Publications by authors named "Shannon Xydis"

3 Publications

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Postvaccination SARS-CoV-2 Infections Among Skilled Nursing Facility Residents and Staff Members - Chicago, Illinois, December 2020-March 2021.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2021 Apr 30;70(17):632-638. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Early studies suggest that COVID-19 vaccines protect against severe illness (1); however, postvaccination SARS-CoV-2 infections (i.e., breakthrough infections) can occur because COVID-19 vaccines do not offer 100% protection (2,3). Data evaluating the occurrence of breakthrough infections and impact of vaccination in decreasing transmission in congregate settings are limited. Skilled nursing facility (SNF) residents and staff members have been disproportionately affected by SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19 (4,5), and were prioritized for COVID-19 vaccination (6,7). Starting December 28, 2020, all 78 Chicago-based SNFs began COVID-19 vaccination clinics over several weeks through the federal Pharmacy Partnership for Long-Term Care Program (PPP). In February 2021, through routine screening, the Chicago Department of Public Health (CDPH) identified a SARS-CoV-2 infection in a SNF resident >14 days after receipt of the second dose of a two-dose COVID-19 vaccination series. SARS-CoV-2 cases, vaccination status, and possible vaccine breakthrough infections were identified by matching facility reports with state case and vaccination registries. Among 627 persons with SARS-CoV-2 infection across 75 SNFs since vaccination clinics began, 22 SARS-CoV-2 infections were identified among 12 residents and 10 staff members across 15 facilities ≥14 days after receiving their second vaccine dose (i.e., breakthrough infections in fully vaccinated persons). Nearly two thirds (14 of 22; 64%) of persons with breakthrough infections were asymptomatic; two residents were hospitalized because of COVID-19, and one died. No facility-associated secondary transmission occurred. Although few SARS-CoV-2 infections in fully vaccinated persons were observed, these cases demonstrate the need for SNFs to follow recommended routine infection prevention and control practices and promote high vaccination coverage among SNF residents and staff members.
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April 2021

Regional Emergence of Candida auris in Chicago and Lessons Learned From Intensive Follow-up at 1 Ventilator-Capable Skilled Nursing Facility.

Clin Infect Dis 2020 12;71(11):e718-e725

Communicable Disease Program, Chicago Department of Public Health, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Background: Since the identification of the first 2 Candida auris cases in Chicago, Illinois, in 2016, ongoing spread has been documented in the Chicago area. We describe C. auris emergence in high-acuity, long-term healthcare facilities and present a case study of public health response to C. auris and carbapenemase-producing organisms (CPOs) at one ventilator-capable skilled nursing facility (vSNF-A).

Methods: We performed point prevalence surveys (PPSs) to identify patients colonized with C. auris and infection-control (IC) assessments and provided ongoing support for IC improvements in Illinois acute- and long-term care facilities during August 2016-December 2018. During 2018, we initiated a focused effort at vSNF-A and conducted 7 C. auris PPSs; during 4 PPSs, we also performed CPO screening and environmental sampling.

Results: During August 2016-December 2018 in Illinois, 490 individuals were found to be colonized or infected with C. auris. PPSs identified the highest prevalence of C. auris colonization in vSNF settings (prevalence, 23-71%). IC assessments in multiple vSNFs identified common challenges in core IC practices. Repeat PPSs at vSNF-A in 2018 identified increasing C. auris prevalence from 43% to 71%. Most residents screened during multiple PPSs remained persistently colonized with C. auris. Among 191 environmental samples collected, 39% were positive for C. auris, including samples from bedrails, windowsills, and shared patient-care items.

Conclusions: High burden in vSNFs along with persistent colonization of residents and environmental contamination point to the need for prioritizing IC interventions to control the spread of C. auris and CPOs.
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December 2020