Publications by authors named "Shao Song"

14 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Fault-Tolerant Control of Magnetically-Levitated Rotor with Redundant Structures Based on Improved Generalized Linearized EMFs Model.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Aug 10;21(16). Epub 2021 Aug 10.

School of Mechanical & Electronic Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070, China.

Fault tolerance is one of the effective methods to improve the reliability of magnetic bearings, and the redundant magnetic bearing provides a feasible measure for fault-tolerant control. The linearization and accuracy of the electromagnetic force (EMF) from the redundant structures is crucial for designing fault-tolerant controllers. In the magnetic bearing with a redundant structure, the current distribution matrix is an important factor that affects the accuracy of EMF. In this paper, we improved the accuracy of the EMF model and took the eight-pole symmetrical radial magnetic bearing as the research object. The corresponding displacement compensation matrices have been calculated for the different coils that fail in the magnetic bearing while the rotor is at the non-equilibrium position. Then, we propose a fault-tolerant control strategy that includes displacement compensation. The rigid body dynamics model of the rotor, supported by magnetic bearings with redundant structures, is established. Moreover, to verify the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy, we combined the rigid body dynamics model of the rotor with a fault-tolerant control strategy, and the corresponding simulation has been carried out. In the case of disturbance force and some coils fail in magnetic bearing and compared with the fault-tolerant control that absents the displacement compensation factors. The simulations demonstrate the disturbance rejection of magnetically levitated rotor system can be enhanced. The robustness of the rotor has been improved with the fault-tolerant control strategy proposed in this paper.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s21165404DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8401880PMC
August 2021

Three-Dimensional Cephalometric Analysis: The Changes in Condylar Position Pre- and Post-Orthognathic Surgery With Skeletal Class III Malocclusion.

J Craniofac Surg 2021 Mar-Apr 01;32(2):546-551

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery.

Abstract: The study includes 21 adult patients with skeletal class III malocclusion who underwent orthognathic surgery and had computed tomography images records presurgery (T0) up to 6 months after the surgery (T1). The computed tomography images were analyzed three-dimensionally using the Proplan CMF 3.0 software. Different skeletal and dental parameters were used in analyzing the cephalometric analysis of the patients. The change in the condylar axis angle was evaluated on 3 planes: axial, coronal, and sagittal. The anteroposterior position of the condyle in relation to the glenoid fossa was evaluated in the sagittal plane. ∠SNB, ∠ANB, ∠Left Y-axis, ∠Right Y-axis were statistically significant (P < 0.01). Significant differences on the condylar axis angle were found between the groups on the sagittal plane (P < 0.05) whereas no significant differences were noted on the axial and the coronal plane. In the anteroposterior condylar position related to the glenoid fossa, the condyle exhibited different displacement on different condyles. The right condyle exhibited more of the posterior displacement whereas the left condyle exhibited more of anterior displacement of the condyle in relation to the glenoid fossa. Numerous studies have done regarding the changes after postsurgery using the two-dimensional cephalometric analysis. Using the 3D techniques helps us to identify the cephalometric point more accurately which thus enhances the accuracy in the cephalometric analysis. However, care should be taken not to change the axis of rotation of the condyle to prevent from the treatment relapse and to avoid temporo-mandibular disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SCS.0000000000006873DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7908865PMC
June 2021

MicroRNA-365 functions as a mechanosensitive microRNA to inhibit end plate chondrocyte degeneration by targeting histone deacetylase 4.

Bone 2019 11 28;128:115052. Epub 2019 Aug 28.

Spine Research Center of Wannan Medical Colleg, Key Laboratory of Non-coding RNA Transformation Research of Anhui Higher Education Institution(Wannan Medical College), Dept of Spine Surgery, Yijishan hospital, The first affiliated hospital of Wannan Medical College, Wuhu, Anhui 241001, China. Electronic address:

End plate chondrocyte degeneration is a major cause of intervertebral disc degeneration. Mechanical biophysical forces, including intermittent cyclic mechanical tension (ICMT), exacerbate end plate chondrocyte degeneration. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of mechanical stretch-induced end plate chondrocyte degeneration is still unclear. This study sought to determine whether microRNAs (miRNAs) respond to mechanical stretch and play a role in regulating mechanically-induced end plate chondrocyte degeneration. We identified miR-365 as a mechanoresponsive miRNA in primary human end plate chondrocytes after ICMT application by miRNA microarray analysis. The expression of miR-365 was down-regulated in the disc samples obtained from patients with disc degeneration. We also found that the miR-365 stimulates chondrocyte proliferation but does not promote end plate chondrocyte death. Using bioinformatic analyses and subsequent confirmation by real-time RT-PCR, we identified multiple candidate target genes of miR-365 that responded to in vitro mechanical stimulation; among them, HDAC4 was fully characterized. Mutation of putative miR-365 binding sites in HDAC4 mRNA abolished miR-365 mediated repression of HDAC4 3'-untranslated region (3'UTR) luciferase reporter activity, suggesting that miR-365 binds to the HDAC4 3'UTR. Overexpression of miR-365 significantly decreased the HDAC4 protein level, suggesting that miR-365 acts as an endogenous attenuator of HDAC4 in human end plate chondrocytes. Further, perturbation of miR-365 expression also had a significant effect on the expression of COL2A and ACAN and on matrix degeneration. Overexpression of HDAC4 abolished miR-365 rescued end plate chondrocyte degeneration during ICMT application. Furthermore, we found that the wnt/β-catenin signal pathway was related to HDAC4 and promoted end plate chondrocyte degeneration. Overall, our results suggest that miR-365 is a mechanosensitive miRNA that regulates human chondrocyte degeneration by directly targeting HDAC4. We propose that therapeutic regulation of miR-365 may be an efficient anabolic strategy for inhibiting end plate chondrocyte degeneration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2019.115052DOI Listing
November 2019

Association study of AFF1 rs340630 polymorphism with genetic susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis in Chinese population.

Braz J Med Biol Res 2018 17;51(7):e7126. Epub 2018 May 17.

Department of Orthopaedics, Liu'an People's Hospital, Liu'an, Anhui, China.

This study was performed to examine whether the AF4/FMR2 family, member 1 (AFF1) rs340630 polymorphism is involved in the genetic background of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in a Chinese population. Two different study groups of RA patients and controls (328 RA patients and 449 healthy controls in the first study group; 232 RA patients and 313 controls in the second study group) were included in our study. Overall, there was no significant difference in either genotype (P=0.71 and 0.64 in the first and second study group, respectively) nor allele (in the first study group: A vs G, P=0.65, OR=1.05, 95%CI=0.85-1.29; in the second study group: G vs A, P=0.47, OR=1.10, 95%CI=0.86-1.40) frequencies of AFF1 rs340630 polymorphism between RA patients and controls. Our study represents the first report assessing the association of AFF1 rs340630 polymorphism with RA risk. No significant evidence was found for the dominant or recessive models. Further case-control studies with larger sample sizes and fine-mapping studies are needed to clarify the role of AFF1 in the genetic basis of RA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1414-431x20187126DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5972020PMC
June 2018

Analysis of long non-coding RNA expression profiles in clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

Oncol Lett 2017 Sep 8;14(3):2757-2764. Epub 2017 Jul 8.

Jiangxi Key Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, Second Affiliated Hospital, Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330006, P.R. China.

To investigate the expression patterns of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) and in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC), the present study downloaded three human exon arrays available from the public Gene Expression Omnibus. The probes of the human exon arrays were re-annotated and the probes uniquely mapping to lncRNAs were retained at the gene level. Following the analysis of GSE53757 and GSE46699, which contained paired ccRCC cancer and normal adjacent tissue samples, 32 differentially expressed lncRNAs (adjusted P<0.01) in ccRCC were identified. Various lncRNAs, including ENSG00000177133, NR_024418, T-cell leukemia/lymphoma 6 (TCL6), growth arrest-specific transcript 5, deleted in lymphocytic leukemia 2, colorectal neoplasia differentially expressed (CRNDE) and MIR155HG, have been reported to be abnormally expressed in cancers. Of these genes, NR_24418 and TCL6 have been reported to be associated with ccRCC. Following analysis of GSE47352, which contained 4 primary metastatic and 5 non-metastatic tumor samples, the 50 top differentially expressed lncRNAs were identified in metastatic ccRCC (Mann-Whitney U test, P<0.05). Comparison with the ccRCC associated lncRNAs revealed that the lncRNA CRNDE demonstrated an increased expression in ccRCC and metastatic ccRCC samples, which suggested that CRNDE is important in the progression of ccRCC. The lncRNA ENSG00000244020 was decreased in ccRCC and metastatic ccRCC, suggesting that silencing of ENSG00000244020 may be important in ccRCC development. Overall, a set of lncRNAs was identified as differentially expressed in ccRCC and metastatic ccRCC, providing potential candidates for the discovery of novel cancer biomarkers and therapeutic targets to improve diagnosis and therapy in RCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ol.2017.6563DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5588171PMC
September 2017

