Publications by authors named "Shangjie Chen"

16 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

A Pilot Study on the Cutoff Value of Related Brain Metabolite in Chinese Elderly Patients With Mild Cognitive Impairment Using MRS.

Front Aging Neurosci 2021 9;13:617611. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Rehabilitation, Bao'an Hospital, Southern Medical University, Shenzhen, China.

This cross-sectional study aimed to distinguish patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) from patients with normal controls (NCs) by measuring the levels of -acetyl aspartate (NAA), total creatinine (tCr), and choline (Cho) in their hippocampus (HIP) and their posterior cingulate gyrus (PCG) by using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and to predict the cutoff value on the ratios of metabolites. We further aimed to provide a reference for the diagnosis of MCI in elderly patients in China. About 69 patients who underwent a clinical diagnosis of the MCI group and 67 patients with NCs, the Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE) score, the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) score, and MRS of the bilateral HIP and bilateral PCG were considered. The ratio of NAA/tCr and Cho/tCr in the bilateral HIP and bilateral PCG was calculated. The relationship between the ratios of metabolites and the scores of MMSE and MoCA was analyzed, and the possible brain metabolite cutoff point for the diagnosis of MCI was evaluated. Compared with the NC group, the scores of MMSE and MoCA in the MCI group decreased significantly ( < 0.05); the ratio of NAA/tCr in the bilateral HIP and bilateral PCG and the ratio of Cho/tCr at the right HIP in the MCI group decreased significantly ( < 0.05); however, there was no significant difference in the ratio of Cho/tCr in the left HIP and bilateral PCG between the two groups ( > 0.05). The correlation coefficient between MMSE/MoCA and the ratio of NAA/tCr was 0.49-0.56 in the bilateral HIP ( < 0.01). The best cutoff value of NAA/creatine (Cr) in the left HIP and the right HIP was 1.195 and 1.19. Sensitivity, specificity, and the Youden index (YDI) in the left HIP and the right HIP were (0.725, 0.803, 0.528) and (0.754, 0.803, 0.557), respectively. The level of metabolites in the HIP and the PCG of patients with MCI and of those with normal subjects has a certain correlation with the score of their MMSE and MoCA. When the value of NAA/tCr in the left HIP and right HIP is <1.19, it suggests that MCI may have occurred. According to this cutoff point, elderly patients with MCI in China could be screened.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2021.617611DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8063036PMC
April 2021

MicroRNA-382-5p Targets Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 3 Group C Member 1 to Regulate Depressive-Like Behaviors Induced by Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress in Rats.

Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 2020 9;16:2053-2061. Epub 2020 Sep 9.

Department of Rehabilitation, People's Hospital of Shenzhen Baoan District, Shenzhen 518100, People's Republic of China.

Background: Depression is an emotional disorder characterized by depression, lack of pleasure, and cognitive and sleep disorders. It is a systemic disease with a complex pathogenesis. In this study, we will be focused to investigate their associations and the exact functional mechanisms of miR-382-5p and NR3C1 in depression.

Materials And Methods: We measured the expressions of microRNA-382-5p (miR-382-5p) and NR3C1 in the hippocampus by chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). Depression behavior test including novelty-suppressed feeding test (NSFT), sucrose preference test (SPT), and forced swim test (FST) on rats have been conducted to examine the roles and functions of miR-382-5p and NR3C1 on depression-like behaviors by lentivirus vectors.

Results: Up-regulation of miR-382-5p and down-regulation of NR3C1 were observed in rats' hippocampus induced by CUMS. miR-382-5p targeted NR3C1 and inhibited the expressions of NR3C1 in rats' hippocampus. miR-382-5p could significantly change the depression behaviors induced by CUMS. NR3C1 downstream BDNF and p-TrkB were also oppositely associated with miR-382-5p in rats' hippocampus.

Conclusion: Through our experiments and analysis, we found that the associations between miR-382-5p and NR3C1 could affect the depression-like behaviors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S243920DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7490101PMC
September 2020

Motor recovery and antidepressant effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on Parkinson disease: A PRISMA-compliant meta-analysis.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2020 May;99(18):e19642

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Affiliated Baoan Hospital of Shenzhen, Southern Medical University, Shenzhen, Guangdong Province, China.

