Publications by authors named "Shaowen Liu"

102 Publications

The characteristics and potential origin of the proximal left anterior fascicle premature ventricular complexes.

Heart Rhythm 2022 Jun 18. Epub 2022 Jun 18.

Department of Cardiology, Shanghai General Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, School of Medicine, China. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hrthm.2022.05.040DOI Listing
June 2022

Patient-derived microphysiological model identifies the therapeutic potential of metformin for thoracic aortic aneurysm.

EBioMedicine 2022 May 27;81:104080. Epub 2022 May 27.

Department of Cardiac Surgery, Zhongshan Hospital Fudan University, Institutes of Biomedical Sciences, Shanghai Institute of Infectious Disease and Biosecurity, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China; The State Key Laboratory of Molecular Engineering of Polymers, Fudan University, Shanghai 200438, China; The Shanghai Key Laboratory of Medical Imaging Computing and Computer Assisted Intervention, Shanghai Medical College of Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China. Electronic address:

Background: Thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) is the permanent dilation of the thoracic aortic wall that predisposes patients to lethal events such as aortic dissection or rupture, for which effective medical therapy remains scarce. Human-relevant microphysiological models serve as a promising tool in drug screening and discovery.

Methods: We developed a dynamic, rhythmically stretching, three-dimensional microphysiological model. Using patient-derived human aortic smooth muscle cells (HAoSMCs), we tested the biological features of the model and compared them with native aortic tissues. Drug testing was performed on the individualized TAA models, and the potentially effective drug was further tested using β-aminopropionitrile-treated mice and retrospective clinical data.

Findings: The HAoSMCs on the model recapitulated the expressions of many TAA-related genes in tissue. Phenotypic switching and mitochondrial dysfunction, two disease hallmarks of TAA, were highlighted on the microphysiological model: the TAA-derived HAoSMCs exhibited lower alpha-smooth muscle actin expression, lower mitochondrial membrane potential, lower oxygen consumption rate and higher superoxide accumulation than control cells, while these differences were not evidently reflected in two-dimensional culture flasks. Model-based drug testing demonstrated that metformin partially recovered contractile phenotype and mitochondrial function in TAA patients' cells. Mouse experiment and clinical investigations also demonstrated better preserved aortic microstructure, higher nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide level and lower aortic diameter with metformin treatment.

Interpretation: These findings support the application of this human-relevant microphysiological model in studying personalized disease characteristics and facilitating drug discovery for TAA. Metformin may regulate contractile phenotypes and metabolic dysfunctions in diseased HAoSMCs and limit aortic dilation.

Funding: This work was supported by grants from National Key R&D Program of China (2018YFC1005002), National Natural Science Foundation of China (82070482, 81771971, 81772007, 51927805, and 21734003), the Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality (20ZR1411700, 18ZR1407000, 17JC1400200, and 20YF1406900), Shanghai Municipal Science and Technology Major Project (2017SHZDZX01), and Shanghai Municipal Education Commission (Innovation Program 2017-01-07-00-07-E00027). Y.S.Z. was not supported by any of these funds; instead, the Brigham Research Institute is acknowledged.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ebiom.2022.104080DOI Listing
May 2022

C-reactive protein and atrial fibrillation: Insights from epidemiological and Mendelian randomization studies.

Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2022 06 15;32(6):1519-1527. Epub 2022 Mar 15.

Department of Cardiology, Shanghai General Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: This study aimed to investigate the role of C-reactive protein (CRP) in atrial fibrillation (AF) from epidemiological and genetic perspectives.

Methods And Results: Individual-level data from the Kailuan cohort recruited between 2006 and 2017 were included. Serum CRP levels were measured at baseline and at biennial follow-up visits, and incident AF was ascertained from biennial 12-lead ECG assessment and medical records. Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the association between baseline CRP levels or cumulative exposure to CRP and incident AF. A meta-analysis including nine prospective cohort studies and our current study was also conducted. Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis was performed to evaluate the aetiological role of CRP in AF. In our observational study (n = 86,424), high baseline CRP levels (>3 mg/L), compared with low CRP (<1 mg/L), were not significantly associated with AF risk (HR: 1.18; 95% CI: 0.99-1.40). High cumulative exposure to CRP (HR: 1.49; 95%CI: 1.01-2.21) was significantly associated with an increased risk of AF. Our meta-analysis suggested a positive association between elevated CRP levels and incident AF (relative risk: 1.27; 95% CI: 1.14-1.42). However, no significant association between genetically determined CRP and AF risk was observed in the MR analysis.

Conclusion: Evidence from observational studies suggested that elevated serum CRP levels were positively associated with incident AF, while the causal effects of CRP on AF were not supported by the MR analysis.

Clinical Trial Registration: URL: https://www.chictr.org.cn; Unique identifier: ChiCTR-TNRC-11001489.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.numecd.2022.03.008DOI Listing
June 2022

Emergency catheter ablation: A feasible option for acute treatments of patients with unstable pre-excited atrial fibrillation.

Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 2022 Apr 1. Epub 2022 Apr 1.

Department of Cardiology, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Background: Pre-excited atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with increased risk of life-threatening events. However, at times, patients with pre-excited AF still repetitively suffer from hemodynamic disturbance, with resistance to acute treatments of antiarrhythmic therapy and cardioversion.

Methods: To evaluate the feasibility in correcting hemodynamic disturbance, patients with pre-excited AF who underwent catheter ablation of accessory pathway as an emergency procedure, were retrospectively collected from two centers of China. The medical records of patients were analyzed and summarized in this case series.

Results: Five patients with pre-excited AF who received emergency catheter ablation of accessory pathway, were collected from two contributor centers and reported in this case series. All collected patients still repetitively suffered from hemodynamic disturbance induced by rapid anterograde conduction of AF via pathway, even guideline recommended acute interventions of intravenous antiarrhythmic therapy and cardioversion had been performed. Finally, as an emergency procedure, catheter ablation of accessory pathway was performed in collected patients. Correspondingly, the hemodynamic unstable status was greatly relieved. Meanwhile, all collected patients with high risk of pre-excited AF were combined with left-sided accessory pathway, with shortest RR interval of widened pre-excited QRS complex less than 250 ms. Thus, combination with left-sided pathway is proposed as an indicator for the increased risk of life-threatening events in patients with high risk of pre-excited AF.