Neurological mechanism of Xiaochaihutang's antidepressant-like effects to socially isolated adult rats.

J Pharm Pharmacol 2016 Oct 14;68(10):1340-9. Epub 2016 Aug 14.

Department of Traditional Chinese Materia Medica, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang, China.

Objectives: Xiaochaihutang (XCHT) has antidepressant effects in multiple animal models of depression in our previous studies. But the antidepressant effects and exact mechanisms of XCHT in a rat model of chronic social isolation stress (CSIS) have never been studied. We therefore aimed to investigate the effects of XCHT on depressive/anxiety-related behaviours of CSIS-exposed rats and understand the neurological mechanism involving neurogenesis.

Methods: We established the CSIS model and then investigated the effects of XCHT on behavioural change. HPLC-MS/MS was adopted to quantify neurotransmitter levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Immunofluorescence technology was used to study the effects of XCHT on neurogenesis; while expressions of 5-HT1A receptor signalling pathway in the hippocampus were measured using Western blotting.

Key Findings: Xiaochaihutang significantly alleviated depressive/anxiety-like behaviours of CSIS-exposed rats. XCHT significantly regulated levels of monoamine neurotransmitters in the CSF without affecting Glu, GABA and ACh. XCHT also significantly increased neurogenesis in CSIS-exposed rats. Additionally, XCHT reversed CSIS-induced decrease of 5-HT1A receptor expression and promoted the expression of BDNF in the hippocampus.

Conclusion: Our results suggest that XCHT could significantly regulate the depressive/anxiety-like behaviours induced by CSIS, which are likely attributed to the promotion of hippocampal neurogenesis and neurotrophin expressions through the activation of serotonergic system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jphp.12616DOI Listing
October 2016

Antidepressant-like effects of Xiaochaihutang in a rat model of chronic unpredictable mild stress.

J Ethnopharmacol 2014 Feb 15;152(1):217-26. Epub 2014 Jan 15.

Department of Pharmacology, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Box 31, 103 Wenhua Road, 110016 Shenyang, PR China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Xiaochaihutang (XCHT) has been used in China for thousands of years to treat "Shaoyang syndrome", which involves depressive-like symptoms. However, few studies have investigated its antidepressant effects and pharmacological mechanism of action. The present study was designed to confirm the antidepressant effect of XCHT using a chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) model and explore its potential mechanism of action by investigating the monoamine neurotransmitters (dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine) and neurotrophins (BDNF and NGF).

Materials And Methods: The CUMS model was established in rats, and the antidepressant effect of XCHT (0.6, 1.7 and 5mg/kg/day, given by gastric gavage for 4 weeks) was investigated using the open field test (OFT), food consumption test and sucrose preference test. The concentrations of 5-HT and DA in the hippocampus were measured by high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD). The expressions of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), nerve growth factor (NGF), and their receptors tyrosine receptor kinase B (TrkB) and tyrosine receptor kinase A (TrkA) in the hippocampus were measured by immunohistochemical staining analysis.

Results: CUMS caused a significant decrease in OFT, food consumption and sucrose preference in rats, and these depression-like behaviors were significantly improved by XCHT (1.7 and 5 g/kg/day). Moreover, XCHT significantly increased the concentrations of 5-HT (0.6 and 5 g/kg/day) and DA (5 g/kg/day), and improved the BDNF, NGF, TrkB and TrkA expressions in the hippocampus (1.7 and 5 g/kg/day), which was reduced in CUMS rats.

