Publications by authors named "Shaobai Zhang"

8 Publications

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Immunogenicity and Safety of an Inactivated Enterovirus 71 Vaccine Administered Simultaneously with Hepatitis B Virus Vaccine, Group A Meningococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine, Measles-Rubella Combined Vaccine and Japanese Encephalitis Vaccine: A Multi-Center, Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial in China.

Vaccines (Basel) 2022 Jun 2;10(6). Epub 2022 Jun 2.

Shandong Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Jinan 250014, China.

Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the immunogenicity and safety of the enterovirus 71 vaccine (EV71 vaccine) administered alone or simultaneously.

Methods: A multi-center, open-label, randomized controlled trial was performed involving 1080 healthy infants aged 6 months or 8 months from Shandong, Shanxi, Shaanxi, and Hunan provinces. These infants were divided into four simultaneous administration groups and EV71 vaccine separate administration group. Blood samples were collected from the infants before the first vaccination and after the completion of the vaccination. This trial was registered in the Clinical Trials Registry (NCT03519568).

Results: A total of 895 were included in the per-protocol analysis. The seroconversion rates of antibodies against EV71 in four simultaneous administration groups (98.44% (189/192), 94.57% (122/129), 99.47% (187/188) and 98.45% (190/193)) were non-inferior to EV71 vaccine separate administration group (97.93% [189/193]) respectively. Fever was the most common adverse event, the pairwise comparison tests showed no difference in the incidence rate of solicited, systemic or local adverse events. Three serious adverse events related to the vaccination were reported.

Conclusions: The evidence of immunogenicity and safety supports that the EV71 vaccine administered simultaneously with vaccines need to be administered during the same period of time recommended in China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10060895DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9230521PMC
June 2022

Immunogenicity and safety of an inactivated enterovirus 71 vaccine co-administered with measles-mumps-rubella vaccine and live-attenuated Japanese encephalitis vaccine: a phase 4, single-center, randomized controlled trial.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2021 12 14;17(12):5348-5354. Epub 2021 Dec 14.

Sinovac Biotech Co. Ltd, Beijing, China.

Co-administration of vaccines could be an efficient strategy to increase vaccination uptake and reduce the number of clinic visits. This randomized controlled study aimed to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of enterovirus 71 (EV71) vaccine co-administered with measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine and live-attenuated Japanese encephalitis vaccine (LA-JEV). A total of 372 healthy infants were randomly assigned in a 1:1:1 ratio to receive simultaneous administration of EV71 vaccine (dose 1) and MMR on d 0 and EV71 vaccine (dose 2) and LA-JEV on d 30 (Group 1); administration of MMR and LA-JEV on d 0 and 30, respectively (Group 2); or administration of doses 1 and 2 of EV71 vaccine on d 0 and 30, respectively (Group 3). The non-inferiority analysis of the seroconversion for EV71 neutralizing antibody after vaccination was the primary outcome. According to per protocol set, antibody response against EV71, measles, mumps, rubella, and Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus was similar regardless of administration schedule. After vaccination, the seroconversion rate of EV71 neutralizing antibody in Group 1 (107 [97.27%] of 110) was non-inferior to that in Group 3 (109 [97.32%] of 112; difference - 0.05% [95% CI - 5.38 to 5.21]). The incidences of adverse reactions were 62.60% (77/123) in Group 1, 54.84% (68/124) in Group 2, and 37.70% (46/122) in Group 3, and most of them were mild to moderate in severity. No vaccine-related serious adverse events were reported. In total, the co-administration of combined EV71 vaccine with MMR and LA-JEV showed no interference with antibody response and demonstrated good safety profiles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2021.2010428DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8903949PMC
December 2021

Metagenomic sequencing reveals viral abundance and diversity in mosquitoes from the Shaanxi-Gansu-Ningxia region, China.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 04 26;15(4):e0009381. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention -Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences Joint Research Center for Emerging Infectious Diseases and Biosafety, Center for Biosafety Mega-Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, People's Republic of China.

Background: Mosquitoes host and transmit numerous arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) that cause disease in both humans and animals. Effective surveillance of virome profiles in mosquitoes is vital to the prevention and control of mosquito-borne diseases in northwestern China, where epidemics occur frequently.