Conclusions: Emergency catheter ablation of accessory pathway is an effective option for the acute managements of patients with high risk of pre-excited AF in unstable hemodynamics, which is resistant to antiarrhythmic therapy and cardioversion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pace.14499DOI Listing
April 2022

Deep learning autofluorescence-harmonic microscopy.

Light Sci Appl 2022 Mar 29;11(1):76. Epub 2022 Mar 29.

Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Devices and Systems of Guangdong Province and Ministry of Education, College of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Shenzhen University, 518060, Shenzhen, China.

Laser scanning microscopy has inherent tradeoffs between imaging speed, field of view (FOV), and spatial resolution due to the limitations of sophisticated mechanical and optical setups, and deep learning networks have emerged to overcome these limitations without changing the system. Here, we demonstrate deep learning autofluorescence-harmonic microscopy (DLAM) based on self-alignment attention-guided residual-in-residual dense generative adversarial networks to close the gap between speed, FOV, and quality. Using the framework, we demonstrate label-free large-field multimodal imaging of clinicopathological tissues with enhanced spatial resolution and running time advantages. Statistical quality assessments show that the attention-guided residual dense connections minimize the persistent noise, distortions, and scanning fringes that degrade the autofluorescence-harmonic images and avoid reconstruction artifacts in the output images. With the advantages of high contrast, high fidelity, and high speed in image reconstruction, DLAM can act as a powerful tool for the noninvasive evaluation of diseases, neural activity, and embryogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41377-022-00768-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8964717PMC
March 2022

Analysis of the Effect of External Counterpulsation Combined With High-Intensity Aerobic Exercise on Cardiopulmonary Function and Adverse Cardiovascular Events in Patients With Coronary Heart Disease After PCI.

Front Surg 2022 3;9:851113. Epub 2022 Mar 3.

Intensive Care Unit, Emergency Medical Department, Wuhan Hankou Hospital, WuHan, China.

Purpose: To explore the intervention effect of external counterpulsation (ECP) combined with high-intensity aerobic exercise (HIAT) on patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) after PCI.

Methods: 124 patients with stable CHD after PCI admitted to our hospital from June 2018 to June 2021 were selected, and all patients were divided into control group and observation group using the random number table method. The control group received conventional treatment, The observation group received ECP combined with HIAT based on the control group. The cardiorespiratory function indexes, exercise endurance indexes, incidence of major cardiovascular adverse events (MACE), Barthel index of the two groups were observed.

Results: After intervention, METs , VO , VO /kg, VO /HR, and PP, ED, AT, and Barthel score in both groups were significantly higher than before intervention, and patients in the observation group were significantly higher than those in the control group ( < 0.05). The incidence of MACE in the observation group (3.23%) was lower than in the control group (12.90%) ( < 0.05).

Conclusion: ECP combined with HIAT can improve the cardiopulmonary function of patients with CHD after PCI, and improve exercise endurance, reduce the incidence of MACE, improve patients' ability of daily living.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fsurg.2022.851113DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8927644PMC
March 2022

KDELR2 knockdown synergizes with temozolomide to induce glioma cell apoptosis through the CHOP and JNK/p38 pathways.

Transl Cancer Res 2021 Jul;10(7):3491-3506

Department of Neurosurgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, China.

Background: The C-terminal tetrapeptide Lys-Asp-Glu-Leu receptors (KDELRs) are transmembrane proteins that regulate ER stress (ERS) response, growth, differentiation, and immune responses. There is an association between KDELR2and promotion of glioblastoma tumorigenesis. The aim of the present study was to explore the functional mechanism of KDELR2 in glioma and during response to chemotherapy to temozolomide (TMZ).

Methods: The expression of KDELR2 in glioma tissues and cells was evaluated by immunohistochemistry, western blot and RT-qPCR assay. Then role of KDELR2 was demonstrated by CCK8, colony formation, flow cytometry and Hochest 33258 assays. The expression of genes ( and ) in U373 cells was evaluated by RT-qPCR. The protein expression of genes (cleaved caspase 3, caspase 3, cleaved PARP, PARP, Bax, Bcl-2, JNK, p-JNK, p38, p-p38, ATF4, ATF6, XBP-1s, PERK, p-PERK, GRP78 and CHOP) was measured by western blot assay.

Results: The expression of KDELR2 was upregulated in high-grade gliomas tissues. KDELR2 knockdown suppressed cell proliferation but increased cell apoptosis. Further, Knockdown of KDELR2 also activated the ER stress (ERS)-dependent CHOP pathway, and resulted in increased levels of phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38. Moreover, the combination of KDELR2 knockdown and TMZ application showed a synergistic cytotoxic effect in U373 cells through the ERS-dependent CHOP and JNK/p38 pathways.

Conclusions: KDELR2 knockdown induces apoptosis and sensitizes glioma cells to TMZ, which is mediated by the ERS-dependent CHOP and JNK/p38 pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/tcr-21-869DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8799170PMC
July 2021

Altered cortical activity in patients with lower limb amputation based on EEG microstate.

J Integr Neurosci 2021 Dec;20(4):993-999

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, 330006 Nanchang, Jiangxi, China.

Previous studies have revealed significant changes in electroencephalogram (EEG) microstates in neuropsychiatric diseases, including schizophrenia, depression, and dementia. To explore the resting-state EEG microstate with amputation, we collected the EEG datasets from 15 patients with lower limb amputation and 20 healthy controls. Then, we analyzed the parameters of four classical EEG microstates (A-D) between the two groups. Specifically, the parameters were statistically analyzed, including duration, occurrence rate, time coverage, and transition rate. According to the results, the duration of microstate C (t = 2.95, p = 0.005) in the lower limb amputation group was significantly smaller compared with the control group, while the occurrence rate of microstate B (t = -2.22, p = 0.03) and D (t = -3.35, p = 0.002) were significantly larger in the lower limb amputation group. In addition, the transition rate of microstate differed significantly in AC, CA, DB between the two groups. Our results implied: (1) amputation has changed the resting-state EEG microstate; (2) EEG microstate analysis can be an approach to explore the alteration of cortical function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.31083/j.jin2004100DOI Listing
December 2021

Genetically Determined Inflammatory Biomarkers and the Risk of Heart Failure: A Mendelian Randomization Study.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2021 22;8:734400. Epub 2021 Nov 22.

