Publications by authors named "Shanshan Gao"

175 Publications

The role of ultrasound elastography and virtual touch tissue imaging in the personalized prediction of lymph node metastasis of breast cancer.

Gland Surg 2021 Apr;10(4):1460-1469

Department of Ultrasound, Hwa Mei Hospital, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo Institute of Life and Health Industry, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo, China.

Background: This study examined the effects of different ultrasound imaging technologies in the identification and prediction of axillary lymph node metastasis of breast cancer. It also investigated the relationship between human papilloma virus (HPV) infection and axillary lymph node metastasis.

Methods: Eighty-five female patients diagnosed with breast masses participated in this study. Each patient underwent a conventional ultrasound, ultrasonic elastography, and virtual touch tissue imaging quantification (VTIQ). The differential diagnosis efficiency of a conventional ultrasound, ultrasound elastography, VTIQ, and ultrasound elastography combined with VTIQ technology was compared with a pathological diagnosis, which represents the gold standard. 85 axillary lymph node tissues and 25 normal breast tissues were used to detect HPV positive infection rate differences in different tissues.

Results: The results showed that metastatic lymph nodes and reactive lymph node hyperplasia accounted for 54.12% and 45.88% of the 85 axillary lymph nodes of breast cancer, respectively. The conventional ultrasound, ultrasound elastography, and VTIQ scores of metastatic lymph nodes were significantly higher than those of reactive lymph node hyperplasia (P<0.05). The diagnostic sensitivity (Se) (91.30%), specificity (Sp) (92.31%), accuracy (Ac) (91.76%), positive predictive value (PPV) (93.33%), and negative predictive value (NPV) (90.00%) of ultrasound elastography combined with VTIQ technology were the highest among the diagnostic efficiency test results of different computer ultrasound imaging technologies. The positive infection rate of HPV in metastatic lymph node tissues was significantly higher than that in reactive lymph node hyperplasia and normal breast tissues (P<0.05).

Conclusions: Combining ultrasound elastography with VTIQ technology has high value in the differential diagnosis of axillary lymph nodes of breast cancer. Further, it appears that HPV infection may have an etiological role in lymph node metastasis in breast cancer patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/gs-21-199DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8102218PMC
April 2021

Magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging-based histogram analyses in predicting glypican 3-positive hepatocellular carcinoma.

Eur J Radiol 2021 Apr 22;139:109732. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Radiology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai Institute of Medical Imaging, Shanghai, 200032, China. Electronic address:

Purpose: We aimed to investigate the potential MR imaging findings in predicting glypican-3 (GPC3)-positive hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs), with special emphasis on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI)-based histogram analyses.

Methods: Forty-three patients with pathologically-confirmed GPC3-negative HCCs and 100 patients with GPC3-positive HCCs were retrospectively evaluated using contrast-enhanced MRI and DWI. Clinical characteristics and MRI features including DWI-based histogram features were assessed and compared between the two groups. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to identify the significant clinico-radiologic variables associated with GPC3 expressions that were then incorporated into a predictive nomogram. Nomogram performance was evaluated based on calibration, discrimination, and decision curve analyses.

Results: Features significantly related to GPC3-positive HCCs at univariate analyses were serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels >20 ng/mL (P < 0.0001), absence of enhancing capsule (P = 0.040), peritumoral enhancement appearance on the arterial phase (P = 0.049), as well as lower mean (P = 0.0278), median (P = 0.0372) and 75th percentile (P = 0.0085) apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values. At multivariate analysis, the AFP levels (odds ratio, 11.236; P < 0.0001) and 75th percentile ADC values (odds ratio, 1.009; P = 0.033) were independent risk factors associated with GPC3-positive HCCs. When both criteria were combined, both sensitivity (79.0 %) and specificity (79.1 %) greater than 75 % were achieved, and satisfactory predictive nomogram performance was obtained with a C-index of 0.804 (95 % confidence interval, 0.729-0.866). Decision curve analysis further confirmed the clinical usefulness of the nomogram.

Conclusions: Elevated serum AFP levels and lower 75th percentile ADC values were helpful in differentiating GPC3-positive and GPC3-negative HCCs. The combined nomogram achieved satisfactory preoperative risk prediction of GPC3 expression in HCC patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejrad.2021.109732DOI Listing
April 2021

The silencing of FNDC1 inhibits the tumorigenesis of breast cancer cells via modulation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

Mol Med Rep 2021 Jun 26;23(6). Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Hwa Mei Hospital, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315010, P.R. China.

Fibronectin type III domain‑containing protein 1 (FNDC1) is a protein that contains a major component of the structural domain of fibronectin. Although many studies have indicated that FNDC1 serves vital roles in the development of various diseases, the role of FNDC1 in the progression of breast cancer (BC) remains elusive. The aim of the present study was to investigate the biological functions of FNDC1 in BC cells and the associated mechanisms. The expression levels of FNDC1 in BC tissues and normal breast tissues were analyzed using The Cancer Genome Atlas database (TCGA). Kaplan‑Meier curves were mined from TCGA to examine the clinical prognostic significance of FNDC1 mRNA in patients with BC. The expression of FNDC1 was knocked down by transfection with shRNA in BC cells. Cell viability, colony formation ability, migration and invasion were assayed following the silencing of FNDC1 in BC cells. The expression of proteins was measured using a western blotting assay. The bioinformatic data indicated that the FNDC1 mRNA expression levels were significantly upregulated in BC tissues compared with normal breast tissues, and the high mRNA expression levels of FNDC1 were associated with a lower overall survival in patients with BC. The downregulation of FNDC1 inhibited the proliferation, colony formation, migration and invasion of BC cells. Investigation of the mechanisms revealed that the silencing of FNDC1 decreased the protein expression levels of MMPs and epithelial‑to‑mesenchymal markers. Furthermore, the silencing of FNDC1 led to the inactivation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. FNDC1 was highly upregulated and acted as an oncogene in BC. Therefore, targeting FNDC1 may be a potential strategy for the treatment of BC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2021.12118DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8097762PMC
June 2021

Mapping Metabolic Networks in the Brain by Ambient Mass Spectrometry Imaging and Metabolomics.