Background: Clinical symptoms of Parkinson disease (PD) included both motor and nonmotor symptoms. Previous studies indicated inconsistent results for the therapeutic effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on motor and depression in PD. The study aimed to assess the therapeutic effect of rTMS with different mode on motor and depression in PD using a meta-analysis.

Methods: Articles published before July 2019 were searched based on the following databases (PubMed, Web of Science, Medline, Embase, and Google Scholar). The therapeutic effects were assessed by computing the standard mean difference (SMD) and a 95% confidence interval (CI).

Results: The present study indicated that rTMS showed significant therapeutic effects on motor in PD (SMD 2.05, 95% CI 1.57-2.53, I = 93.0%, P < .001). Both high-frequency (HF)-rTMS and low-frequency rTMS showed therapeutic effects on motor; stimulation over primary motor cortex (M1), supplementary motor area, dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) or M1+DLPFC showed therapeutic effects; stimulation during "on" and "off" states showed therapeutic effects; the study showed long-term effect of rTMS on motor in PD. In addition, the study indicated that rTMS showed significant therapeutic effects on depression in PD (SMD 0.80, 95% CI 0.31-1.29, I = 89.1%, P < .001). Stimulation over left DLPFC showed significant therapeutic effects on depression in PD; only HF-rTMS showed therapeutic effects; ages, disease durations, numbers of pulses, and session durations displayed influence on the therapeutic effects of rTMS on depression in PD; the therapeutic effects on depression was long term. However, no significant difference in therapeutic effects on depression were showed between rTMS and oral Fluoxetine (SMD 0.74, 95% CI -0.83 to 2.31, I = 92.5%, P < .001).

Conclusion: The rTMS showed significant therapeutic effects on motor in PD. HF-rTMS showed a significant positive antidepressive effect in PD only over DLPFC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000019642DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7440210PMC
May 2020

Reduction of Silent Information Regulator 1 Activates Interleukin-33/ST2 Signaling and Contributes to Neuropathic Pain Induced by Spared Nerve Injury in Rats.

Front Mol Neurosci 2020 12;13:17. Epub 2020 Feb 12.

Department of Rehabilitation, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Emerging studies have demonstrated that interleukin (IL)-33 and its receptor ST2 act as key factors in inflammatory diseases. Moreover, accumulating evidence has suggested that cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and IL-1β, trigger an inflammatory cascade. SIRT1 has been shown to suppress the expression of inflammatory cytokines. However, the effects of SIRT1 on IL-33/ST2 signaling and initiation of the inflammatory cascade modulation of TNF-α and IL-1β by IL-33 remain unclear. In the present study, we found that the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) IL-33 and ST2 were upregulated in a rat model of spared nerve injury (SNI) and intrathecal injection of either IL-33 or ST2 antibodies alleviated mechanical allodynia and downregulated TNF-α and IL-1β induced by SNI. In addition, activation of SIRT1 decreased enhanced DRG IL-33/ST2 signaling in SNI rats. Artificial inactivation of SIRT1 intrathecal injection of an SIRT1 antagonist could induce mechanical allodynia and upregulate IL-33 and ST2. These results demonstrated that reduction in SIRT1 could induce upregulation of DRG IL-33 and ST2 and contribute to mechanical allodynia induced by SNI in rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnmol.2020.00017DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7028692PMC
February 2020

Electroacupuncture ameliorate learning and memory by improving N-acetylaspartate and glutamate metabolism in APP/PS1 mice.

Biol Res 2018 Jul 6;51(1):21. Epub 2018 Jul 6.

College of Rehabilitation Medicine, Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Fuzhou, 350122, Fujian, People's Republic of China.

Objective: To explore the precise mechanism of electroacupuncture (EA) to delay cognitive impairment in Alzheimer disease.

Methods: N-Acetylaspartate (NAA), glutamate (Glu) and myoinositol (mI) metabolism were measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy, learning and memory of APP/PS1 mouse was evaluated by the Morris water maze test and the step-down avoidance test, neuron survival number and neuronal structure in the hippocampus were observed by Nissl staining, and BDNF and phosphorylated TrkB detected by Western blot.

Results: EA at DU20 acupuncture significantly improve learning and memory in behavioral tests, up-regulate NAA, Glu and mI metabolism, increase the surviving neurons in hippocampus, and promote the expression of BDNF and TrkB in the APP/PS1 transgenic mice.