Department of Cardiology, Shanghai General Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Positive associations between inflammatory biomarkers and the risk of heart failure (HF) have been reported in conventional observational studies. However, the causal effects of inflammatory biomarkers on HF have not been fully elucidated. We conducted a Mendelian randomization (MR) study to examine the possible etiological roles of inflammatory biomarkers in HF. Summary statistical data for the associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, and components of the interleukin-1 (IL-1)-interleukin-6 (IL-6) inflammatory signaling pathway, namely, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), IL-6, and soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6r), were obtained from genome-wide association studies (GWASs) for individuals of European descent. The GWAS dataset of 977,323 participants of European ancestry, which included 47,309 HF cases and 930,014 controls, was collected to identify genetic variants underlying HF. A two-sample Mendelian randomization framework was implemented to examine the causality of the association between these inflammatory biomarkers and HF. Our MR analyses found that genetically determined CRP and fibrinogen were not causally associated with HF risk (odds ratio [OR] = 0.93, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.84-1.02, = 0.15; OR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.55-1.58, = 0.80, respectively). These findings remained consistent using different Mendelian randomization methods and in sensitivity analyses. For the IL-1-IL-6 pathway, causal estimates for IL-6 (OR = 0.86, 95% CI 0.81-0.91, < 0.001), but not for IL-1β, IL-1ra, or sIL-6r, were significant. However, the association between genetically determined IL-6 and HF risk became non-significant after excluding SNPs with potential pleiotropy (OR = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.77-1.03, = 0.12). Our study did not identify convincing evidence to support that CRP and fibrinogen, together with their upstream IL-1-IL-6 signaling pathway, were causally associated with HF risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcvm.2021.734400DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8645870PMC
November 2021

Utilizing a Rapid Multi-Plug Filtration Cleanup Method for 72 Pesticide Residues in Grape Wines Followed by Detection with Gas Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

Foods 2021 Nov 8;10(11). Epub 2021 Nov 8.

Department of Applied Chemistry, College of Science, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China.

A convenient and fast multi-residue method for the efficient identification and quantification of 72 pesticides belonging to different chemical classes in red and white grape wines has been developed. The analysis was based on gas chromatography tandem quadrupole mass spectrometric determination (GC-MS/MS). The optimization strategy involved the selection of the amount of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and the number of cleanup procedure cycles for multi-plug filtration cleanup (m-PFC) to achieve ideal recoveries and reduce the sample matrix compounds in the final extracts. The optimized procedure obtained consistent recoveries between 70.2 and 108.8% (70.2 and 108.8% for white wine, and 72.3 and 108.4% for red wine), with relative standard deviations (RSDs) that were generally lower than 9.2% at the three spiking levels of 0.01, 0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg. The linearity was studied in the range between 0.002 and 0.1 mg/kg using pesticide standards prepared both in pure solvent and in the presence of the matrix, showing coefficients of determination (R) higher than 0.9495 for all the pesticides. To improve accuracy, matrix-matched calibration curves were used for calculating the quantification results. Finally, the method was used successfully for detecting pesticide residues in commercial grape wines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10112731DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8623294PMC
November 2021

Lipid goal attainment in post-acute coronary syndrome patients in China: Results from the 6-month real-world dyslipidemia international study II.

Clin Cardiol 2021 Nov 15;44(11):1575-1585. Epub 2021 Oct 15.

Global Medical and Scientific Affairs (GMSA), MSD China, Shanghai, China.

Background: Dyslipidemia International Study II (DYSIS II)-China was conducted to determine the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goal (<1.8 mmol/L) attainment rate in patients with post-acute coronary syndrome (ACS).

Hypothesis: Compliance with treatment guideline recommendations improves the LDL-C goal attainment rate in post-ACS patients.

Methods: This multicenter prospective observational study conducted at 28 tertiary hospitals determined the LDL-C goal attainment rates at admission and 6-month follow-up in patients on lipid-lowering treatment (LLT) for ≥3 months and those not on LLT (LLT-naive or off LLT for ≥3 months) at admission. Predictors of goal attainment at 6 months were identified using multivariate logistic regression.

Results: The LDL-C goal attainment rate at admission in 1102/1103 enrolled patients was 17.1%; it was 41.2% among 752 patients with available lipid results at 6 months. The distance to goal was 0.7 mmol/L at 6 months. Statin monotherapy was the most prescribed LLT. Only 7.7% of patients were receiving statin + ezetimibe and 8.4% of patients were receiving an atorvastatin-equivalent dose of ≥40 mg/day at 6 months. Being male (odds ratio [OR] 1.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-2.6) and undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention during index hospitalization (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1 to 2.1) were the independent predictors for LDL-C goal attainment.

Conclusions: This real-world DYSIS II study in China reports a low LDL-C goal attainment rate in post-ACS patients even after 6 months of LLT. Lack of intensification of statin therapy and underutilization of combinations suggest gaps between real-world treatment practices and guideline recommendations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/clc.23725DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8571548PMC
November 2021

Catheter ablation vs. antiarrhythmic drugs as 'first-line' initial therapy for atrial fibrillation: a pooled analysis of randomized data.

Europace 2021 12;23(12):1950-1960

Cardioangiologisches Centrum Bethanien (CCB), Kardiologie, Medizinische Klinik III, Agaplesion Markus Krankenhaus, Akademisches Lehrkrankenhaus der Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main, Wilhelm-Epstein Straße 4, Frankfurt am Main 60431, Germany.

Aims: Catheter ablation (CA) is recommended for patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) after failure of antiarrhythmic drugs (AADs). The role of CA as 'initial therapy' for AF is to be determined.