Anal Chem 2021 05 23;93(17):6746-6754. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

State Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substance and Function of Natural Medicines, Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100050, China.

Metabolic networks and their dysfunction in the brain are closely associated with central nervous function and many psychogenic diseases. Thus, it is of utmost importance to develop a high-throughput imaging method for metabolic network mapping. Here, we developed a metabolic network mapping method to discover the metabolic contexts and alterations with spatially resolved information from the microregion of the brain by ambient-air flow-assisted desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry imaging and metabolomics analysis, which can be performed without any chemical derivatization, labels, or complex sample pretreatment. This method can map hundreds of different polar functional metabolites involved in multiple metabolic pathways, including not only neurotransmitters but also purines, organic acids, polyamines, cholines, and carbohydrates, in the rat brain. These high-coverage metabolite profile and microregional distribution information constitute complex networks that regulate advanced functions in the central nervous system. Moreover, this methodology was further used to discover not only the dysregulated metabolites but also the brain microregions involved in the pathology of a scopolamine-treated Alzheimer's model. Furthermore, this methodology was demonstrated to be a powerful visualizing tool that could offer novel insight into the metabolic events and provide spatial information about these events in central nervous system diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.1c00467DOI Listing
May 2021

Thin endometrium is associated with the risk of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy in fresh IVF/ICSI embryo transfer cycles: a retrospective cohort study of 9,266 singleton births.

Reprod Biol Endocrinol 2021 Apr 9;19(1):55. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Center for Reproductive Medicine, Shandong University, No.157 Jingliu Road, Jinan, 250021, China.

Background: Thin endometrial thickness (EMT) has been suggested to be associated with reduced incidence of pregnancy rate after in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI) treatment, but the effect of thin endometrium on obstetric outcome is less investigated. This study aims to determine whether EMT affects the incidence of obstetric complications in fresh IVF/ICSI-embryo transfer (ET) cycles.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study collecting a total of 9266 women who had singleton livebirths after fresh IVF/ICSI-ET treatment cycles at the Center for Reproductive Medicine Affiliated to Shandong University between January 2014 and December 2018. The women were divided into three groups according to the EMT: 544 women with an EMT ≤8 mm, 6234 with an EMT > 8-12 mm, and 2488 with an EMT > 12 mm. The primary outcomes were the incidence of obstetric complications including hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP), gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), placental abruption, placenta previa, postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) and cesarean section. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to calculate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between the EMT measured on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) trigger and the risk of the outcomes of interest.

Results: The HDP incidence rate of pregnant women was highest in EMT ≤ 8 mm group and significantly higher than those in EMT from > 8-12 mm and EMT > 12 mm group, respectively (6.8% versus 3.6 and 3.5%, respectively; P = 0.001). After adjustment for confounding variables by multivariate logistic regression analysis, a thin EMT was still statistically significant associated with an increased risk of HDP. Compared with women with an EMT > 8-12 mm, women with an EMT ≤8 mm had an increased risk of HDP (aOR = 1.853, 95% CI 1.281-2.679, P = 0.001).

Conclusion: A thin endometrium (≤8 mm) was found to be associated with an increased risk of HDP after adjustment for confounding variables, indicating that the thin endometrium itself is a risk factor for HDP. Obstetricians should remain aware of the possibility of HDP when women with a thin EMT achieve pregnancy through fresh IVF/ICSI-ET treatment cycles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12958-021-00738-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8034143PMC
April 2021

[Genetic analysis of a case with Pierre-Robin sequence due to partial 1q trisomy and partial 4q monosomy].

Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi 2021 Apr;38(4):369-372

Genetics and Prenatal Diagnosis Center, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450052, China.

Objective: To explore the genetic basis for a neonate with Pierre-Robin sequence.

Methods: The child was subjected to chromosomal karyotyping, single nucleotide polymorphism array (SNP-array)-based comparative genomic hybridization and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis.

Results: The child has featured microgthnia, glossoptosis, upper airway obstruction, mandible dehiscence and short neck. He was found to have a karyotype of 46,XY,der(4)add(4)(q34). Her mother's karyotype was determined as 46,XX,t(1;4)(q43;q34), while his father was 46,XY. SNP-array analysis suggested the child to be arr [hg19] 1q42.2q44 (232 527 958-249 202 755)× 3; 4q34.3q35.2 (168 236 901-190 880 409)× 1. The result of SNP-array for both parents was normal. FISH analysis confirmed that his mother has carried a balanced t(1;4)(q42;34) translocation. The aberrant chromosome 4 in the child has derived from his mother's translocation, which gave rise to partial 1q trisomy and 4q monosomy.

Conclusion: The 1q42.2q44 duplication and 4q34.3q35.2 deletion of the child probably underlay his abnormal phenotype of Pierre-Robin sequence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn511374-20200310-00149DOI Listing
April 2021

[Results of non-invasive prenatal testing for 2473 women with twin pregnancy].

Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi 2021 Apr;38(4):313-316

Genetic and Prenatal Diagnosis Center, the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450052, China.

Objective: To assess the value of non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) for the detection of fetal chromosomal aneuploidies in women with twin pregnancy.

Methods: A total of 2473 women with twin pregnancy underwent the NIPT test to assess the risk for fetal chromosomal aneuploidies from January 2016 to September 2019. Those with a high risk by NIPT were confirmed by amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling. All cases were followed up to evaluate the positive prediction value of NIPT for twin pregnancies.

Results: Among the 2473 women, the NIPT test has identified 31 cases (1.25%) with a high risk for fetal chromosomal aneuploidies, which included 5 cases of trisomy 21, 1 case of chromosome 21 deletion, 4 cases of trisomy 18, 7 cases of sex chromosome abnormality and 14 cases of microdeletion and microduplication. By invasive prenatal diagnosis or chromosomal karyotyping analysis of neonates, 5 cases of trisomy 21, 3 cases of trisomy 18, 1 case of sex chromosome abnormality, and 2 cases of microdeletion and microduplication were confirmed, which yielded a positive predictive value of 100%, 75%, 25% and 25%, respectively.

