoma by Repressing Expression of or .

Front Oncol 2020 26;10:574525. Epub 2020 Nov 26.

Institute of Pediatric Research, Children's Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, China.

Neuroblastoma (NB) is one of the most common solid tumors in childhood. To date, targeting , a well-established driver gene in high-risk neuroblastoma, is still challenging. In recent years, inhibition of bromodomain and extra terminal (BET) proteins shows great potential in multiple of -driven tumors. ARV-825 is a novel BET inhibitor using proteolysis-targeting chimera (PROTAC) technology which degrades target proteins by the proteasome. In this study, we investigated the effect of ARV-825 in neuroblastoma and . Our results showed that ARV-825 treatment robustly induced proliferative suppression, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis in NB cells. Moreover, ARV-825 efficiently depleted BET protein expression, subsequently repressing the expression of or . In the NB xenograft model, ARV-825 profoundly reduced tumor growth and led to the downregulation of BRD4 and expression in mice. Taken together, these findings provide evidence that PROTAC BET inhibitor is an efficient way to achieve / manipulation, and ARV-825 can be used as a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of neuroblastoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2020.574525DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7726414PMC
November 2020

Identification of novel CEBPA double mutations capable of promoting familial AML via the suppression of myeloid differentiation.

Am J Transl Res 2020 15;12(10):6965-6972. Epub 2020 Oct 15.

Department of Hematology, Children's Hospital of Soochow University Soochow 215025, Jiangsu, China.

CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein α (CEBPA) gene carrying two mutations (CEBPA double mutations) is known to promote familial acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, the underlying mechanism by which CEBPA double mutations promote AML remains poorly understood. Here we report that a family with three generations suffering from familial AML carries novel double mutations of CEBPA. Seven bases of GCGCGGG were inserted into the N-terminal c.113-114 of CEBPA as germline mutations and three bases of AAG were inserted into the C-terminal c.939-940 as a somatic mutation. To test the functional impact of this double mutation, we constructed plasmid encoding the double mutants of CEBPA and transfected it into the myeloid precursor 32Dcl3 cells. Lentiviral induced overexpression of CEBPA with these double mutations inhibited myeloid differentiation of these 32Dcl3 cells, and led to approximately 4-fold fewer frequency of CD11b expression. Our results confirm that the double mutations of CEBPA at both N- and C-terminals are potentially to induce leukemogenesis of AML.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7653564PMC
October 2020

Graft-versus-host disease depletes plasmacytoid dendritic cell progenitors to impair tolerance induction.

J Clin Invest 2021 01;131(1)

Fels Institute for Cancer Research and Molecular Biology, Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) causes failed reconstitution of donor plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) that are critical for immune protection and tolerance. We used both murine and human systems to uncover the mechanisms whereby GVHD induces donor pDC defects. GVHD depleted Flt3-expressing donor multipotent progenitors (MPPs) that sustained pDCs, leading to impaired generation of pDCs. MPP loss was associated with decreased amounts of MPP-producing hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and oxidative stress-induced death of proliferating MPPs. Additionally, alloreactive T cells produced GM-CSF to inhibit MPP expression of Tcf4, the transcription factor essential for pDC development, subverting MPP production of pDCs. GM-CSF did not affect the maturation of pDC precursors. Notably, enhanced recovery of donor pDCs upon adoptive transfer early after allogeneic HSC transplantation repressed GVHD and restored the de novo generation of donor pDCs in recipient mice. pDCs suppressed the proliferation and expansion of activated autologous T cells via a type I IFN signaling-dependent mechanism. They also produced PD-L1 and LILRB4 to inhibit T cell production of IFN-γ. We thus demonstrate that GVHD impairs the reconstitution of tolerogenic donor pDCs by depleting DC progenitors rather than by preventing pDC maturation. MPPs are an important target to effectively bolster pDC reconstitution for controlling GVHD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI136774DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7773406PMC
January 2021

Identification of transcobalamin deficiency with two novel mutations in the TCN2 gene in a Chinese girl with abnormal immunity: a case report.

BMC Pediatr 2020 10 6;20(1):460. Epub 2020 Oct 6.

The Neonatal Department, Children's Hospital of Soochow University, No. 92 Zhongnan Road, 215000, Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, China.

Background: Transcobalamin (TC) transports vitamin B12 from blood into cells. TC II deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive disorder. It is characterized by failure to thrive, diarrhoea, pallor, anaemia, pancytopenia or agammaglobulinemia. It is usually confirmed by molecular analysis of the TCN2 gene. We report a 2-month-old girl with two novel mutations, which were first reported in humans.