Methods And Results: Following PRISMA guideline an up-to-date pooled analysis of randomized data comparing ablation vs. AADs as first-line therapy for symptomatic AF was performed. The primary outcome was recurrence of atrial tachyarrhythmia. The secondary outcomes were improvement in quality-of-life (QoL) and major adverse events. A total of 997 patients from five randomized trials were enrolled (mean age 57.4 years, 68.6% male patients, 98% paroxysmal AF, mean follow-up 1.4 years). The baseline characteristics were similar between the ablation and AADs group. Overall pooled analysis showed that, as compared with AADs, CA as first-line therapy was associated with significantly higher freedom from arrhythmia recurrence (69% vs. 48%, odds ratio: 0.36, 95% confidence interval: 0.27-0.48, P < 0.001). This significance was maintained in subgroup analyses of 1- and 2-year follow-up (P < 0.001). Catheter ablation was associated with significantly greater improvement in QoL regarding AFEQT score and 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey score. The incidence of serious adverse events between ablation and AADs group (5.6% vs. 4.9%, P = 0.62) was similar.

Conclusions: Catheter ablation as 'initial therapy' was superior to AADs in maintenance of sinus rhythm and improving QoL for patients with symptomatic paroxysmal AF, without increasing risk of serious adverse events.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/europace/euab185DOI Listing
December 2021

Rate-dependent conduction block of mitral isthmus was possibly due to the re-conduction of Ligament of Marshall.

Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 2021 Sep 10;44(9):1631-1635. Epub 2021 Jul 10.

Department of Cardiology, Shanghai General Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pace.14306DOI Listing
September 2021

Comparison of Left Atrial Appendage Occlusion versus Non-Vitamin-K Antagonist Oral Anticoagulation in High-Risk Atrial Fibrillation: An Update.

J Cardiovasc Dev Dis 2021 Jun 11;8(6). Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Cardioangiologisches Centrum Bethanien (CCB), Kardiologie, Medizinische Klinik III, Agaplesion Markus Krankenhaus, Akademisches Lehrkrankenhaus der Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main, 60431 Frankfurt am Main, Germany.

Transcatheter left atrial appendage occlusion (LAAO) is non-inferior to vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) in preventing thromboembolic events in atrial fibrillation (AF). Non-vitamin K antagonists (NOACs) have an improved safety profile over VKAs; however, evidence regarding their effect on cardiovascular and neurological outcomes relative to LAAO is limited. Up-to-date randomized trials or propensity-score-matched data comparing LAAO vs. NOACs in high-risk patients with AF were pooled in our study. A total of 2849 AF patients (LAAO: 1368, NOACs: 1481, mean age: 75 ± 7.5 yrs, 63.5% male) were enrolled. The mean CHA2DS2-VASc score was 4.3 ± 1.7, and the mean HAS-BLED score was 3.4 ± 1.2. The baseline characteristics were comparable between the two groups. In the LAAO group, the success rate of device implantation was 98.8%. During a mean follow-up of 2 years, as compared with NOACs, LAAO was associated with a significant reduction of ISTH major bleeding ( = 0.0002). There were no significant differences in terms of ischemic stroke ( = 0.61), ischemic stroke/thromboembolism ( = 0.63), ISTH major and clinically relevant minor bleeding ( = 0.73), cardiovascular death ( = 0.63), and all-cause mortality ( = 0.71). There was a trend toward reduction of combined major cardiovascular and neurological endpoints in the LAAO group (OR: 0.84, 95% CI: 0.64-1.11, = 0.12). In conclusion, for high-risk AF patients, LAAO is associated with a significant reduction of ISTH major bleeding without increased ischemic events, as compared to "contemporary NOACs". The present data show the superior role of LAAO over NOACs among high-risk AF patients in terms of reduction of major bleeding; however, more randomized controlled trials are warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcdd8060069DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8230807PMC
June 2021

Residue changes and processing factors of eighteen field-applied pesticides during the production of Chinese Baijiu from rice.

Food Chem 2021 Oct 29;359:129983. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Longping Branch, Graduate School of Hunan University, Changsha 410125, China; Hunan Plant Protection Institute, Hunan Academy of Agricultural Science, Changsha 410125, China. Electronic address:

The fate of eighteen pesticides in field-collected rice samples during Chinese Baijiu production was systematically studied. The results indicated that steeping decreased flonicamid residue by 73.2% due to its high water-solubility and low octanol/water partition coefficient. The steaming step reduced pesticide residues by 32.0%-75.3% through evaporation or thermal degradation. After steaming, the pesticide residues were further reduced by 39.8-74.2% in fermentation which might be caused by biological degradation. In addition, distillation was shown to be most effective, responsible for greater than 90% losses of the remaining pesticide residues. The processing factors (PFs) were generally lower than 1 for different processes and the whole procedure. These results revealed that the procedure of Chinese Baijiu production could dramatically decrease residues of all the eighteen pesticides. Overall, this study provide important references for monitoring pesticide residue levels during the production of Chinese Baijiu from rice, and ensuring proper risk assessment from pesticide contamination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.129983DOI Listing
October 2021

Sub-pocket small-hole drainage for pocket hematoma after cardiac device implantation.

Herz 2022 Feb 22;47(1):63-66. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Cardiology, Shanghai General Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, No 100, Haining Road, 200080, Shanghai, China.

Aims: Pocket hematoma is a common complication associated with cardiac device implantation, but there are limited strategies to deal with this problem. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of sub-pocket small-hole drainage (SSD) as a new way to manage severe pocket hematoma.

Methods: A total of 11 patients with severe pocket hematoma were selected for this case series study. The SSD procedure was performed and wound healing was monitored.

Results: The SSD procedure was successfully performed on all 11 patients. The time window for SSD was 10-14 days (mean 12.0 ± 1.3 days) after cardiac device implantation. On average, 18.3 ± 2.3 ml of hematoma was drained , with a mean procedural time of 21.3 ± 2.6 min. The patients were followed up for 4-12 months and all pockets healed well, without any complications such as pocket infection, bleeding, device exposure, and electrode fracture.

Conclusion: Sub-pocket small-hole drainage is an alternative approach for dealing with severe pocket hematoma after cardiac device implantation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00059-021-05037-yDOI Listing
February 2022

Anticoagulation in atrial fibrillation and liver disease: a pooled-analysis of >20 000 patients.