Conclusion: NIPT can be used for the screening of fetal chromosomal aneuploidies in women with twin pregnancy with high accuracy. The method is non-invasive, safe and effective for the screening of fetal chromosomal aneuploidies, in particular trisomy 21.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn511374-20200521-00368DOI Listing
April 2021

Imaging features and radiologic-pathologic correlations of inflammatory pseudotumor-like follicular dendritic cell sarcoma.

BMC Med Imaging 2021 Mar 17;21(1):52. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Department of Ultrasound, Hwa Mei Hospital, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Ningbo No. 2 Hospital), 41 Northwest Street, Ningbo, Zhejiang, 315010, People's Republic of China.

Background: Inflammatory pseudotumor-like follicular dendritic cell sarcoma (IPT-like FDCS) is a rare tumor. This study aimed to reveal the radiological characteristics of IPT-like FDCS by radiologic-pathologic correlation.

Results: We analyzed two cases of IPT-like FDCS in the liver, nine in the spleen, and two in both the liver and spleen concomitantly. IPT-like FDCS presented as well-defined iso- or hypodense masses on unenhanced computed tomography (CT) images in both the liver and spleen. Hyperintensities on T1-weighted images and hypointensities on T2-weighted images with hypointense rings were characteristic features in splenic cases. "Halo signs" were observed in two out of three liver tumors. Hepatic lesions showed significant enhancement, whereas splenic lesions showed only mild enhancement. Delayed annular enhancement was observed in both liver and spleen cases. On ultrasonographic examination, IPT-like FDCS presented as hypoechoic lesions with enhancement similar to that observed on CT. Hyaline fibrous pseudocapsules, which correlated with the hypointensities on T2-weighted images, were microscopically observed at the tumor edge. IPT-like FDCS was characterized by an abundance of small blood vessels and capillaries. Capillaries were also found in the fibrous capsule of some IPT-like FDCSs, which may explain the delayed annular enhancement.

Conclusions: The manifestations of IPT-like FDCS in the liver and spleen showed differences that warrant them to be approached differently during diagnosis. Characteristic radiological findings of IPT-like FDCS included different enhancement patterns between liver and spleen tumors and rim-like hypointensities on T2-weighted images, as well as annular enhancement on CT and magnetic resonance images. These imaging features correlated with tumor pathology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12880-021-00584-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7972340PMC
March 2021

Effects of earthworm extract on the lipid profile and fatty liver induced by a high-fat diet in guinea pigs.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Feb;9(4):292

Department of Orthopaedics, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), characterized by the accumulation of excess fat in the liver in people who consume little or no alcohol, is becoming increasingly common around the world, especially in developed countries. Extracts from earthworms have been used as alternative therapies for a variety of diseases but not in NAFLD. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of earthworm extract (EE) on diet-induced fatty liver disease in guinea pigs.

Methods: EE was extracted, and the effect of EE on the lipid levels and liver damage in guinea pigs fed a high-fat diet (HFD) was assessed. Thirty male guinea pigs at 3 weeks of age were allocated equally to five groups, namely, chow diet, HFD, and HFD with different dosages (0.3, 1.4 and 6.8 µg per kg bodyweight per day) of EE for 4 weeks, and their body weight was monitored throughout the experiment. Liver tissues were examined for gross morphology and histology. Serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were determined using an autoanalyser.

Results: HFD induced NAFLD in guinea pigs. HFD-fed guinea pigs that received EE treatment showed milder increases in the serum levels of TC, TG and LDL-C, as well as in the body weight growth rate, compared to the HFD group without EE supplementation. EE intervention reduced the number of lipid-containing hepatocytes, hepatocellular ballooning and sinusoidal distortion in the liver in HFD-fed animals. ALT in serum was significantly elevated by HFD. No statistically significant difference in ALT levels was found between the chow diet group and the HFD group with EE treatment.

Conclusions: This study demonstrates that the administration of EE suppressed the induction of serum TC, TG and LDL-C in response to HFD. EE also reduced liver damage in HFD-fed guinea pigs. These findings suggest that EE has alleviating effects on dyslipidaemia and liver damage associated with NAFLD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-20-5362DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7944315PMC
February 2021

Highly stable selenium nanoparticles: Assembly and stabilization via flagellin FliC and porin OmpF in Rahnella aquatilis HX2.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Feb 26;414:125545. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China; Beijing Key Laboratory of Biodiversity and Organic Farming, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China. Electronic address:

Microorganisms play a critical role in the reduction of the more toxic selenite and selenate to the less toxic elemental selenium. However, the assembly process and stability of selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) remain understudied. The plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Rahnella aquatilis HX2 can reduce selenite to biogenic SeNPs (BioSeNPs). Two main proteins, namely flagellin FliC and porin OmpF were identified in the BioSeNPs. The fliC and ompF gene mutation experiments demonstrated that the FliC and OmpF could control the assembly of BioSeNPs in vivo. At the same time, the expressed and purified FliC and OmpF could control the assembly of SeNPs in vitro. BioSeNPs produced by R. aquatilis HX2 exhibited high stability under various ionic strengths, while the chemically synthesized SeNPs (CheSeNPs) showed a high level of aggregation. The in vitro experiments verified that FliC and OmpF could prevent the aggregation of the CheSeNPs under various ionic strengths. This work reports the preparation of highly stable BioSeNPs produced by strain R. aquatilis HX2 and verifies that FliC and OmpF both could control the assembly and stability of BioSeNPs. BioSeNPs with high stability could be suitable as nutritional supplement to remedy selenium deficiency and in nanomedicine applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.125545DOI Listing
February 2021

Mitochondrial genome of (Lepidoptera: Noctuoidea: Noctuidae) and phylogenetic analysis.

