Publications by authors named "Shanyu Zhou"

8 Publications

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Maternal urinary cadmium concentrations in early pregnancy in relation to prenatal and postpartum size of offspring.

J Trace Elem Med Biol 2021 Jul 16;68:126823. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

National Institute for Occupational Health and Poison Control, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Background: The impacts of environmental cadmium (Cd) exposure on birth size parameters including weight, length and head circumference (HC) have been reported in multiple studies. However, little remains known of the impacts of maternal Cd exposure during pregnancy on size during in utero development and during early childhood. The aim of this study was to comprehensively investigate impacts of maternal Cd exposure during pregnancy on the size of offspring in utero (from 24 weeks pregnancy) until six months of age.

Methods: Pregnant mothers were recruited as part of an ongoing prospective birth cohort study based in Guangdong, China. Maternal urine samples were collected in the first and third trimesters of pregnancy, in which Cd concentrations were measured by inductively couple plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). In utero size indicators at 24 and 32 week of gestation, including biparietal diameter (BPD), abdominal circumference (AC), femur length (FL) and HC were derived from ultrasound examinations. Anthropometric measures of weight, height and HC at birth and one, three and six months of age were also collected. Associations of size measures at the various time points with maternal urinary Cd concentrations were assessed using linear regression models.

Results: The median urinary Cd concentration was 1.00 and 0.98 μg/g creatinine in the first and third trimesters respectively. In univariate analysis, increased maternal Cd levels in the first trimester were associated with decreased HC (-0.17 cm/ug/g urinary Cd) at birth, and the association was particularly pronounced among males (-0.30 cm/ug/g urinary Cd). First trimester Cd exposure was also found to be significantly associated with decreased infant weight at three and six months of age among girls (-101 g/ug/g and -97 g/ug/g urinary Cd, respectively). Associations of similar magnitude were observed after adjustment for various maternal factors. No significant associations were observed with infant size measures or with measures of Cd in the third trimester.

Conclusions: Our detailed study suggests that the first trimester is particularly critical window of susceptibility to sex-specific effects of Cd on size parameters at birth, with some effects persisting to six months of age. These compelling sex-dependent effects on HC and body weight warrant future studies examining longer-term health effects of pregnancy-related Cd exposures.
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July 2021

Heavy metal distribution, contamination and analysis of sources - Intertidal zones of Sandu Bay, Ningde, China.

Mar Pollut Bull 2018 Oct 31;135:1138-1144. Epub 2018 Aug 31.

Shandong University, Institute of Space Science, Navigation and Remote Sensing Group, 180 West Wenhua Road, Weihai 264209, PR China.

Concentrations of heavy metals in sediments and seawaters from the intertidal zone are analyzed along with cage-bred fish in the Sandu Bay of Fujian Province in China. Elements measured are As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn. The concentrations of Cu and Ni found in the sediments do not meet the first standard of the Chinese National Criteria for Marine Sediment Quality. The results of I, EF, and CF index calculations for the sediment samples clearly prove anthropogenic causes of contamination. The water quality standard for fisheries was exceeded by As, Hg, and Cu. Cage-bred fish show increased levels of As, Cr, and Zn. Significant associations are found for AsCu and NiZn. These findings can be related to coal and crude oil combustion and processes associated with the production of batteries, steel, and alloys. The results point to industrial source locations along discharging rivers north and northwest of the Sandu Bay.
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October 2018

Evidence for Adaptive Response in a Molecular Epidemiological Study of the Inhabitants of a High Background-radiation Area of Yangjiang, China.

Health Phys 2018 08;115(2):227-234

Guangdong Province Hospital for Occupational Diseases Prevention and Treatment-Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Occupational Disease Prevention and Treatment, Guangzhou 510300, China.

Our previous studies have shown that cancer mortality in high background-radiation areas of China was lower than that in a control area, indicating the possibility of an adaptive response in high background-radiation areas. Our aim is to determine the effect of low-dose radiation on the level of DNA oxidative damage, DNA damage repair, antioxidant capacity, and apoptosis in high background-radiation area and control area populations of Guangdong through a molecular epidemiological study in order to identify adaptive response. Blood samples were collected from male residents aged 50 to 59 y in a high background-radiation area (Yangjiang) and a control area (Enping), and activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione, catalase, total antioxidant capacity, and expression of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase gene (MGMT), human 8-oxoguanine DNA N-glycosylase 1 gene (hOGG1), proapoptotic genes and antiapoptotic genes, oxidative-stress-related genes, as well as concentrations of 8-OHdG, TrxR, HSP27, and MT-COX2 were determined. The activities of antioxidative enzymes, relative mRNA expression level of DNA repair genes, antiapoptotic genes, oxidative-stress-related genes HSPB1 and MT-COX2, and the concentration of antioxidant index TrxR in the high background-radiation area population increased significantly compared to the control population (p < 0.05). The relative mRNA expression level of proapoptotic genes and the concentration of DNA oxidative damage index 8-OHdG were significantly lower in the high background-radiation area compared to those in the control area (p < 0.05). In conclusion, under long-term, natural, high background, ionizing radiation, DNA damage-repair capacity and antioxidant capacity of inhabitants in the high background-radiation area may be enhanced. Additionally, it could induce up regulation of cell-survival gene expression and down regulation of apoptotic gene expression. It might be speculated that enhanced antioxidant and DNA repair capacity and inhibition of apoptosis might play important roles in adaptive response of low-dose radiation in high background-radiation areas.
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August 2018