Case Presentation: We present a 2-month-old Chinese girl with pancytopenia, severe combined immunodeficiency disease, and megaloblastic anaemia. Targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) was performed, which detected compound heterozygous variants in exon 7 of the TCN2 gene (Mutation 1: c.1033 C > T; Mutation 2: c.1017-1031delinsGTAACAGAGATGGTT). These mutations result in stop codons in TCN2. The c.1033C > T mutation causes a stop at codon 345 (p.Gln345Ter), and the c.1017-1031delinsGTAACAGAGATGGTT mutation causes a stop at codon 340 (p.Leu340Ter). After being diagnosed, she was treated with intramuscular 1 mg hydroxycobalamin (OH-Cbl) every day for 2 months. The CBC value returned to normal after half a month. The peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets and immunoglobulin recovered after 2 months. Then, the dosage of OH-Cbl was gradually reduced.

Conclusions: TC II deficiency is a serious complication that requires lifelong treatment. Its diagnosis is difficult due to the lack of clearly identifiable symptoms. Genetic testing should be performed as early as possible if this disease is suspected. The specific observations of this case report make a considerable contribution to the literature and provide a reference for the diagnosis and treatment of future cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12887-020-02357-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7537950PMC
October 2020

Discovery of regulatory noncoding variants in individual cancer genomes by using cis-X.

Nat Genet 2020 08 6;52(8):811-818. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Department of Computational Biology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN, USA.

We developed cis-X, a computational method for discovering regulatory noncoding variants in cancer by integrating whole-genome and transcriptome sequencing data from a single cancer sample. cis-X first finds aberrantly cis-activated genes that exhibit allele-specific expression accompanied by an elevated outlier expression. It then searches for causal noncoding variants that may introduce aberrant transcription factor binding motifs or enhancer hijacking by structural variations. Analysis of 13 T-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemias identified a recurrent intronic variant predicted to cis-activate the TAL1 oncogene, a finding validated in vivo by chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing of a patient-derived xenograft. Candidate oncogenes include the prolactin receptor PRLR activated by a focal deletion that removes a CTCF-insulated neighborhood boundary. cis-X may be applied to pediatric and adult solid tumors that are aneuploid and heterogeneous. In contrast to existing approaches, which require large sample cohorts, cis-X enables the discovery of regulatory noncoding variants in individual cancer genomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-020-0659-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7679232PMC
August 2020

Case Report: An Infant with Severe Thrombocytopenia Diagnosed with Type 2B von Willebrand Disease Due To a De Novo p.Val1316Met Mutation

Turk J Haematol 2020 Nov 3;37(4):296-298. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Children’s Hospital of Soochow University, Department of Hematology and Oncology, Jiangsu, China

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4274/tjh.galenos.2020.2020.0213DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7702659PMC
November 2020

Proteomic profiling and bioinformatics analysis identify key regulators during the process from fanconi anemia to acute myeloid leukemia.

Am J Transl Res 2020 15;12(4):1415-1427. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

Department of Hematology & Oncology, Children's Hospital of Soochow University Suzhou 215025, Jiangsu, China.

Fanconi anemia (FA) is a congenital aplastic anemia, characterized as congenital bone marrow failure, developmental malformation, and the malignant tendency, which may develop into acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, few studies have been conducted on the progression from FA to AML. In this study, we used proteomic profiling, together with bioinformatics analyses, to explore the molecular mechanisms by which FA progresses to AML. Quantitative proteomic analyses of bone marrow samples identified 168 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs), including 7 upregulated proteins and 161 downregulated proteins in the bone marrow of the FA patient compared with the healthy people. The upregulated proteins were enriched in response to stress, oxygen transport, and hydrogen peroxide catabolic process. The downregulated proteins were enriched in myeloid leukocyte mediated immunity, response to interleukin-12, platelet degranulation and regulation of ATPase activity. Based on these results, we discovered 155 DEPs (142 upregulated and 13 downregulated) in the bone marrow samples between FA and AML patients, of which HIST1H1D, HIST1H3A, PSME1 and THRAP3 may play important roles in the progression of FA to AML and may be used as markers for AML early diagnosis. Finally, cell-line based experiments confirmed that PSME1 had an important effect on the proliferation of leukemia cells.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7191167PMC
April 2020

Lineage-Specific Epigenomic and Genomic Activation of Oncogene HNF4A Promotes Gastrointestinal Adenocarcinomas.

Cancer Res 2020 07 24;80(13):2722-2736. Epub 2020 Apr 24.

Department of Medicine, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California.