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Pharmacother 2022 Jun;8(4):336-345

Cardioangiologisches Centrum Bethanien (CCB), Kardiologie, Medizinische Klinik III, Agaplesion Markus Krankenhaus, Akademisches Lehrkrankenhaus der Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main, Wilhelm-Epstein Straße 4, Frankfurt am Main 60431, Germany.

Aims: Anticoagulation for atrial fibrillation patients with liver disease represents a clinical dilemma. We sought to evaluate the efficacy/safety of different anticoagulation, i.e. vitamin K antagonist (VKA) and non-VKA oral anticoagulants (NOACs) in such patient group.

Methods And Results: This was a pooled-analysis enrolling up-to-date clinical data. Two subsets: subset A (VKA vs. Non-Anticoagulation) and subset B (NOACs vs. VKA) were pre-specified. The study outcomes were ischaemic stroke (IS)/thromboembolism (TE), major bleeding (MB), intracranial bleeding (ICB), gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB), and all-cause mortality. A total of 20 042 patients' data were analysed (subset A: N = 10 275, subset B: N = 9767). Overall mean age: 71 ± 11 years, mean CHA2DS2-VASc score: 4.0 ± 1.8, mean HAS-BLED score: 3.6 ± 1.2. The majority of the patients had Child-Pugh category (A-B). As compared with Non-Anticoagulation, VKA seemed to reduce the risk of IS/TE [odds ratio (OR): 0.60, P = 0.05], but heighten the risk of all-bleeding events including MB (OR: 2.81, P = 0.01), ICB (OR: 1.60, P = 0.01), and GIB (OR: 3.32, P = 0.01). When compared with VKA, NOACs had similar efficacy in reducing the risk of IS/TE (OR: 0.82, P = 0.64), significantly lower risk of MB (OR: 0.54, P = 0.0003) and ICB (OR: 0.35, P < 0.0001), and trend towards reduced risk of GIB (OR: 0.72, P = 0.12) and all-cause mortality (OR: 0.79, P = 0.35). The favourable effects were maintained in subgroups of individual NOAC.

Conclusions: VKA appears to reduce the risk of IS/TE but increase all-bleeding events. NOACs have similar effect in reducing the risk of IS/TE and have significantly lower risk of MB and ICB as compared with VKA. NOACs seem to be associated with better clinical outcome than VKA in patients with mild-moderate liver disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ehjcvp/pvab032DOI Listing
June 2022

Residue behavior, transfer and risk assessment of tolfenpyrad, dinotefuran and its metabolites during tea growing and tea brewing.

J Sci Food Agric 2021 Nov 24;101(14):5992-6000. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Longping Branch, Graduate School of Hunan University, Changsha, China.

Background: Tolfenpyrad and dinotefuran are two representative pesticides used for pest control in tea gardens. Their application may bring about a potential risk to the health of consumers. Therefore, it is essential to investigate the residue behavior, transfer and risk assessment of tolfenpyrad, dinotefuran and metabolites from tea garden to teacup.

Results: An effective analytical method was established and validated to simultaneously determine tolfenpyrad, dinotefuran and its metabolites (DN and UF) in tea. The average recoveries of tolfenpyrad, dinotefuran, DN and UF were in the range 72.1-106.3%, with relative standard deviations lower than 11.8%. On the basis of the proposed method, the dissipation of tolfenpyrad and dinotefuran in fresh tea leaves followed first-order kinetics models with half-lives of 4.30-7.33 days and 4.65-5.50 days, respectively. With application amounts of 112.5-168.75 g a.i. ha once or twice, the terminal residues of tolfenpyrad and total dinotefuran in green tea were lower than 19.6 and 7.13 mg kg , respectively, and below their corresponding maximum residue limits . The leaching rates of tolfenpyrad and total dinotefuran during the tea brewing were in the ranges 1.4-2.3% and 93.7-98.1%, respectively.

Conclusion: Tolfenpyrad and dinotefuran in tea were easily degraded. The RQ and RQ values for tolfenpyrad were 37.6% and 5.4%, which were much higher than for dinotefuran at 24.7% and 0.84%, respectively. The data indicated that there was no significant health risk in tea for consumers at the recommended dosages. The results provide scientific data regarding the reasonable use of tolfenpyrad and dinotefuran aiming to ensure safe tea consuption. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.11253DOI Listing
November 2021

Alternating and gradually changing narrow QRS complex tachycardia in a patient with heart failure: What is the mechanism?

Ann Noninvasive Electrocardiol 2021 11 25;26(6):e12836. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Department of Cardiology, Shanghai General Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, School of Medicine, Shangai, China.

A 23-year-old woman with palpitations for 9 years was referred for catheter ablation. ECG showed an irregular narrow complex tachycardia with alternating and gradually changing QRS morphologies after alternating and changing RR intervals, with a clear pattern of 2 alternating QRS complexes. An electrophysiology study was performed and confirmed that the mechanism of tachycardia was an automatic left-side His-Purkinje system (HPS) ventricular tachycardia. The gradually changing type-2 QRS complexes was the conduction delayed in the left anterior fascicle due to the short RR interval or the short left-side HH interval. Nine months after the index electrophysiology study, the patient encounter a progressive of heart failure with increased heart rate to 130-150 bpm during rest. Radiofrequency ablation was performed at the upper-septum for eliminating the tachycardia and resulted in complete atrioventricular block. A permanent pacemaker with left bundle branch pacing was implanted. Twelve months after the ablation, the enlarged heart shrink to normal with normal left ventricular ejection fraction. In conclusion, careful interpretation of the ECG can identify the sinus P waves followed by irregular narrow complexes, thus avoiding misdiagnosis and unnecessary treatment. Unifocal HPS tachycardia could present with alternating and gradually changing narrow QRS complexes tachycardia and lead to tachycardia cardiomyopathy. Electrophysiology study and catheter ablation were useful for the diagnosis and treatment of HPS tachycardia but with high risk of atrioventricular block. However, successfully elimination the tachycardia would resolve and reverse the enlarged heart and deteriorative heart function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/anec.12836DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8588362PMC
November 2021

Anatomical insights into posterior wall isolation in patients with atrial fibrillation: A hypothesis to protect the esophagus.