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2021 Feb 11;6(2):406-407. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

College of Biology and Food Engineering, Anyang Institute of Technology, Anyang, China.

is a polyphagous herbivorous moth within the family Noctuidae. In this study, we sequenced and analyzed the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of . This mitogenome was 15,242 bp long and encoded 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA genes (tRNAs) and 2 ribosomal RNA unit genes (rRNAs). Gene order was conserved and identical to most other previously sequenced Noctuidae. Except for started with CGA, all other PCGs started with the standard ATN codons. Most of the PCGs terminated with the stop codon TAA, whereas , and end with the incomplete codon T-. The whole mitogenome exhibited heavy AT nucleotide bias (80.5%). Phylogenetic analysis showed that got together with three species (, and ) with high support value, indicating had a closer relationship with within Noctuidae.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2020.1870881DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7889200PMC
February 2021

Single-Atom Catalysts for Nanocatalytic Tumor Therapy.

Small 2021 Apr 15;17(16):e2004467. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

State Key Lab of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 200050, P. R. China.

Recently, single-atom catalysts (SACs) have been receiving increasing attention in various catalytic fields, and meanwhile, emerging nanocatalytic medicine provides a novel tumor chemotherapy modality without using toxic chemodrugs. The distinct properties of SACs, such as well-defined and precisely located metal centers, identical coordination environment, tailorable composition and structure, and versatile functionality, make them promising candidates for catalytic tumor therapy. Herein, the most recent advances in nanocatalytic tumor therapy by using various types of SACs, especially their remarkable achievements in several nanocatalytic tumor therapy-based modalities, such as chemodynamic therapy by tumor microenvironment-responsive catalytic reactions, photodynamic therapy by photocatalytic reactions, sonodynamic therapy by sonocatalytic reactions, and parallel catalytic therapy by parallel catalytic reactions, are reviewed by focusing on the catalytic nanoplatform construction and catalytic mechanism. A concise but concentrated summary and outlook are provided finally to outline the perspectives and the remaining challenges for the future design and engineering of SACs for tumor therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202004467DOI Listing
April 2021

Emerging forward osmosis and membrane distillation for liquid food concentration: A review.

Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf 2021 Mar 12;20(2):1910-1936. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

College of Food Science and Engineering, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, China.

As emerging membrane technologies, forward osmosis (FO) and membrane distillation (MD), which work with novel driving forces, show great potential for liquid food concentration, owing to their low fouling propensity and great driving force. In the last decades, they have attracted the attention of food industry scientists in global scope. However, discussions of the FO and MD in liquid food concentration advancement, membrane fouling, and economic assessment have been scant. This review aims to provide an up-to-date knowledge about liquid food concentration by FO and MD. First, we introduce the principle and applications of FO and MD in liquid food concentration, and highlight the effect of process on liquid food composition, membrane fouling mechanism, and strategies for fouling mitigation. Besides, economic assessment of FO and MD processes is reviewed. Moreover, the challenges as well as future prospects of FO and MD applied in liquid food concentration are proposed and discussed. Comparing with conventional membrane-based or thermal-based technologies, FO and MD show outstanding advantages in high concentration rate, good concentrate quality, low fouling propensity, and low cost. Future efforts for liquid food concentration by FO and MD include (1) development of novel FO draw solution (DS); (2) understanding the effects of liquid food complex compositions on membrane fouling in FO and MD concentration process; and (3) fabrication of novel membranes and innovation of membrane module and process configuration for liquid food processing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1541-4337.12691DOI Listing
March 2021

Research of insomnia on traditional Chinese medicine diagnosis and treatment based on machine learning.

Chin Med 2021 Jan 6;16(1). Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Electronic Engineering College, Chengdu University of Information Technology, Chengdu, 610225, China.

Background: Insomnia as one of the dominant diseases of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been extensively studied in recent years. To explore the novel approaches of research on TCM diagnosis and treatment, this paper presents a strategy for the research of insomnia based on machine learning.

Methods: First of all, 654 insomnia cases have been collected from an experienced doctor of TCM as sample data. Secondly, in the light of the characteristics of TCM diagnosis and treatment, the contents of research samples have been divided into four parts: the basic information, the four diagnostic methods, the treatment based on syndrome differentiation and the main prescription. And then, these four parts have been analyzed by three analysis methods, including frequency analysis, association rules and hierarchical cluster analysis. Finally, a comprehensive study of the whole four parts has been conducted by random forest.

Results: Researches of the above four parts revealed some essential connections. Simultaneously, based on the algorithm model established by the random forest, the accuracy of predicting the main prescription by the combinations of the four diagnostic methods and the treatment based on syndrome differentiation was 0.85. Furthermore, having been extracted features through applying the random forest, the syndrome differentiation of five zang-organs was proven to be the most significant parameter of the TCM diagnosis and treatment.

Conclusions: The results indicate that the machine learning methods are worthy of being adopted to study the dominant diseases of TCM for exploring the crucial rules of the diagnosis and treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13020-020-00409-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7789502PMC
January 2021

Mitochondrial genome of (Hymenoptera: Cynipoidea: Cynipidae) and phylogenetic analysis.

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2020 Feb 7;5(1):1073-1074. Epub 2020 Feb 7.

College of Biology and Food Engineering, Anyang Institute of Technology, Anyang, Henan, China.

(Monzen) (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) is a major pest of Blume in the Taihang Mountains in China. In this study, we sequenced and analyzed the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of . This mitogenome was 16,078 bp long and encoded 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA genes (tRNAs), and 2 ribosomal RNA unit genes (rRNAs). The whole mitogenome exhibited heavy AT nucleotide bias (86.2%). Except for that started with TTG, all other PCGs started with the standard ATN codon. All 13 PCGs terminate with the stop codon TAA. Phylogenetic analysis showed that got together with sp. with high support value, indicating the close relationship of these two genus. All five Cynipoidea species constituted a major clade and formed a sister group to Proctotrupoidea and Chalcidoidea.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2020.1721366DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7748680PMC
February 2020

A Biomarker Panel of Radiation-Upregulated miRNA as Signature for Ionizing Radiation Exposure.