Methods: Mosquitoes were collected in the Shaanxi-Gansu-Ningxia region (Shaanxi Province, Gansu Province, and Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region) of China from June to August 2019. Morphological methods were used for taxonomic identification of mosquito species. High-throughput sequencing and metagenomic analysis were used to characterize mosquito viromes.

Results: A total of 22,959 mosquitoes were collected, including Culex pipiens (45.7%), Culex tritaeniorhynchus (40.6%), Anopheles sinensis (8.4%), Aedes (5.2%), and Armigeres subalbatus (0.1%). In total, 3,014,183 (0.95% of clean reads) viral sequences were identified and assigned to 116 viral species (including pathogens such as Japanese encephalitis virus and Getah virus) in 31 viral families, including Flaviviridae, Togaviridae, Phasmaviridae, Phenuiviridae, and some unclassified viruses. Mosquitoes collected in July (86 species in 26 families) showed greater viral diversity than those from June and August. Culex pipiens (69 species in 25 families) and Culex tritaeniorhynchus (73 species in 24 families) carried more viral species than Anopheles sinensis (50 species in 19 families) or Aedes (38 species in 20 families) mosquitoes.

Conclusion: Viral diversity and abundance were affected by mosquito species and collection time. The present study elucidates the virome compositions of various mosquito species in northwestern China, improving the understanding of virus transmission dynamics for comparison with those of disease outbreaks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0009381DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8101993PMC
April 2021

Epidemiological Characteristics, Seasonal Dynamic Patterns, and Associations with Meteorological Factors of Rubella in Shaanxi Province, China, 2005-2018.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2021 01;104(1):166-174

1Department of Epidemiology, Ministry of Education Key Lab of Hazard Assessment and Control in Special Operational Environment, School of Public Health, Air Force Medical University, Xi'an, People's Republic of China.

Rubella occurs worldwide, causing approximately 100,000 cases annually of congenital rubella syndrome, leading to severe birth defects. Better targeting of public health interventions is needed to achieve rubella elimination goals. To that end, we measured the epidemiological characteristics and seasonal dynamic patterns of rubella and determined its association with meteorological factors in Shaanxi Province, China. Data on rubella cases in Shaanxi Province from 2005 to 2018 were obtained from the Chinese National Notifiable Disease Reporting System. The Morlet wavelet analysis was used to estimate temporal periodicity of rubella incidence. Mixed generalized additive models were used to measure associations between meteorological variables (temperature and relative humidity) and rubella incidence. A total of 17,185 rubella cases were reported in Shaanxi during the study period, for an annual incidence of 3.27 cases per 100,000 population. Interannual oscillations in rubella incidence of 0.8-1.4 years, 3.8-4.8 years, and 0.5 years were detected. Both temperature and relative humidity exhibited nonlinear associations with the incidence of rubella. The accumulative relative risk of transmission for the overall pooled estimates was maximized at a temperature of 0.23°C and relative humidity of 41.6%. This study found that seasonality and meteorological factors have impact on the transmission of rubella; public health interventions to eliminate rubella must consider periodic and seasonal fluctuations as well as meteorological factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.20-0585DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7790056PMC
January 2021

How Socio-Environmental Factors Are Associated with Japanese Encephalitis in Shaanxi, China-A Bayesian Spatial Analysis.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2018 03 27;15(4). Epub 2018 Mar 27.

School of Public Health, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710061, China.

Evidence indicated that socio-environmental factors were associated with occurrence of Japanese encephalitis (JE). This study explored the association of climate and socioeconomic factors with JE (2006-2014) in Shaanxi, China. JE data at the county level in Shaanxi were supplied by Shaanxi Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Population and socioeconomic data were obtained from the China Population Census in 2010 and statistical yearbooks. Meteorological data were acquired from the China Meteorological Administration. A Bayesian conditional autoregressive model was used to examine the association of meteorological and socioeconomic factors with JE. A total of 1197 JE cases were included in this study. Urbanization rate was inversely associated with JE incidence during the whole study period. Meteorological variables were significantly associated with JE incidence between 2012 and 2014. The excessive precipitation at lag of 1-2 months in the north of Shaanxi in June 2013 had an impact on the increase of local JE incidence. The spatial residual variations indicated that the whole study area had more stable risk (0.80-1.19 across all the counties) between 2012 and 2014 than earlier years. Public health interventions need to be implemented to reduce JE incidence, especially in rural areas and after extreme weather.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15040608DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5923650PMC
March 2018

Identify the susceptibility profile to measles in the general population: Serological survey of measles antibodies in Shaanxi province, China, in 2016.