J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 2021 02 4;32(2):270-278. Epub 2021 Jan 4.

Department of Cardiology, Shanghai General Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Introduction: Left atrial posterior wall (LAPW) isolation may be performed as an additional atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation strategy based on pulmonary vein isolation. A modified posterior-inferior line (MPL) was proposed for reducing esophageal injury. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anatomical characteristics of the MPL, compared with the conventional posterior line (CPL).

Methods And Results: Multidetector computed tomography was performed in 102 consecutive AF patients (male/female = 60/42) preoperative, and the parameters were evaluated as follows: the distance from MPL and CPL to the esophagus, fat pad presence and thickness in the course of MPL and CPL, and the esophageal route below CPL. The average distance from the MPL to the esophagus was longer than from CPL to the esophagus (3.7 ± 1.5 vs. 1.7 ± 0.4 mm, p < .001). Proportion of fat pad was higher in the course of MPL than CPL. The myocardium tissue and fat pad under MPL was thicker than under CPL (2.9 ± 1.1 vs. 1.6 ± 0.3 mm, p < .001; 1.4 ± 0.6 vs. 0.9 ± 0.2 mm, p < .001), respectively. In patients whose esophagus was unconfined in a triangular space at the left inferior pulmonary vein level, the average distance from MPL to esophagus was longer than the confined patients (4.0 ± 1.7 vs. 3.2 ± 1.0 mm, p = .001).

Conclusion: The MPL was far away from the esophagus with thicker myocardium tissue and more fat pad than the CPL; thus, MPL could serve as a favorable alternative in linear ablation for LAPW isolation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jce.14853DOI Listing
February 2021

Tailored ablation index for pulmonary vein isolation according to wall thickness within the ablation circle.

Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 2021 04 25;44(4):575-585. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Department of Cardiology, Shanghai General Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Shanghai, China.

Background: Ablation index (AI), a novel lesion quality marker, includes contact force, time, and power of radiofrequency (RF) application, but not regional variation in wall thickness within the wide antral catheter ablation (WACA) circle. This study explored the relationships among AI target value, atrial wall thickness, and gap formation within the WACA circle in patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF).

Methods: We evaluated 102 consecutive patients (mean age, 65 ± 9 years) with PAF who underwent AI-guided WACA for ipsilateral pulmonary vein isolation (PVI). Each WACA circle was subdivided into eight segments, and overall 7143 RF applications were delivered, including 125 gaps in PVI ablation lines. For each RF tag within the ablation circle, we collected data on ablation lesion depth surrogates (time of application, delivery power, impedance drop, average contact force, force-time integral [FTI], and AI) and left atrial wall thickness measured by multidetector computer tomography scanning.

Results: The anterior and roof walls were the thickest segments of the ablation circle, in which 85.8% of gaps concentrated, while the posterior and inferior walls were the thinnest. Gap formation was significantly associated with FTI, AI, wall thickness, FTI/wall thickness, and AI/wall thickness. AI/wall thickness had the highest predictive value for gap formation, with a cutoff of 195.6 au/mm for effective ablation.

Conclusions: In AI-guided PVI of PAF, AI/wall thickness by normalizing myocardial thickness variation along the WACA circle was a strong predictor of gap formation, with a target of 195.6 au/mm appearing suitable for effective ablation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pace.14125DOI Listing
April 2021

Acute conduction recurrence of mitral isthmus: Incidence, clinical characteristics, and implications.

Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 2020 12 12;43(12):1564-1571. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Department of Cardiology, Shanghai General Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Background: Data on the incidence, clinical characteristics, and implications of acute conduction recurrence during mitral isthmus (MI) ablation are scarce.

Methods: MI ablation was performed in patients with atrial fibrillation. After confirming bidirectional conduction block, the acute conduction recurrence of MI was systematically evaluated. Clinical and electrophysiological characteristics were analyzed.

Results: A total of 66 consecutive patients in whom bidirectional conduction block of MI was achieved were prospectively enrolled in a single center. Acute conduction recurrence of MI developed in 12 (18.2%) patients within 14.2 ± 11.5 minutes after the confirmation of bidirectional conduction block. There were two recurrent conduction breakthrough sites of MI along the course of the great cardiac vein (4.5 ± 3.5 min) in two patients and 11 along the course of the ligament of Marshall (LOM) (16.0 ± 11.6 min, P = .035) in 11 patients. LOM accounted for most (84.6%, 11/13) acute MI conduction recurrence. MI length, total ablation time, and procedure time for MI were greater in patients with acute conduction recurrence than in those without acute conduction recurrence. During follow-up, arrhythmia recurrences were less observed in patients with acute conduction when compared to patients without acute conduction recurrence (0% vs 26.4%, P = .055).

Conclusion: Acute conduction recurrence, predominantly due to recurrent LOM conduction, was a common phenomenon during MI ablation, and its evaluation should therefore be the focus to improve MI ablation efficacy and durability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pace.14110DOI Listing
December 2020

Study on degradation behaviour, residue distribution, and dietary risk assessment of propiconazole in celery and onion under field application.

J Sci Food Agric 2021 Mar 5;101(5):1998-2005. Epub 2020 Oct 5.

Longping Branch, Graduate School of Hunan University, Changsha, 410125, China.

Background: Propiconazole is widely used to control fungal diseases in field crops, including celery and onion. The potential risk to the environment and human health has aroused much public concern. Therefore, it is significant to investigate the degradation behaviour, residue distribution, and dietary risk assessment of propiconazole in celery and onion.

Results: A sensitive analytical method for determination of propiconazole residue in celery and onion was established and validated through high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The average recovery rate of propiconazole ranged from 85.7% to 101.8%, with a relative standard deviation of 2.1-6.3%. For the dissipation kinetics, the data showed that propiconazole in celery and onion was degraded, with half-lives of 6.1-6.2 days and 8.7-8.8 days respectively. In the terminal residue experiments, the residues of propiconazole were below 4.66 mg kg in celery after application two or three times and were below 0.029 mg kg in onion after application of three or four times with an interval of 14 days under the designed dosages. The chronic and acute dietary exposure assessments for propiconazole were valued by risk quotient, with all values being lower than 100%.