Conclusion: These findings suggested that EA is a potential therapeutic for ameliorate cognitive dysfunction, and it might be due to EA could improve NAA and Glu metabolism by upregulation of BDNF in APP/PS1 mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40659-018-0166-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6034239PMC
July 2018

The role of insula-cerebellum connection underlying aversive regulation with acupuncture.

Mol Pain 2018 Jan-Dec;14:1744806918783457. Epub 2018 Jun 19.

2 Department of Medical Imaging, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China.

Acupuncture at pericardium 6 (PC6) shows a consistently positive efficacy in nausea response suggested by consensus expert guidelines. Nausea encompasses aversive symptom as well as strong emotional components. Disgust is a subjective emotion of uneasy commonly accompanying with a physiological response that is accompanied by strong visceral sensations (e.g., nausea). Understanding the brain circuitry by which acupuncture influences the disgust emotion may further elucidate the modulation effect of acupuncture on aversive experience. In the present study, a well-established aversive conditioning model on healthy subjects was combined with acupuncture intervention at PC6, as well as different acupoints (both local PC7 and distant GB37) as separate controls, to investigate the brain network involved aversive regulation with acupuncture; 48 healthy subjects were enrolled and randomized into four parallel groups: group 1 received disgust-induced (DI) stimuli only; groups 2, 3, and 4 received acupuncture at three single acupoints separately prior to the DI. Disgust sensations were rated at baseline and following disgust stimuli. Acupuncture PC6 can induce significant attenuations in disgust sensations than that of no intervention and acupuncture at other acupoints. Neuroimaging further showed that increased causal interaction strength between the cerebellum (nodulus) and insula can predict greater attenuations in aversive experiences. We also found evidence for radical reorganizations of local stronger casual interaction patterns to disgust-induced brain responses targeted by acupuncture at different acupoints. This study provided the brain substrate for acupuncture on aversion modulation. The coupling between the cerebellum (nodulus) and insula supported interoception system and vestibular control which provided the specific neural basis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1744806918783457DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6077882PMC
October 2018

Trends in gynaecological cancers in the largest obstetrics and gynaecology hospital in China from 2003 to 2013.

Tumour Biol 2015 Jul 4;36(7):4961-6. Epub 2015 Feb 4.

The Hospital of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Fudan University, 419 Fangxie Road, Shanghai, China.

The incidence and the trend of gynaecological cancers have been suggested to vary by ethnicity and geographical regions. Whether the incidence and type of gynaecological cancers in China is different have not been fully investigated. In this study, we reported the trend of gynaecological cancers in China. Data on 13,518 women with gynaecological cancers were collected from the largest obstetrics and gynaecology hospital in China from 2003 to 2013. Data included age at diagnosis and the annual number of women with diagnosed endometrial, ovarian, cervical cancer and other gynaecological cancers. The number of women with diagnosed gynaecological cancers increased by almost sixfold in 2013 compared to that in 2003. It was largely due to the increase of women with newly diagnosed cervical cancer. The percentage of women with endometrial and ovarian cancer within total gynaecological cancers was decreased, whilst the percentage of cervical cancer significantly increased between 2003 and 2013. The mean age of women with endometrial or ovarian cancer at diagnosis was 53 or 48 years, respectively, which was no difference over 11 years. However, the mean age of women with cervical cancer at diagnosis was significantly delayed from 42 years in 2003 to 46 years since 2011. This was also confirmed by the age-specific distribution of gynaecological cancers over 11 years. Our study found that the age onset of endometrial and ovarian cancer has not changed over 11 years. But the age onset of cervical cancer is delayed since 2011 in China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13277-015-3143-6DOI Listing
July 2015

Acupuncture at the Taixi (KI3) acupoint activates cerebral neurons in elderly patients with mild cognitive impairment.

Neural Regen Res 2014 Jun;9(11):1163-8

College of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, Guangxi University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Nanning, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China.