Life (Basel) 2020 Dec 18;10(12). Epub 2020 Dec 18.

Beijing Key Laboratory for Radiobiology, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing 100850, China.

Ionizing radiation causes serious injury to the human body and has long-time impacts on health. It is important to find optimal biomarkers for the early quick screening of exposed individuals. A series of miRNAs signatures have been developed as the new biomarkers for diagnosis, survival, and prognostic prediction of cancers. Here, we have identified the ionizing radiation-inducible miRNAs profile through microarray analysis. The biological functions were predicted for the top six upregulated miRNAs by 4 Gy γ-rays: miR-1246, miR-1307-3p, miR-3197, miR-4267, miR-5096 and miR-7641. The miRNA-gene network and target gene-pathway network analyses revealed that is the target gene associated with all the six miRNAs. is related to 4 miRNAs and other 26 genes targeted by 3 miRNAs. The upregulation of fifteen miRNAs were further verified at 4 h and 24 h after 0 to 10 Gy irradiation in the human lymphoblastoid AHH-1 cells, and some demonstrated a dose-dependent increased. Six miRNAs, including miR-145, miR-663, miR-1273g-3p, miR-6090, miR-6727-5p and miR-7641, were validated to be dose-dependently upregulated at 4 h or 24 h post-irradiation in both AHH-1 and human peripheral blood lymphocytes irradiated ex vivo. This six-miRNA signature displays the superiority as a radiation biomarker for the translational application of screening and assessment of radiation exposed individuals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/life10120361DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7766228PMC
December 2020

An iodine-125 seed strand combined with a metal stent versus a metal stent alone for obstructive jaundice caused by pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

Brachytherapy 2021 Mar-Apr;20(2):446-453. Epub 2020 Dec 8.

Department of Interventional Radiology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China; Shanghai Institution of Medical Imaging, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of an iodine-125 (I) seed strand combined with a metal stent compared with a metal stent for treatment of obstructive jaundice caused by pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC).

Methods And Materials: A retrospective analysis was carried out of patients who were referred to Shanghai Zhongshan Hospital of Fudan University with a diagnosis of PDAC between January 1, 2010 and January 31, 2019. A total of 110 consecutive patients with obstructive jaundice caused by PDAC were divided into the iodine-125 seed strand combined with a metal stent group (Group A = 48) and the metal stent group (Group B = 62). The primary outcome was stent obstruction-free survival time, and secondary outcomes were overall survival and complications.

Results: The median stent obstruction-free survival time was 133.0 (95% confidence interval (CI): 166.093-149.907) days, and the median overall survival was 212.0 (95% CI: 187.183-236.817) days in all patients. Median stent obstruction-free survival time was 175 days (95% CI 103.165-246.835 days) in Group A versus 120 days (95% CI 87.475-152.525 days) in Group B (p = 0.035). A lower Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) score (p = 0. 000) and iodine-125 seed strand combined with metal stent implantation (p = 0.008) were associated with a longer stent obstruction-free survival time. Obstruction length (p = 0.083), ECOG score (p = 0.000), and iodine-125 seeds (p = 0.037) might have potential impact on stent obstruction-free survival time and were included for multivariable analysis using the Cox proportional hazards model. Stent restenosis was observed in 18.8% (9/48) of patients in Group A and 54.8% (34/62) in Group B, respectively. There was no significant difference in median survival between Group A and Group B (p = 0.409). The median survival in Group A was 209 days (95% CI 150.750-267.250) and 202 days (95% CI 190.624-233.376) in Group B. The median survival of patients with a lower ECOG score was better than that of patients with a higher ECOG score (267 days vs 132 days, p = 0.000). The Grade 3 or 4 complications occurred in 4 (8.3%) of the 48 patients in Group A (one case of hemobilia, one case of liver abscess, two cases of choleperitonitis) and in 5 (8.1%) of the 62 patients in Group B (one case of hemobilia, two cases of liver abscess, two cases of choleperitonitis) (p = 0.972).

Conclusions: Implantation of an iodine-125 seed strand combined with a metal stent provides longer obstruction-free survival time compared with a metal stent in patients with obstructive jaundice caused by PDAC. It seems reasonable to choose an iodine-125 seed strand combined with a metal stent as a treatment for these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brachy.2020.10.004DOI Listing
December 2020

Spatial-temporal changes of forests and agricultural lands in Malaysia from 1990 to 2017.

Environ Monit Assess 2020 Dec 1;192(12):803. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

State Key Laboratory of Resources and Environmental Information System, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101, China.

Forests and agricultural lands are the main resources on the earth's surface and important indicators of regional ecological environments. In this paper, Landsat images from 1990 and 2017 were used to extract information on forests in Malaysia based on a remote-sensing classification method. The spatial-temporal changes of forests and agricultural lands in Malaysia between 1990 and 2017 were analyzed. The results showed that the natural forests in Malaysia decreased by 441 Mha, a reduction of 21%. The natural forests were mainly converted into plantations in Peninsular Malaysia and plantations and secondary forests in East Malaysia. The area of agricultural lands in Malaysia increased by 55.7%, in which paddy fields increased by 1.1% and plantations increased by 98.2%. Paddy fields in Peninsular Malaysia are mainly distributed in the north-central coast and the Kelantan Delta. The agricultural land in East Malaysia is dominated by plantations, which are mainly distributed in coastal areas. The predictable areas of possible expansion for paddy fields in Peninsular Malaysia's Kelantan (45.2%) and Kedah (16.8%) areas in the future are large, and in addition, the plantations in Sarawak (44.7%) and Sabah (29.6%) of East Malaysia have large areas for expansion. The contradiction between agricultural development and protecting the ecological environment is increasingly prominent. The demand for agriculture is expected to increase further and result in greater pressures on tropical forests. Governments also need to encourage farmers to carry out existing land development, land recultivation, or cooperative development to improve agricultural efficiency and reduce the damage to natural forests.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-020-08765-6DOI Listing
December 2020

Tumor Necrosis Factor α Reduces SNAP29 Dependent Autolysosome Formation to Increase Prion Protein Level and Promote Tumor Cell Migration.