Conclusion: Propiconazole in celery and onion was rapidly degraded following first-order kinetics models. The dietary risk of propiconazole through celery or onion was negligible to consumers. The study not only offers a valuable reference for reasonable usage of propiconazole on celery and onion, but also facilitates the establishment of maximum residue limits in China. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.10817DOI Listing
March 2021

QRS complex axis deviation changing in catheter ablation of left fascicular ventricular tachycardia.

Europace 2020 11;22(11):1688-1696

Department of Cardiology, Shanghai General Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, No. 85, Wujin Road, Shanghai 200080, China.

Aims: The mechanisms of the QRS complex axis deviation changing of idiopathic left fascicular ventricular tachycardia (FVT) during or after radiofrequency catheter ablation were investigated in this study, which were still not well defined.

Methods And Results: In the index procedure, FVTs characterized by right bundle branch block configuration and left-axis deviation (LAD-FVT) were ablated at the VT exit site guided by the earliest ventricular activation with fused presystolic Purkinje potential (PP) in 234 consecutive patients. A new type of FVT characterized by right-axis deviation (RAD-FVT) was identified after successful elimination of the LAD-FVT in 12 patients, including 9 patients during the index procedure and 3 patients during follow-up. The QRS duration of RAD-FVT was shorter than that of LAD-FVT (115.3 ± 15.2 vs. 125.3 ± 16.4 ms, P = 0.006). The RAD-FVTs showed an earliest ventricle activation site localized at anterior fascicle area in 11 patients and anterior-median fascicle area in 1. However, the earliest PP during the RAD-FVT was still identified within the posterior fascicular network. Elimination of the RAD-FVTs was successfully achieved by applying radiofrequency current at a more proximal site within the left posterior fascicular network guided by the earliest PP. After a mean of 1.6 ± 0.8 ablation procedures and median follow-up of 132 (range 19-216) months since the last procedure, no recurrence was observed in any patients.

Conclusion: The axis deviation changing of QRS complex in FVT may be attributed to the different exit sites of the reentry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/europace/euaa175DOI Listing
November 2020

Coexistence of sinus bradycardia and junctional tachycardia in a patient with fibrotic atrial cardiomyopathy.

Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 2021 01 1;44(1):189-191. Epub 2020 Sep 1.

Department of Cardiology, Shanghai General Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

A 65-year-old woman was referred for catheter ablation in the treatment of persistent tachycardia after surgery for atrial fibrillation and mitral regurgitation. Bipolar voltage mapping of both atria revealed that severe and extensive atrial fibrosis isolated the sinoatrial node from the atrioventricular junction and led to the coexistence of sinus bradycardia and persistent junctional tachycardia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pace.14028DOI Listing
January 2021

Rationale and study design for ablation of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation guided by ablation index: a multi-center, prospective randomized trial (PAF-AI trial).

J Interv Card Electrophysiol 2021 Apr 11;60(3):439-444. Epub 2020 May 11.

Department of Cardiology, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, 3 East Qingchun Road, Zhejiang, 310016, Hangzhou, People's Republic of China.

Background: Pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) has become the cornerstone of atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation, but long-term success rates remains suboptimal, due in large part to late PV reconnection and insufficient ostial substrate modification.

Objective: To evaluate whether ablation index (AI)-guided PVI with electrical isolation and quantified ostial substrate modification improves clinical outcomes when compared with contact force (CF)-guided ablation in patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF).

Methods: The PAF-AI trial (ChiCTR1900022041) is a prospective, multi-center, randomized controlled clinical trial enrolling patients with PAF with an indication for catheter ablation. Patients are randomized into a 2:1 fashion to two treatment arms: AI-guided PVI (n = 151) and CF-guided PVI (n = 75). In the AI-guided PVI group, real-time automated display of radiofrequency applications (Visitag™) is used with AI ≥ 500 recommended at the anterior/superior/inferior walls and 350-400 at the posterior wall. In CF-guided PVI group, the value and direction of CF are displayed, with the lesion dots manually annotated. The primary endpoint is the freedom from AF recurrence at 12 months following ablation, without antiarrhythmic drug. The primary pre-specified secondary endpoints include intraprocedural efficiency and peri-procedural complications.

Conclusions: PAF-AI trial compares the effectiveness and safety of two different strategies of PVI in patients with PAF, AI-guided PVI versus more established CF-guided PVI. This prospective, multi-center, randomized controlled trial, with comparative data evaluating procedural and long-term follow-up results, aims to evaluate the impact of AI-guided strategy on AF ablation compared with the current standard of care RF ablation approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10840-020-00763-5DOI Listing
April 2021

Clinical efficacy and safety of radiofrequency catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation in patients aged ≥80 years.

Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 2020 08 20;43(8):814-821. Epub 2020 Jul 20.

Department of Cardiology, Shanghai General Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Aim: To evaluate the clinical safety and efficacy of radiofrequency catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients aged ≥80 years.

Methods: A total of 333 AF patients aged ≥60 years were enrolled, who underwent contact force-guided radiofrequency catheter ablation with uninterrupted anticoagulation. All patients were followed-up for at least 12 months. Success was defined by the absence of episodes of AF/atrial tachycardia lasting more than 30 seconds after a 3-month blanking period, without antiarrhythmic drugs.

Results: Compared to patients aged 60-79 years (Group 2, n = 244), patients aged ≥80 years (Group 1, n = 89) were presented with higher rate of diabetes (36.0% vs 22.1%, P = .011), lower body mass index (23.4 ± 3.1 vs 24.9 ± 3.4 kg/m , P = .001), lower creatinine clearance (56.9 ± 16.5 vs 83.3 ± 24.5 mL/min, P < .001), higher CHA DS -VASc score (4.3 ± 1.3 vs 3.3 ± 1.4, P < .001), and HAS-BLED score (2.2 ± 0.8 vs 1.8 ± 0.8, P < .001). Wide antral pulmonary vein isolation was achieved in all patients, and there was no significant difference in procedure time, ablation time, fluoroscopy time, and complications rate between two age groups (P > .05). After a mean follow-up of 24.4 ± 9.6 months, the overall success rate was 78.2% in Group 1 and 78.9% in Group 2 (P = .622).