Down-regulation of ABCG2 and ABCB4 transporters in the placenta of rats exposed to cadmium.

Oncotarget 2016 Jun;7(25):38154-38163

Department of Radiation Medicine, School of Public Health and Tropic Medicine, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

As a maternal and developmental toxicant, cadmium (Cd) possesses weak penetrability through the placental barrier. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. To gain insight into the protein molecules associated with Cd toxicity in placenta and explore their roles in Cd transportation, a reproductive animal experiment was carried out using Sprague-Dawley rats. We performed proteomic analysis of the placenta by Difference Gel Electrophoresis (DIGE) combined with Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Tandem Mass Spectroscopy (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS). The DIGE assay identified 15 protein spots that were differentially expressed with a greater than 1.5-fold change in placenta of Cd-treated rats compared to the control rats. Based on the expression patterns and biological functions of the proteins, we selected the ABCG2 and ABCB4 transporter proteins for further analysis. Western blot analysis showed that Cd exposure could down-regulate the expression of ABCG2 and ABCB4 in the placenta. There was a negative dose-response relationship between Cd exposure and the expression of ABCG2 or ABCB4 protein. These results indicated that down-regulation of ABCG2 and ABCB4 transporters may regulate Cd across through placenta and thus affect the in vivo toxic effect of Cd to fetus.
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June 2016

Trichloroethylene Hypersensitivity Syndrome Is Potentially Mediated through Its Metabolite Chloral Hydrate.

PLoS One 2015 28;10(5):e0127101. Epub 2015 May 28.

Department of Occupational Health and Occupational Medicine, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, 510505, PR China; Department of Occupational Medicine, Guangdong Province Hospital for Occupational Disease Prevention and Treatment, Guangzhou, Guangdong, 510300, PR China.

Background: We documented previously the entity of trichloroethylene (TCE) hypersensitivity syndrome (THS) in occupational workers.

Objectives: To identify the culprit causative compound, determine the type of hypersensitivity of THS, and establish a screening test for subjects at risk of THS.

Methods: TCE and its main metabolites chloral hydrate (CH), trichloroethanol (TCOH) and trichloroacetic acid (TCA) were used as allergens at different concentrations in skin patch tests. The study included 19 case subjects diagnosed with occupational THS, 22 control healthy workers exposed to TCE (exposure >12 weeks), and 20 validation new workers exposed to TCE for <12 weeks free of THS. All subjects were followed-up for 12 weeks after the patch test.

Results: The highest patch test positive rate in subjects with THS was for CH, followed by TCOH, TCA and TCE. The CH patch test positive rate was 100% irrespective of CH concentrations (15%, 10% and 5%). The TCOH patch test positive rate was concentration-dependent (89.5%, 73.7% and 52.6% for 5%, 0.5% and 0.05%, respectively). Lower patch test positive rates were noted for TCA and TCE. All patch tests (including four allergens) were all negative in each of the 22 control subjects. None of the subjects of the validation group had a positive 15% CH patch test.

Conclusions: Chloral hydrate seems to be the culprit causative compound of THS and type IV seems to be the major type of hypersensitivity of THS. The CH patch test could be potentially useful for screening workers at risk of THS.
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April 2016

[Interaction between smoking and nicotine acetylcholine receptor subunits alpha 5 gene rs17486278 polymorphisms on lung cancer].

Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 2015 Jan;36(1):67-70

Department of Medical Statistics and Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080, China. Email:

Objective: To investigate the association and interaction between smoking and the nicotine acetylcholine receptor subunits alpha 5(CHRNA5) gene polymorphisms on lung cancer in Chinese men.

Methods: A case-control study was employed with a total of 204 male lung cancer patients and 821 healthy control subjects enrolled in the study. All the subjects were interviewed under a structured questionnaire with the contents on socio-demographic status and smoking behavior. Venous blood samples were collected to measure single nucleotide polymorphism of rs17486278 in CHRNA5. A series of multivariate logistic regression models were performed to assess the association and interaction between smoking and the CHRNA5 gene polymorphisms on lung cancer.