Gastrointestinal adenocarcinomas (GIAC) of the tubular gastrointestinal (GI) tract including esophagus, stomach, colon, and rectum comprise most GI cancers and share a spectrum of genomic features. However, the unified epigenomic changes specific to GIAC are poorly characterized. Using 907 GIAC samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas, we applied mathematical algorithms to large-scale DNA methylome and transcriptome profiles to reconstruct transcription factor (TF) networks and identify a list of functionally hyperactive master regulator (MR) TF shared across different GIAC. The top candidate HNF4A exhibited prominent genomic and epigenomic activation in a GIAC-specific manner. A complex interplay between the HNF4A promoter and three distal enhancer elements was coordinated by GIAC-specific MRTF including ELF3, GATA4, GATA6, and KLF5. HNF4A also self-regulated its own promoter and enhancers. Functionally, HNF4A promoted cancer proliferation and survival by transcriptional activation of many downstream targets, including HNF1A and factors of interleukin signaling, in a lineage-specific manner. Overall, our study provides new insights into the GIAC-specific gene regulatory networks and identifies potential therapeutic strategies against these common cancers. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings show that GIAC-specific master regulatory transcription factors control HNF4A via three distal enhancers to promote GIAC cell proliferation and survival. GRAPHICAL ABSTRACT: http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/canres/80/13/2722/F1.large.jpg.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-20-0390DOI Listing
July 2020

Association of asparaginase-associated pancreatitis and ULK2 gene polymorphism.

Int J Clin Exp Pathol 2020 1;13(3):347-356. Epub 2020 Mar 1.

Department of Hematology and Oncology, The Children's Hospital of Soochow University Suzhou, China.

The purpose of the study was to analyze the clinical characteristics and the course of diagnosis and therapy of asparaginase-associated pancreatitis (AAP) in childhood, improve the ability of diagnosis and treatment, and evaluate ULK2 gene polymorphism as a predictive factor for AAP. Data of 12 patients with childhood AAP were reviewed. Sanger sequencing of ULK2 gene was performed in AAP group (n=12) and control group (n=146). The main symptoms of AAP were abdominal pain and vomiting. Generally, the levels of amylase and lipase in the serum peaked within 72 h. Abdominal ultrasonography was performed in 11 patients; seven patients exhibited findings of pancreatic enlargement. Computed tomography was performed in 9 patients. Five patients exhibited findings of pancreatic enlargement and peri-pancreatic exudation. All patients were managed by fasting at the early stage, and seven patients underwent placement of a nasojejunal tube to receive enteral nutrition. One patient underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (revealing dilation of the pancreatic duct) and endoscopic retrograde pancreatic drainage. Another patient developed signs of shock and received continuous renal replacement. There were no deaths caused by AAP. Therefore, early identification of patients at risk of AAP is of great importance. In addition, repeated elevation in the levels of pancreatic enzymes is indicative of complications. Sanger sequencing analysis of ULK2 gene showed that there was a significant difference of EXON1: -493C>T and EXON1: -308C>G between the AAP group and control group (P<0.0001). Thus, ULK2 gene polymorphism may be associated with the development of AAP. However, more validation of this finding is needed.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7137003PMC
March 2020

The dual role of BI 2536, a small-molecule inhibitor that targets PLK1, in induction of apoptosis and attenuation of autophagy in neuroblastoma cells.

J Cancer 2020 5;11(11):3274-3287. Epub 2020 Mar 5.

Institute of Pediatric Research, Children's Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou 215003, China.

Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common extra-cranial solid tumor in childhood with the overall 5 years' survival less than 40%. Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) is a serine/threonine-protein kinase expressed during mitosis and over expressed in multiple cancers, including neuroblastoma. We found that higher PLK1 expression related to poor outcome of NB patients. BI2536, a small molecule inhibitor against PLK1, significantly reduced cell viability in a panel of NB cell lines, with IC50 less than 100 nM. PLK1 inhibition by BI 2536 treatment induced cell cycle arrest at G/M phase and cell apoptosis in NB cells. Realtime PCR array revealed the PLK1 inhibition related genes, such as BIRC7, TNFSF10, LGALS1 and DAD1 . Moreover, autophagy activity was investigated in the NB cells treated with BI 2536. BI 2536 treatment in NB cells increased LC3-II puncta formation and LC3-II expression. Formation of autophagosome induced by BI 2536 was observed by transmission electron microscopy. However, BI2536 abrogated the autophagic flux in NB cells by reducing SQSTM1/p62 expression and AMPKα phosphorylation. These results provide new clues for the molecular mechanism of cell death induced by BI 2536 and suggest that BI 2536 may act as new candidate drug for neuroblastoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/jca.33110DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7097946PMC
March 2020

Tryptophan 387 and 390 residues in ADAMTS13 are crucial to the ability of vascular tube formation and cell migration of endothelial cells.

Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 2020 08 29;47(8):1402-1409. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

Department of Hematology and Oncology, Children's Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, China.

A disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs 13 (ADAMTS13) was mainly generated and secreted from endothelial cells (ECs). Our previous study showed that tryptophan (Trp) residues at 387 and 390 in ADAMTS13 are required for its secretion and enzymatic activity. However, the effects on its host cell as well as the potential mechanism have not been clear. The aim of the study was to examine the effects of Trp residues 387 and 390 of ADAMTS13 on the biological processes of ECs. Herein, Trp was substituted with alanine in ADAMTS13 to generate ADAMTS13 mutants at 387 (W387A), 390 (W390A), and double mutants at 387 and 390 (2WA), respectively. We found that substitution mutation impaired vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion and the downstream JAK1/STAT3 activation, the binding ability to Von Willebrand factor, cell proliferation, migration, and vascular tube formation. Overall, our study concluded that Trp and Trp of ADAMTS13 play vital roles in the biological function of ECs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1440-1681.13313DOI Listing
August 2020

Effect of Dasatinib vs Imatinib in the Treatment of Pediatric Philadelphia Chromosome-Positive Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA Oncol 2020 03;6(3):358-366

State Key Laboratory of Experimental Hematology and Division of Pediatric Blood Diseases Center, Institute of Hematology and Blood Diseases Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Tianjin, China.

Importance: A randomized clinical trial is needed to determine whether the second-generation Abl-tyrosine kinase inhibitor dasatinib is more effective than the first-generation inhibitor imatinib mesylate for childhood Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).

Objective: To determine whether dasatinib given at a daily dosage of 80 mg/m2 is more effective than imatinib mesylate at a daily dosage of 300 mg/m2 to improve event-free survival of children with Philadelphia chromosome-positive ALL in the context of intensive chemotherapy without prophylactic cranial irradiation.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This open-label, phase 3 randomized clinical trial was conducted at 20 hospitals in China. Enrollment occurred from January 1, 2015, through September 18, 2018, and randomization was stopped on October 4, 2018, when the early stopping criterion of the trial was met. Patients aged 0 to 18 years were recruited. Of the 225 patients with the diagnosis, 35 declined participation and 1 died before treatment, leaving 189 patients available for analysis. Data were analyzed from January 1 through August 4, 2019.

Interventions: Patients were randomized to receive daily dasatinib (n = 92) or imatinib (n = 97) continuously for the entire duration of ALL therapy from the time of diagnosis made during remission induction to the end of continuation therapy.

Main Outcomes And Measures: The primary outcome was event-free survival, analyzed based on intention to treat. The secondary outcomes were relapse, death due to toxic effects, and overall survival.

Results: Among the 189 participants (136 male [72.0%]; median age, 7.8 [interquartile range (IQR), 5.2-11.3] years) and a median follow-up of 26.4 (IQR, 16.3-34.1) months, the 4-year event-free survival and overall survival rates were 71.0% (95% CI, 56.2%-89.6%) and 88.4% (95% CI, 81.3%-96.1%), respectively, in the dasatinib group and 48.9% (95% CI, 32.0%-74.5%; P = .005, log-rank test) and 69.2% (95% CI, 55.6%-86.2%; P = .04, log-rank test), respectively, in the imatinib group. The 4-year cumulative risk of any relapse was 19.8% (95% CI, 4.2%-35.4%) in the dasatinib group and 34.4% (95% CI, 15.6%-53.2%) in the imatinib group (P = .01, Gray test), whereas the 4-year cumulative risk of an isolated central nervous system relapse was 2.7% (95% CI, 0.0%-8.1%) in the dasatinib group and 8.4% (95% CI, 1.2%-15.6%) in the imatinib group (P = .06, Gray test). There were no significant differences in the frequency of severe toxic effects between the 2 treatment groups.

Conclusions And Relevance: Intensive chemotherapy including dasatinib at a dosage of 80 mg/m2 per day yielded superior results in the treatment of Philadelphia chromosome-positive ALL compared with imatinib mesylate at a dosage of 300 mg/m2 per day and provided excellent control of central nervous system leukemia without the use of prophylactic cranial irradiation.

Trial Registration: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry: ChiCTR-IPR-14005706.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2019.5868DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6990720PMC
March 2020
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