Conclusions: Radiofrequency ablation with contact force sensing catheters for AF is safe and effective in selected patients aged ≥80 years.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pace.13932DOI Listing
August 2020

Activated CD4 T cells-derived exosomal miR-142-3p boosts post-ischemic ventricular remodeling by activating myofibroblast.

Aging (Albany NY) 2020 04 23;12(8):7380-7396. Epub 2020 Apr 23.

Department of Cardiology, Shanghai General Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Hongkou District, Shanghai 201620, China.

Cardiac fibrosis is a primary phenotype of cardiac remodeling that contributes to cardiac dysfunction and heart failure. The expansion and activation of CD4 T cells in the heart has been identified to facilitate pathological cardiac remodeling and dysfunction; however, the underlying mechanisms remained not well clarified. Herein, we found that exosomes derived from activated CD4 T cells (CD4-activated Exos) evoked pro-fibrotic effects of cardiac fibroblasts, and their delivery into the heart aggravated cardiac fibrosis and dysfunction post-infarction. Mechanistically, miR-142-3p that was enriched in CD4-activated Exos recapitulated the pro-fibrotic effects of CD4-activated Exos in cardiac fibroblasts, and vice versa. Furthermore, miR-142-3p directly targeted and inhibited the expression of Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC), a negative WNT signaling pathway regulator, contributing to the activation of WNT signaling pathway and cardiac fibroblast activation. Thus, CD4-activated Exos promote post-ischemic cardiac fibrosis through exosomal miR-142-3p-WNT signaling cascade-mediated activation of myofibroblasts. Targeting miR-142-3p in CD4-activated Exos may hold promise for treating cardiac remodeling post-MI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/aging.103084DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7202529PMC
April 2020

Ablation at Right Coronary Cusp as an Alternative and Favorable Approach to Eliminate Premature Ventricular Complexes Originating From the Proximal Left Anterior Fascicle.

Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol 2020 05 17;13(5):e008173. Epub 2020 Apr 17.

Department of Cardiology, Shanghai General Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, School of Medicine, China (S.C., X.L., S.P., G.Z., Z.L., Y.W., K.Y., W.F., L.C., J.X., S.L.).

Background: Premature ventricular complex (PVC) with narrow QRS duration originating from proximal left anterior fascicle (LAF) is challenging for ablation. This study was performed to evaluate the safety and feasibility of ablation from right coronary cusp (RCC) for proximal LAF-PVC and to investigate this PVC's characteristics.

Methods: Mapping at RCC and left ventricle and ECG analysis were performed in 20 patients with LAF-PVC.

Results: The earliest activation site (EAS), with Purkinje potential during both PVC and sinus rhythm, was localized at proximal LAF in 8 patients (proximal group) and at nonproximal LAF in 12 patients (nonproximal group). The Purkinje potential preceding PVC-QRS at the EAS in proximal group (32.6±2.5 ms) was significantly earlier than that in nonproximal group (28.3±4.5 ms, =0.025). Similar difference in the Purkinje potentials preceding sinus rhythm QRS at the EAS was also observed between proximal and nonproximal groups (35.1±4.7 versus 25.2±5.0 ms, <0.001). In proximal group, the distance between the EAS to left His bundle and to RCC was shorter than that of nonproximal group (12.3±2.8 versus 19.7±5.0 mm, =0.002, and 3.9±0.8 versus 15.7±7.8 mm, <0.001, respectively). No difference in the distance from RCC to proximal LAF was identified between the 2 groups. PVCs were successfully eliminated from RCC for all proximal groups but at left ventricular EAS for nonproximal groups. The radiofrequency application times, ablation time, and procedure time of nonproximal group were longer than that of proximal group. Electrocardiographic analysis showed that, when compared with nonproximal group, the PVCs of proximal group had narrower QRS duration; smaller S wave in leads I, V, and V; lower R wave in leads I, aVR, aVL, V, V, and V; and smaller q wave in leads III and aVF. The QRS duration difference (PVC-QRS and sinus rhythm QRS) <15 ms predicted the proximal LAF origin with high sensitivity and specificity.

Conclusions: PVCs originating from proximal LAF, with unique electrocardiographic characteristics, could be eliminated safely from RCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCEP.119.008173DOI Listing
May 2020

Phytotoxicity of iron-based materials in mung bean: Seed germination tests.

Chemosphere 2020 Jul 6;251:126432. Epub 2020 Mar 6.

Qingdao Hengli Environmental Technology Research Institute Co., Ltd., Qingdao, Shandong Province, 266000, PR China.

Environmental applications and potential risks of iron-based materials have attracted increasing attention. However, most previous studies focused on a single material. Comparative research using different iron-based materials under the same experimental conditions is still lacking. Here, six iron-based materials, including micro-sized and nanoscale FeO (i.e., mFeO and nFeO), bulk and bare nanoscale zero-valent iron (i.e., mZVI and B-nZVI), starch-supported nZVI (S-nZVI), and activated carbon-supported nZVI (A-nZVI), were studied to compare their phytotoxicity in mung bean grown in suspensions with doses of 0, 300, 600 and 1000 mg/L. Taking the four toxicology parameters (seed germination rate, germination index, seedling elongation and biomass) together, the iron-based materials except mFeO generally produced no significant phytotoxicity to mung bean even at 1000 mg/L. nFeO and B-nZVI showed no higher phytotoxicity than their micro-sized counterparts (mFeO and mZVI). All the materials resulted in increased Fe concentrations in seedlings particularly in roots, and mZVI and B-nZVI produced more significant effects. However, the Fe in the roots was difficultly translocated to the shoots. Compared to B-nZVI, nFeO had lower bioavailability and bioaccumulation potential. XRD results confirmed that most FeO and B-nZVI remained unchanged during seedling growth, while support materials accelerated the corrosion and transformation of S-nZVI and A-nZVI. In conclusion, the tested nanoscale iron-based materials generally possess no obvious phytotoxicity within the dose range, but cause excess Fe accumulation in seedlings. Introduction of support materials may reduce such risk, allowing safer applications of these iron-based materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.126432DOI Listing
July 2020
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