Virol Sin 2020 Nov 25. Epub 2020 Nov 25.

Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, 430071, China.

Tumor Necrosis Factor α (TNFα) is best known as a mediator of inflammation and immunity, and also plays important roles in tumor biology. However, the role of TNFα in tumor biology is complex and not completely understood. In a human melanoma cell line, M2, and a lung carcinoma cell line, A549, TNFα up-regulates prion protein (PrP) level, and promotes tumor cell migration in a PrP dependent manner. Silencing PRNP abrogates TNFα induced tumor cell migration; this phenotype is reversed when PRNP is re-introduced. Treatment with TNFα activates nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling, which then mitigates autophagy by reducing the expression of Forkhead Box P3 (FOXP3). Down regulation of FOXP3 reduces the transcription of synaptosome associated protein 29 (SNAP29), which is essential in the fusion of autophagosome and lysosome creating autolysosome. FOXP3 being a bona fide transcription factor for SNAP29 is confirmed in a promoter binding assay. Accordingly, silencing SNAP29 in these cell lines also up-regulates PrP, and promotes tumor cell migration without TNFα treatment. But, when SNAP29 or FOXP3 is silenced in these cells, they are no longer respond to TNFα. Thus, a reduction in autophagy is the underlying mechanism by which expression of PrP is up-regulated, and tumor cell migration is enhanced upon TNFα treatment. Disrupting the TNFα-NF-κB-FOXP3-SNAP29 signaling axis may provide a therapeutic approach to mitigate tumor cell migration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12250-020-00320-4DOI Listing
November 2020

RNA N-Methyladenosine Methyltransferase METTL3 Facilitates Colorectal Cancer by Activating the mA-GLUT1-mTORC1 Axis and Is a Therapeutic Target.

Gastroenterology 2021 Mar 18;160(4):1284-1300.e16. Epub 2020 Nov 18.

Institute of Digestive Disease and Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, State Key laboratory of Digestive Disease, Li Ka Shing Institute of Health Sciences, Shenzhen Research Institute, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: RNA N-methyladenosine (mA) modification has recently emerged as a new regulatory mechanism in cancer progression. We aimed to explore the role of the mA regulatory enzyme METTL3 in colorectal cancer (CRC) pathogenesis and its potential as a therapeutic target.

Methods: The expression and clinical implication of METTL3 were investigated in multiple human CRC cohorts. The underlying mechanisms of METTL3 in CRC were investigated by integrative mA sequencing, RNA sequencing, and ribosome profiling analyses. The efficacy of targeting METTL3 in CRC treatment was elucidated in CRC cell lines, patient-derived CRC organoids, and Mettl3-knockout mouse models.

Results: Using targeted clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 dropout screening, we identified METTL3 as the top essential mA regulatory enzyme in CRC. METTL3 was overexpressed in 62.2% (79/127) and 88.0% (44/50) of primary CRCs from 2 independent cohorts. High METTL3 expression predicted poor survival in patients with CRC (n = 374, P < .01). Functionally, silencing METTL3 suppressed tumorigenesis in CRC cells, human-derived primary CRC organoids, and Mettl3-knockout mouse models. We discovered the novel functional mA methyltransferase domain of METTL3 in CRC cells by domain-focused CRISPR screening and mutagenesis assays. Mechanistically, METTL3 directly induced the mA-GLUT1-mTORC1 axis as identified by integrated mA sequencing, RNA sequencing, ribosome sequencing, and functional validation. METTL3 induced GLUT1 translation in an mA-dependent manner, which subsequently promoted glucose uptake and lactate production, leading to the activation of mTORC1 signaling and CRC development. Furthermore, inhibition of mTORC1 potentiated the anticancer effect of METTL3 silencing in CRC patient-derived organoids and METTL3 transgenic mouse models.

Conclusions: METTL3 promotes CRC by activating the mA-GLUT1-mTORC1 axis. METTL3 is a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of CRC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2020.11.013DOI Listing
March 2021

Psychological symptoms in Chinese nurses may be associated with predisposition to chronic disease: a cross-sectional study of suboptimal health status.

EPMA J 2020 Oct 14:1-13. Epub 2020 Oct 14.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, 515041 Guangdong China.

Background: Suboptimal health status (SHS) is a reversible state between ideal health and illness and it can be effectively reversed by risk prediction, disease prevention, and personalized medicine under the global background of predictive, preventive, and personalized medicine (PPPM) concepts. More and more Chinese nurses have been troubled by psychological symptoms (PS). The correlation between PS and SHS is unclear in nurses. The purpose of current study is to investigate the prevalence of SHS and PS in Chinese nurses and the relationship between SHS and PS along with predisposing factors as well as to discuss the feasibility of improving health status and preventing diseases according to PPPM concepts in Chinese nurses.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with the cluster sampling method among 9793 registered nurses in Foshan city, China. SHS was evaluated with the Suboptimal Health Status Questionnaire-25 (SHSQ-25). Meanwhile, the PS of depression and anxiety were evaluated with Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) and Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) self-assessment questionnaires. The relationship between PS and SHS in Chinese nurses was subsequently analyzed.

Results: Among the 9793 participants, 6107 nurses were included in the final analysis. The prevalence of SHS in the participants was 74.21% (4532/6107) while the symptoms of depression and anxiety were 47.62% (2908/6107) and 24.59% (1502/6107) respectively. The prevalence of SHS in the participants with depression and anxiety was significantly higher than those without the symptoms of depression (83.3% vs 16.7%,  < 0.001) and anxiety (94.2% vs 5.8%,  < 0.0001). The ratio of exercise habit was significantly lower than that of non-exercise habit (68.8% vs 78.4%,  < 0.001) in SHS group.

