Publications by authors named "Shannon R McCartha"

3 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Retrotransposons Are the Major Contributors to the Expansion of the Muller F Element.

G3 (Bethesda) 2017 08 7;7(8):2439-2460. Epub 2017 Aug 7.

Department of Biological Sciences, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, CA 93405.

The discordance between genome size and the complexity of eukaryotes can partly be attributed to differences in repeat density. The Muller F element (∼5.2 Mb) is the smallest chromosome in , but it is substantially larger (>18.7 Mb) in To identify the major contributors to the expansion of the F element and to assess their impact, we improved the genome sequence and annotated the genes in a 1.4-Mb region of the F element, and a 1.7-Mb region from the D element for comparison. We find that transposons (particularly LTR and LINE retrotransposons) are major contributors to this expansion (78.6%), while sequences integrated into the genome are minor contributors (0.02%). Both and F-element genes exhibit distinct characteristics compared to D-element genes (, larger coding spans, larger introns, more coding exons, and lower codon bias), but these differences are exaggerated in Compared to , the codon bias observed in F-element genes can primarily be attributed to mutational biases instead of selection. The 5' ends of F-element genes in both species are enriched in dimethylation of lysine 4 on histone 3 (H3K4me2), while the coding spans are enriched in H3K9me2. Despite differences in repeat density and gene characteristics, F-element genes show a similar range of expression levels compared to genes in euchromatic domains. This study improves our understanding of how transposons can affect genome size and how genes can function within highly repetitive domains.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1534/g3.117.040907DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5555453PMC
August 2017

Drosophila muller f elements maintain a distinct set of genomic properties over 40 million years of evolution.

G3 (Bethesda) 2015 Mar 4;5(5):719-40. Epub 2015 Mar 4.

Department of Biology, Albion College, Albion, MI 49224.

The Muller F element (4.2 Mb, ~80 protein-coding genes) is an unusual autosome of Drosophila melanogaster; it is mostly heterochromatic with a low recombination rate. To investigate how these properties impact the evolution of repeats and genes, we manually improved the sequence and annotated the genes on the D. erecta, D. mojavensis, and D. grimshawi F elements and euchromatic domains from the Muller D element. We find that F elements have greater transposon density (25-50%) than euchromatic reference regions (3-11%). Among the F elements, D. grimshawi has the lowest transposon density (particularly DINE-1: 2% vs. 11-27%). F element genes have larger coding spans, more coding exons, larger introns, and lower codon bias. Comparison of the Effective Number of Codons with the Codon Adaptation Index shows that, in contrast to the other species, codon bias in D. grimshawi F element genes can be attributed primarily to selection instead of mutational biases, suggesting that density and types of transposons affect the degree of local heterochromatin formation. F element genes have lower estimated DNA melting temperatures than D element genes, potentially facilitating transcription through heterochromatin. Most F element genes (~90%) have remained on that element, but the F element has smaller syntenic blocks than genome averages (3.4-3.6 vs. 8.4-8.8 genes per block), indicating greater rates of inversion despite lower rates of recombination. Overall, the F element has maintained characteristics that are distinct from other autosomes in the Drosophila lineage, illuminating the constraints imposed by a heterochromatic milieu.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1534/g3.114.015966DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4426361PMC
March 2015

Bile acids as modulators of enzyme activity and stability.

Protein J 2011 Dec;30(8):539-45

Agnes Scott College, Decatur, GA, USA.

Bile acids deactivate certain enzymes, such as prolyl endopeptidases (PEPs), which are investigated as candidates for protease-based therapy for celiac sprue. Deactivation by bile acids presents a problem for therapeutic enzymes targetted to function in the upper intestine. However, enzyme deactivation by bile acids is not a general phenomenon. Trypsin and chymotrypsin are not deactivated by bile acids. In fact, these pancreatic enzymes are more efficient at cleaving large dietary substrates in the presence of bile acids. We targeted the origin of the apparently different effect of bile acids on prolyl endopeptidases and pancreatic enzymes by examining the effect of bile acids on the kinetics of cleavage of small substrates, and by determining the effect of bile acids on the thermodynamic stabilities of these enzymes. Physiological amounts (5 mM) of cholic acid decrease the thermodynamic stability of Flavobacterium meningosepticum PEP from 18.5 ± 2 kcal/mol to 10.5 ± 1 kcal/mol, while thermostability of trypsin and chymotrypsin is unchanged. Trypsin and chymotrypsin activation by bile and PEP deactivation can both be explained in terms of a common mechanism: bile acid-mediated protein destabilization. Bile acids, usually considered non-denaturing surfactants, in this case act as a destabilizing agent on PEP thus deactivating the enzyme. However, this level of global thermodynamic destabilization does not account for a more than 50% decrease in enzyme activity, suggesting that bile acids most likely modulate enzyme activity through specific local interactions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10930-011-9360-yDOI Listing
December 2011
-->