Vaccine 2017 12 15;35(52):7250-7255. Epub 2017 Nov 15.

School of Public Health, Xi'an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710061, China. Electronic address:

The reported coverage with two doses of the measles vaccine (MCV) in Shaanxi Province, China, is greater than 95%, but the measles incidence over the whole province remains high. Cross-sectional serological surveys of measles antibodies in Shaanxi Province were conducted in 2016 to assess the population's immunity. The measles IgG levels were measured in serum samples using ELISA. The geometric means concentration (GMC) levels and seroprevalence rates with 95% CIs were calculated by region, gender, and age. A total of 3574 serum samples were collected from participants aged from 2 months to 49 years. The GMC of measles antibodies was 471.3 mIU/ml (95% CI: 445.9-498.2 mIU/ml), and the seroprevalence was only 85.9% (95% CI: 84.8-87.1%). A significant difference in the GMC (P < .05) but not the seroprevalence (P > .05) was observed among the 3 regions. The report measles incidences were high in individuals aged 0-7 months (33.2/100 000) and 8-17 months (26.8/100 000). Although both measles immunity (90.7%) and MCV coverage (89.7%) were low in children aged 8-17 months, the measles seroprevalence in adults was high at greater than 90%. These results revealed that further actions may be taken to increase vaccination coverage in children aged 8 months to 5 years over the whole province and teenagers in the south region. In particular, timely administration of the first MCV dose should be emphasized to prevent measles epidemics in children aged 8-17 months. Vaccination strategies may be varied by age and region.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2017.11.012DOI Listing
December 2017

Distribution and phylogenetic analysis of Culex flavivirus in mosquitoes in China.

Arch Virol 2015 Sep 30;160(9):2259-68. Epub 2015 Jun 30.

Department to Epidemiology, School of Medicine, Jinan University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, 510000, People's Republic of China,

Culex flavivirus (CxFV) is an insect-specific virus of the genus Flavivirus. CxFV strains have been isolated from Cx. pipiens, Cx. quinquefasciatus, and other Cx. species in Asia, Africa, North America, Central America and South America. CxFV was isolated for the first time in China in 2006. As this is a novel flavivirus, we explored the distribution and genetic characteristics of Culex flavivirus in China. A total of 46,649 mosquitoes were collected in seven provinces between 2004 and 2012 and were analysed in 871 pools. 29 CxFV RNAs from Cx. pipiens, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Anopheles Sinensis, and Culex spp. tested positive for CxFV in real-time RT-PCR. 6 CxFV strains were isolated from Cx. species collected in Shandong, Henan, and Shaanxi provinces, while no virus or viral RNA was detected in samples from Sichuan, Chongqing, Hubei, and Fujian. Phylogenetic analysis of the envelope gene indicated that Chinese strains formed a robust subgroup of genotype 1, together with viruses from the United States and Japan. This study demonstrates that the geographic distribution of CxFV in China is widespread, but geographical boundaries to spread are apparent. Our findings suggest that CxFV can infect various mosquito species in nature.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00705-015-2492-1DOI Listing
September 2015

An improved FCM medical image segmentation algorithm based on MMTD.

Comput Math Methods Med 2014 4;2014:690349. Epub 2014 Feb 4.

Computer School, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Nanjing 210003, China.

Image segmentation plays an important role in medical image processing. Fuzzy c-means (FCM) is one of the popular clustering algorithms for medical image segmentation. But FCM is highly vulnerable to noise due to not considering the spatial information in image segmentation. This paper introduces medium mathematics system which is employed to process fuzzy information for image segmentation. It establishes the medium similarity measure based on the measure of medium truth degree (MMTD) and uses the correlation of the pixel and its neighbors to define the medium membership function. An improved FCM medical image segmentation algorithm based on MMTD which takes some spatial features into account is proposed in this paper. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is more antinoise than the standard FCM, with more certainty and less fuzziness. This will lead to its practicable and effective applications in medical image segmentation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/690349DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3932281PMC
January 2015
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