Conclusion: The results obtained suggested that XCHT may have therapeutic actions on depression-like behavior induced by CUMS in rats possibly mediated by increasing the monoamine neurotransmitter concentration and neurotrophin expression in the hippocampus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2014.01.006DOI Listing
February 2014

Xiaochaihutang prevents depressive-like behaviour in rodents by enhancing the serotonergic system.

J Pharm Pharmacol 2014 Jun 22;66(6):823-34. Epub 2013 Dec 22.

Department of Pharmacology, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang, PR China.

Objectives: Xiaochaihutang (XCHT) has been used in China for thousands of years to treat 'Shaoyang syndrome', which involves depressive-like symptoms. However, no studies were conducted to demonstrate its antidepressant effect and mechanism. This study was designed to confirm the antidepressant effect of XCHT and explore its mechanism using the pharmacological methods.

Methods: Ultra-HPLC and mass spectrometry was used to identify the chemical constituents of XCHT. Forced swimming test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST) were used to determine the antidepressant-like activity of XCHT in mice and rats. The possible mechanism of XCHT was elucidated by the reserpine-induced hypothermia and 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP)-induced head-twitch in mice. The levels of serotonin (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) were measured in prefrontal cortex and hippocampus tissue of both mice and rats. Moreover, the extracellular 5-HT in rat hippocampus was assessed by using microdialysis coupled to HPLC with electrochemical detection.

Key Findings: Forty-four components were detected in XCHT. XCHT significantly reduced immobility time in the TST and the FST, antagonized reserpine-induced depressive-like behaviours, increased 5-HTP-induced head-twitches, elevated 5-HT and 5-HIAA levels, and increased 5-HT turnover at doses that did not affect general activity.

Conclusions: These data demonstrate that XCHT has therapeutic effects in animal models of depression by enhancing the serotoninergic system in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jphp.12201DOI Listing
June 2014

Association of AIRE polymorphisms with genetic susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis in a Chinese population.

Inflammation 2014 Apr;37(2):495-9

Department of Orthopaedics, the First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, 218 Jixi Road, Hefei, Anhui, 230022, People's Republic of China.

Recently, genetic polymorphisms within the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) have been implicated in the genetic susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in Japanese and Spanish. The aim of this case-control study involving 232 patients with RA and 313 ethnically matched control subjects was to investigate the association of AIRE rs2075876 and rs760426 polymorphisms with genetic predisposition to RA in a Chinese population. The genotypes of AIRE rs2075876 and rs760426 polymorphisms were determined by SNaPshot assay. A significant difference in the allele frequency of AIRE rs2075876 polymorphism between cases and controls was detected (A versus G, OR 1.33, 95 %CI 1.04-1.69, P = 0.02, P corrected (Bonferroni correction) Pc = 0.04). Significant evidence was found for the association between the minor allele A of AIRE rs2075876 polymorphism and the risk of RA under the recessive model (AA versus AG + GG, P = 7.15 × 10(-3), Pc = 1.43 × 10(-2)). The frequency of the minor allele G of AIRE rs760426 polymorphism was higher in patients compared with controls (47.8 % versus 42.1 %), and this deviation showed a trend towards significant level (P = 0.06, Pc = 0.12). The association between the minor allele G of AIRE rs760426 polymorphism with RA risk under the dominant model and the recessive model revealed that significant evidence was detected under the recessive model (GG versus GA + AA, P = 0.02, Pc = 0.04). Our results indicated that AIRE rs2075876 and rs760426 polymorphisms were involved in the genetic background of RA in the Chinese population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10753-013-9763-3DOI Listing
April 2014

In vivo antidepressant activity of sesquiterpenes from the roots of Valeriana fauriei Briq.

Fitoterapia 2012 Apr 21;83(3):599-603. Epub 2012 Jan 21.

College of Chemical Engineering, Shenyang University of Chemical Technology, Shenyang 110142, PR China.