Conclusions: There is a high prevalence of SHS and PS in Chinese nurses. PS in Chinese nurses are associated with SHS. Physical exercise is a protective factor for SHS and PS so that the exercise should be strongly recommended as a valuable preventive measure well in the agreement with PPPM philosophy. Along with SDS and SAS, SHSQ-25 should also be highly recommended and applied as a novel predictive/preventive tool for the health measures from the perspectives of PPPM in view of susceptible population and individual screening, the predisposition to chronic disease preventing, personalization of intervention, and the ideal health state restoring.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13167-020-00225-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7556591PMC
October 2020

Let-7f promotes the differentiation of neural stem cells in rats.

Am J Transl Res 2020 15;12(9):5752-5761. Epub 2020 Sep 15.

Department of Pediatrics, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University Changsha 410008, Hunan, China.

Hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIBD) is the major recognized perinatal cause of neurological morbidity in full-term new borns. Neural stem cells (NSCs) have been extensively studied because of their clinical applications in treating neuro degenerative diseases and brain injuries, including HIBD, while microRNAs (miRNAs) are deemed critical regulators of the proliferation and differentiation of NSCs. However, the role of let-7f in NSC differentiation remains unknown. Our study aims to investigate the role of let-7f in the differentiation of NSCs and brain development in rats and hence to explore the therapeutic potential of let-7f in the treatment of HIBD. The quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was applied to assess the expressions of let-7f, and western blot was performed to detect GFAP, Tuj1 and Nestin in rat brains at postnatal day 1, 8 and 14 (n=12 per time point). The NSCs isolated from the brains of rat fetuses at gestational day 15 were transduced with lenti virus expressing let-7f or let-7f inhibitor so as to observe altered expressions of let-7f, GFAP, Tuj1 and Nestin. A gradually-increasing expression of let-7f was detected by qRT-PCR in rat brain tissues during postnatal brain development. Increased levels of GFAP and Tuj1, while a decreased level of Nestin, were detected by western blot in let-7f-overexpressing NSCs. In contrast, the cells expressing the let-7f inhibitor exhibited lower levels of GFAP and Tuj1, while a higher level of Nestin, compared with control cells. Therefore, let-7f is involved in brain development and promotes the differentiation of NSCs in rats.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7540113PMC
September 2020

Evaluation studies on effects of quercetin with different concentrations on the physicochemical properties and in vitro digestibility of Tartary buckwheat starch.

Int J Biol Macromol 2020 Nov 29;163:1729-1737. Epub 2020 Sep 29.

College of Food Science and Engineering, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, China. Electronic address:

The effects of polyphenols on the physicochemical properties and in vitro digestibility of Tartary buckwheat starch (TBS) remain scarce. In this study, the rheological, thermal properties, and in vitro digestibility of pregelatinized TBS (pre-TBS) with quercetin complexation at various concentrations were characterized. It was found that quercetin complexation increased the shearing resistance and viscosity of pre-TBS. Both SEM and TGA results revealed a more compact and stable structure of starch-quercetin complex in comparison to pre-TBS. The non-inclusive complex with higher crystallinity was formed through hydrogen bonds, which showed by XRD and FT-IR results. Additionally, complexes exhibited the lower digestion rate and digestion velocity constant, and the resistant starch content of complex (with 10% quercetin addition) was the highest. Therefore, quercetin complexation could improve the thermal and rheological properties, and decrease in vitro digestibility of pre-TBS, which could provide a theoretical basis for functional food development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.09.116DOI Listing
November 2020

Radiofrequency ablation in combination with an mTOR inhibitor restrains pancreatic cancer growth induced by intrinsic HSP70.

Ther Adv Med Oncol 2020 10;12:1758835920953728. Epub 2020 Sep 10.

Department of Interventional Radiology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, 180 Fenglin Road, Shanghai 200032, China.

Background: Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is widely used in palliative therapy of malignant cancers. Several studies have shown its applicability and safety for locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC). The objective of this study was to modify the current regimen to improve its therapeutic effect.

Methods: Immune cell subtypes and related cytokines were quantified to uncover the immune pattern changes post-RFA treatment. Then, high-throughput proteome analysis was performed to identify differentially expressed proteins associated with RFA, which were further validated in and experiments. Finally, a combined therapy was tested in a murine model to observe its therapeutic effect.

Results: In preclinical murine models of RFA treatment, no significant therapeutic benefit was observed following RFA treatment. However, the proportion of tumor-infiltrating CD8 T cells was significantly increased, whereas that of regulatory T cells (Tregs) was decreased post-RFA treatment, which indicated a beneficial anti-tumor environment. To identify the mechanism, high-throughput mass spectrum was obtained that identified heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) as the top differentially expressed protein. HSP70 expression in residual cancer cells was significantly increased post-RFA treatment, which notably promoted pancreatic cancer growth. Elevated HSP70 promoted cell proliferation by activating AKT-mTOR signaling. Finally, RFA treatment combined with an mTOR inhibitor exerted a synergetic repressive effect on tumor growth in the preclinical murine cancer model.

Conclusions: RFA treatment in combination with mTOR signaling blockade can not only promote tumor immune response, but also restrain residual cancer cell proliferation. Such a combination may be a promising and effective therapeutic strategy for LAPC patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1758835920953728DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7491221PMC
September 2020

Impacts of Natural Organic Matter Adhesion on Irreversible Membrane Fouling during Surface Water Treatment Using Ultrafiltration.

Membranes (Basel) 2020 Sep 17;10(9). Epub 2020 Sep 17.

School of Civil and Transportation Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300401, China.

To understand impacts of organic adhesion on membrane fouling, ultrafiltration (UF) membrane fouling by dissolved natural organic matter (NOM) was investigated in the presence of background cations (Na and Ca) at typical concentrations in surface water. Moreover, NOM adhesion on the UF membrane was investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM) with colloidal probes and a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D). The results indicated that the adhesion forces at the NOM-membrane interface increased in the presence of background cations, particularly Ca, and that the amount of adhered NOM increased due to reduced electrostatic repulsion. However, the membrane permeability was almost not affected by background cations in the pore blocking-dominated phase but was aggravated to some extent in the cake filtration-governed phase. More importantly, the irreversible NOM fouling was not correlated with the amount of adhered NOM. The assumption for membrane autopsies is doubtful that retained or adsorbed organic materials are necessarily a primary cause of membrane fouling, particularly the irreversible fouling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/membranes10090238DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7557390PMC
September 2020

Osteoprotegerin SNP associations with coronary artery disease and ischemic stroke risk: a meta-analysis.