Results: After controlling for potential confounding factors, data from the multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that individuals with smoking >15 cigarettes per day would significantly increase the risk of lung cancer when compared to the non-smokers (OR = 3.49, 95%CI:2.29-5.32). However, no associations between CHRNA5 rs17486278 polymorphisms and lung cancer were found. Furthermore, those who smoked 1-15 cigarettes per day had a positive interactive effect between rs17486278 CC genotype and lung cancer (OR = 16.13, 95% CI:1.27-205.33). Results from further stratified analysis on smoking behaviors and rs17486278 genotypes indicated that when compared with non-smokers on rs17486278 AA genotype, those individuals who smoked 1-15 cigarettes per day with rs17486278 CC genotype, individuals smoking >15 cigarettes per day with AA genotype and individuals smoking >15 cigarettes per day with AC genotype, all had a higher risk of developing lung cancer, with their OR value as 8.14(95% CI:1.17-56.56), 3.84 (95% CI:1.30-11.40) and 5.32 (95% CI:1.78-15.93), respectively.

Conclusion: There was an interaction between smoking and CHRNA5 gene polymorphism on lung cancer.
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January 2015

Load-bearing capacity and the recommended thickness of dental monolithic zirconia single crowns.

J Mech Behav Biomed Mater 2014 Jul 2;35:93-101. Epub 2014 Apr 2.

Department of Stomatology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, No.1838, North of Guangzhou Street, Guangzhou 510515, Guangdong, China. Electronic address:

Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the load bearing capacity and a reasonable thicknesss of dental monolithic zirconia crowns.

Materials And Methods: Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) abutment tooth specimens were made by CAD/CAM technic. Monolithic zirconia crowns (MZC), monolithic lithium disilicate crowns (MLC), layered zirconia crowns (LZC) and metal ceramic crowns(MCC), of which the occlusal thickness was 1.5mm were thereafter fabricated and cemented on the abutment tooth specimens. MCC with occlusal thicknesses of 0.6mm, 0.8mm, 1.00mm, 1.2mm were also made. All specimens underwent load-to-fracture test. Weibull parameters (σ0) and (m) were calculated. Fracture modes were also evaluated.

Results: The mean fracture load was 1863.16±116.81 for MLC, 2284.77±355.60 for MCC, 2308.0±510.94 for LZC, 4109.93±610.18 for MZC (1.5mm), 3068.31±233.88 for MZC (1.2mm), 2429.88±315.03 for MZC (1.0mm), 1814.60±68.21 for MZC (0.8mm) and 1308.38±111.38 for MZC (0.6mm). The fracture load of MZC was significantly higher than MCC, LZC and MLC (P<0.05). The fracture loads for MCC with different thickness were significantly different (P<0.05). Similar trend was observed for the characteristic strength (σ0) and Weibull modulus (m). For MZC and MLC, the fracture mode was catastrophic failure. The predominant fracture mode for LZC was catastrophic fracture. The fracture loads of MZC(1.0mm) and MCC were not statistically different (P>0.05).

Conclusions: Monolithic zirconia crowns exhibit higher fracture loads than monolithic lithium disilicate crowns, layered zirconia crowns and metal ceramic crowns. The fracture resistance of monolithic zirconia crowns with a thickness of 1.0mm can be equal to metal ceramic crowns. Doubling the monolithic zirconia core from 0.6mm to 1.5mm increases the fracture resistance of this restorative system threefold.
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July 2014

Biomechanical properties of nano-TiO(2) addition to a medical silicone elastomer: the effect of artificial ageing.

J Dent 2014 Apr 9;42(4):475-83. Epub 2014 Jan 9.

Department of Stomatology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515, China. Electronic address:

Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of TiO2 nanoparticles on the mechanical and anti-ageing properties of a medical silicone elastomer and to assess the biocompatibility of this novel combination.

Methods: TiO2 (P25, Degussa, Germany) nanoparticles were mixed with the silicone elastomer (MDX4-4210, Dow Corning, USA) at 2%, 4%, and 6% (w/w) using silicone fluid as diluent (Q7-9180, Dow Corning, USA). Blank silicone elastomer served as the control material. The physical properties and biocompatibility of the composites were examined. The tensile strength was tested for 0% and 6% (w/w) before and after artificial ageing. SEM analysis was performed.

Results: TiO2 nanoparticles improved the tensile strength and Shore A hardness of the silicone elastomer (P<0.05). However, a decrease in the elongation at break and tear strength was found for the 6% (w/w) composite (P<0.05). All the ageing methods had no effect on the tensile strength of the 6% (w/w) composite (P>0.05), but thermal ageing significantly decreased the tensile strength of the control group (P<0.05). Cellular viability assays indicated that the composite exhibited biocompatibility.

Conclusions: We obtained a promising restorative material which yields favourable physical and anti-ageing properties and is biocompatible in our in vitro cellular studies.
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April 2014