Antidepressant activity-guided fractionation of the MeOH extract of Valeriana fauriei Briq. roots resulted in the isolation of two new germacrane-type sesquiterpenes (1-2) in addition to seven known ones (3-9). Their structures were elucidated as 1β,10α-dihydroxyl-8α-acetoxyl-10β,11,11-trimethyl-4-formyl-bicyclogermacren-E-4(5)-ene (1), 1β-hydroxyl-8α-acetoxyl-11,11-dimethyl-4-formyl-bicyclogermacren-E-4(5),10(14)-diene (2), bicyclo[8,1,0]5β-hydroxyl-7β-1acetoxyl-5α,11,11'-trimethyl -E-1(10)-ene-4α,15-olide (3), 8α-acetoxyl-3α,4α,10-trihydroxyl-guaia-1(2)-ene-12,6α-olide (4), 2-Ethylhexyl-4-hydroxybenzoate (5), 11αH-gemacra-1(10)E,4Z-diene-3-one-12,6α-olide (6), β-Sitoterol (7), isovaleric acid (8), isoborneol acetate (9), using a combination of UV, IR, mass spectroscopy, 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. The antidepressant activity of compounds 1-4 was investigated by the FST on mice. Among them, compounds 3 and 4 showed the significant antidepressant activity (*, P<0.01).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fitote.2012.01.004DOI Listing
April 2012

Association of estrogen receptor alpha gene polymorphisms with cytokine genes expression in systemic lupus erythematosus.

Croat Med J 2009 Apr;50(2):117-23

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Shandong Provincial Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan 250021, People's Republic of China.

Aim: To analyze the association of estrogen receptor alpha (OR alpha) gene polymorphisms with cytokine genes expression in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and controls.

Methods: Genomic DNA was extracted and polymorphisms of XbaI, Ukrainian (XX, Xx, or xx genotype) and PvuII (PP, Pp, or pp) in intron 1 of OR alpha gene were detected by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphisms (PCR-RFLP) method. The messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of interleukin (IL)-10, IL-4, interferon (IFN)-gamma, and IL-2 were assessed by semiquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).

Results: In patients with SLE with PpXx genotype, IL-10 and IL-4 mRNA expression was higher (P < 0.001 and P = 0.013, respectively), while in patients with SLE with Ppxx genotype IFN-gamma and IL-2 mRNA expression was lower than in controls (P < 0.001). There was no significant difference in mRNA expression of 4 cytokines among controls with various genotypes.

Conclusion: OR alpha gene polymorphism may be associated with the expression of IL-10, IL-4, IL-2, and IFN-gamma in patients with SLE.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2681058PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.3325/cmj.2009.50.117DOI Listing
April 2009

Association of KIR genotypes and haplotypes with susceptibility to chronic hepatitis B virus infection in Chinese Han population.

Cell Mol Immunol 2008 Dec;5(6):457-63

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Shandong Provincial Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan, China.

Killer immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) genes can regulate the activation of NK and T cells upon interaction with HLA class I molecules. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has been regarded as a multi-factorial disorder disease. Previous studies revealed that KIRs were involved in HCV and HIV infection or clearance. The aim of this study was to explore the possibility of the inheritance of KIR genotypes and haplotypes as a candidate for susceptibility to persistent HBV infection or HBV clearance. The sequence specific primer polymerase chain reaction (SSP-PCR) was employed to identify the KIR genes and pseudogenes in 150 chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients, 251 spontaneously recovered (SR) controls, and 412 healthy controls. The frequencies of genotype G, M, FZ1 increased in CHB patients compared with healthy control subjects. The frequency of genotype AH was higher in SR controls than that in both CHB patients and healthy controls. The carriage frequencies of genotype G and AH were higher; while, the frequencies of AF and AJ were lower in SR controls than those in healthy control subjects. The frequency of A haplotype was lower, whereas, the frequency of B haplotype was higher in CHB patients and SR controls than those in healthy controls. In healthy controls, haplotype 4 was found lower compared with that in CHB patients and SR controls and the frequency of haplotype 5 was higher in SR controls than that in other two groups. Based on these findings, it seems that the genotypes M and FZ1 are HBV susceptive genotypes; AH, on the other hand, may be protective genotypes that facilitate the clearance of HBV. It appears that the haplotype 4 is HBV susceptive haplotype, whereas, haplotype 5 may be the protective haplotype that facilitates the clearance of HBV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/cmi.2008.57DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4072426PMC
December 2008

Brain metastasis: experience of the Xi-Jing hospital.