Biosci Rep 2020 10;40(10)

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China.

Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is involved in the development of atherosclerosis and cardio-cerebrovascular disease. The goal of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the association of OPG single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with coronary artery disease (CAD) and ischemic stroke. A total of 15 eligible studies were extracted from electronic databases. Odds ratios (ORs) were presented, with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), to assess the associations. Meta-analysis was conducted using MetaGenyo, STATA, and Comprehensive Meta-Analysis. Meta-analysis of our data showed that the OPG SNP T950C was significantly associated with increased CAD risk among Asians via recessive (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.18-2.04, P=0.002), CC vs TT (OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.16-2.11, P=0.003) and allelic (OR 1.21, 95% CI 1.05-1.38, P=0.007) models. No strong associations were observed for the OPG SNP G1181C, T245G and G209A with CAD risk. When evaluating the OPG SNP T245G and T950C associations with ischemic stroke, we found the OPG SNP T245G to be significantly associated with increased risk of ischemic stroke among Chinese via recessive (OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.02-2.29, P=0.039) and CC vs AA (OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.07-2.42, P=0.021) models. Our results suggested that the OPG SNP T950C was associated with increased risk of CAD among Asians, and the OPG SNP T245G was associated with enhanced ischemic stroke risk among Chinese.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/BSR20202156DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7536329PMC
October 2020

Quantification Analysis of 13 Organic Components and 8 Inorganic Elements in and Its Different Parts Combined with Chemical Recognition Pattern.

J Anal Methods Chem 2020 31;2020:8836184. Epub 2020 Aug 31.

Deyang Food and Drug Safety Inspection and Testing Center, Deyang 618000, China.

(Danggui, DG) is one of the most commonly prescribed traditional Chinese medicines. The organic components include phthalides and phenolic acids. Meanwhile, inorganic elements play an important role in clinical effect. DG and its different parts have different effects. There is no relevant report on the analysis of organic compounds and inorganic elements among them. Therefore, ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry was developed for the simultaneous determination of 13 organic components (8 phthalides and 5 phenolic acids), and 8 inorganic elements were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The contents of 32 samples were analyzed by orthogonal partial least squares discrimination analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis, and least-significant difference of one-way analysis of variance. The results showed that the differences were significant among DG and its different parts. 11 difference markers (Ca, Z-ligustilide, Mg, Mn, Fe, Na, K, Cu, Zn, coniferyl ferulate, and senkyunolide A) were obtained by variable importance for the project. These difference markers were some different among DG and its different parts, especially Z-ligustilide, coniferyl ferulate, Mg, Zn, the differences were significant. This study can provide a reference for DG research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/8836184DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7479475PMC
August 2020

Defining a minimum number of examined lymph nodes improves the prognostic value of lymphadenectomy in pancreas ductal adenocarcinoma.

HPB (Oxford) 2021 Apr 6;23(4):575-586. Epub 2020 Sep 6.

Division of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA; Department of Oncology, The Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Lymph node (LN) metastasis is associated with decreased survival following resection for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). In N0 disease, increasing total evaluated LN (ELN) correlates with improved outcomes suggesting patients may be understaged when LNs are undersampled. We aim to assess the optimal number of examined lymph nodes (ELN) following pancreatectomy.

Methods: Data from 1837 patients undergoing surgery were prospectively collected. The binomial probability law was utilized to analyze the minimum number of examined LNs (minELN) and accurately characterize each histopathologic stage. LN ratio (LNR) was compared to American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) guidelines.

Results: As ELN total increased, the likelihood of finding node positive disease increased. An evaluation based upon the binomial probability law suggested an optimal minELN of 12 for accurate AJCC N staging. As the number of ELNs increased, the discriminatory capacity of alternative strategies to characterize LN disease exceeded that offered by AJCC N stage.

Conclusion: This is the first study dedicated to optimizing histopathologic staging in PDAC using models of minELN informed by the binomial probability law. This study highlights two separate cutoffs for ELNs depending upon prognostic goal and validates that 12 LNs are adequate to determine AJCC N stage for the majority of patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hpb.2020.08.016DOI Listing
April 2021

Established and Emerging Mechanisms in the Pathogenesis of Arrhythmogenic Cardiomyopathy: A Multifaceted Disease.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Aug 31;21(17). Epub 2020 Aug 31.

Division of Cardiology, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045, USA.

Arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (ACM) is a heritable myocardial disease that manifests with cardiac arrhythmias, syncope, sudden cardiac death, and heart failure in the advanced stages. The pathological hallmark of ACM is a gradual replacement of the myocardium by fibroadiposis, which typically starts from the epicardium. Molecular genetic studies have identified causal mutations predominantly in genes encoding for desmosomal proteins; however, non-desmosomal causal mutations have also been described, including genes coding for nuclear proteins, cytoskeleton componentsand proteins involved in excitation-contraction coupling. Despite the poor prognosis, currently available treatments can only partially control symptoms and to date there is no effective therapy for ACM. Inhibition of the canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway and activation of the Hippo and the TGF-β pathways have been implicated in the pathogenesis of ACM. Yet, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in the development of the disease and the cell source of fibroadiposis remains incomplete. Elucidation of the pathogenesis of the disease could facilitate targeted approaches for treatment. In this manuscript we will provide a comprehensive review of the proposed molecular and cellular mechanisms of the pathogenesis of ACM, including the emerging evidence on abnormal calcium homeostasis and inflammatory/autoimmune response. Moreover, we will propose novel hypothesis about the role of epicardial cells and paracrine factors in the development of the phenotype. Finally, we will discuss potential innovative therapeutic approaches based on the growing knowledge in the field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21176320DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7503882PMC
August 2020