Stereotact Funct Neurosurg 2002 ;78(2):70-83

Department of Neurosurgery, Xi-Jing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xian, People's Republic of China.

Background: The management of metastatic brain tumors is an important issue in patients with malignant tumors or cancer. The authors summarize the results of patients with brain metastases treated at the Xi-Jing Hospital during a 10-year period, in order to assess the best modality of treatment for patients with brain metastases.

Methods: Between 1990 and 2000, 463 patients with brain-metastatic tumors were treated at the Xi-Jing Hospital of the Fourth Military Medical University, Xian, China. In most patients, the pathologic diagnosis of primary cancer was obtained before they were referred for their brain metastasis. There were 34 (8.42%) cases with an unknown primary cancer site at the time of initial presentation. Patients were grouped according to treatment methods, which included neurosurgical craniotomy (NS; 130 patients), whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT; 120 patients). Linac XKnife radiosurgery (RS; 130 patients) and Linac XKnife radiosurgery plus WBRT (RT; 83 cases). Survival was measured from the time of treatment and was analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier product-limit method and then plotted. Differences between curves were evaluated using the log-rank test. Multivariate factors associated with survival were analyzed using the Cox proportional hazards model.

Results: The survival time was 68.4 +/- 7.20 weeks after NS, 51.3 +/- 5.04 weeks after WBRT, 67.9 +/- 3.68 weeks after RS and 89.7 +/- 4.50 weeks after RT. The presence of active systemic cancer in a larger number of metastatic tumors was associated with a poor survival (p = 0.0003 and 0.0000). The female patients showed better survival rates over the male ones (p = 0.0000). Patients treated with RT had a better survival than those treated with NS, WBRT and RS (p = 0.0048, 0.0000 and 0.1222, respectively), although the latter did not show statistical significance.

Conclusions: RS was an effective modality for patients with brain metastases, and if combined with WBRT, survival was better. Progression of systemic cancer and the number of metastatic tumors were the most significant factors for a poor survival after treatment of the brain metastases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000068015DOI Listing
March 2003

Evaluation of rat liver apoptotic and necrotic cell death after cold storage using UW, HTK, and Celsior.

Transplantation 2002 Aug;74(4):458-64

Surgical Laboratory, Department of Surgery, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: The benefit of Celsior in liver graft preservation is controversial. In the isolated perfused rat liver model, we compared the effects of Celsior, University of Wisconsin (UW), and histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate (HTK) preservation solutions on liver cell death.

Methods: Rat livers were stored at 4 degrees C for 0, 8, 16, or 24 hr in either Celsior, UW, or HTK and reperfused for 90 min (37 degrees C). Bile secretion and perfusate levels of liver enzymes and histone-associated DNA fragments were measured. Apoptosis and oncotic necrosis were analyzed in biopsies by DNA gel electrophoresis, hematoxylin and eosin histology, and enzyme histochemistry for lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and 5'-nucleotidase (5'-NT).

Results: Perfusate flow rate through the liver during perfusion did not significantly differ among preservation solutions. Bile secretion was best preserved in UW livers after 16-hr (versus HTK livers) and 24-hr storage (versus HTK and Celsior livers). Enzyme leakage from UW livers was lower compared with HTK livers after 8-hr storage (serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase [SGOT], LDH) and with Celsior and HTK livers after 16-hr (SGOT, LDH) and 24-hr storage (SGOT, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, LDH, purine nucleoside phosphorylase). In situ LDH and 5'-NT activities were best preserved in UW livers (up to 24 hr), whereas enzyme activities declined remarkably in HTK livers (after 8 hr) and Celsior livers (after 16 hr of cold storage). Although perfusate DNA fragment levels were repeatedly lowest from Celsior livers, apoptotic DNA laddering and the number of fragmented nuclei in hematoxylin and eosin sections was not different among livers after 8, 16, or 24 hr of storage.

Conclusions: Celsior and UW are equally effective in preventing rat liver cell death after 0-16 hr of cold preservation as compared with the less effective HTK solution. After 24-hr cold storage, rat livers were best preserved in UW. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in mode of cell death (apoptosis or oncotic necrosis) after storage in any of the three solutions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00007890-200208270-00005DOI Listing
August 2002
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