Our previous findings have demonstrated that acupuncture at the Taixi (KI3) acupoint in healthy youths can activate neurons in cognitive-related cerebral cortex. Here, we investigated whether acupuncture at this acupoint in elderly patients with mild cognitive impairment can also activate neurons in these regions. Resting state and task-related functional magnetic resonance imaging showed that the pinprick senstation of acupuncture at the Taixi acupoint differed significantly between elderly patients with mild cognitive impairment and healthy elderly controls. Results showed that 20 brain regions were activated in both groups of participants, including the bilateral anterior cingulate gyrus (Brodmann areas [BA] 32, 24), left medial frontal cortex (BA 9, 10, 11), left cuneus (BA 19), left middle frontal gyrus (BA 11), left lingual gyrus (BA 18), right medial frontal gyrus (BA 11), bilateral inferior frontal gyrus (BA 47), left superior frontal gyrus (BA11), right cuneus (BA 19, 18), right superior temporal gyrus (BA 38), left subcallosal gyrus (BA 47), bilateral precuneus (BA 19), right medial frontal gyrus (BA 10), right superior frontal (BA 11), left cingulate gyrus (BA 32), left precentral gyrus (BA 6), and right fusiform gyrus (BA 19). These results suggest that acupuncture at the Taixi acupoint in elderly patients with mild cognitive impairment can also activate some brain regions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/1673-5374.135319DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4146092PMC
June 2014

Acupuncture Induces Time-Dependent Remodelling Brain Network on the Stable Somatosensory First-Ever Stroke Patients: Combining Diffusion Tensor and Functional MR Imaging.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2014 2;2014:740480. Epub 2014 Jul 2.

School of Chinese Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, 10 Sassoon Road, Pokfulam, Hong Kong ; Center for Integrative Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Maryland, 520 W. Lombard Street, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA.

Different treatment interventions induce distinct remodelling of network architecture of entire motor system. Acupuncture has been proved to be of a promising efficacy in motor recovery. However, it is still unclear whether the reorganization of motor-related brain network underlying acupuncture is related with time since stroke and severity of deficit at baseline. The aim of study was to characterize the relation between motor-related brain organization following acupuncture and white matter microstructural changes at an interval of two weeks. We demonstrated that acupuncture induced differential reorganization of motor-related network for stroke patients as time-lapse since stroke. At the baseline, acupuncture can induce the increased functional connectivity between the left primary motor cortex (M1) and the right M1, premotor cortex, supplementary motor area (SMA), thalamus, and cerebellum. After two-week recovery, the increased functional connectivity of the left M1 was more widely distributed and primarily located in the insula, cerebellum, basal ganglia, and SMA. Furthermore, a significant negative relation existed between the FA value in the left M1 at the baseline scanning and node centrality of this region following acupuncture for both baseline and two-week recovery. Our findings may shed a new insight on understanding the reorganization of motor-related theory underlying motor impairments after brain lesions in stroke patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/740480DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4101930PMC
August 2014

Exploring the patterns of acupuncture on mild cognitive impairment patients using regional homogeneity.

PLoS One 2014 26;9(6):e99335. Epub 2014 Jun 26.

Key Laboratory of Molecular Imaging and Functional Imaging, Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; Life Sciences Research Center, School of Life Sciences and Technology, Xidian University, Xi'an, Shaanxi, China.

Purpose: To investigate the different responses to acupuncture in MCI patients and age-matched healthy subjects reflected by the Regional Homogeneity (ReHo) indices.

Methods: The experiment was performed at the acupoint KI3 in 12 MCI patients and 12 healthy controls, respectively. A novel non-repeated event-related (NRER) fMRI design paradigm was applied to separately detect neural activities related to different stages of acupuncture (pre-acupuncture resting state, needling manipulation and post-acupuncture resting state). ReHo values were calculated for MCI patients and healthy controls in pre- and post-acupuncture resting state. Then, a two-way ANCOVA with repeated measures with post-hoc two sample t-tests was performed to explore the different responses to acupuncture in the two groups.

Results: The ANCOVA revealed a significant main effect of group, but no significant main effect of acupuncture and interactions between group and acupuncture. During the pre-acupuncture resting state, ReHo values increased in the precentral gyrus (PCG), superior frontal gyrus (SFG), and insula (INS) and decreased mainly in middle temporal gyrus (MTG), parahippocampal (PHIP) and cingulate cortex in MCI patients compared with healthy controls. Furthermore, we found that the regions including precuneus (PCUN), and cingulate cortex showed increased ReHo values for MCI patients following acupuncture. For healthy controls, the medial frontal gyrus, PCG, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and INS showed enhanced ReHo values following acupuncture. During the post-acupuncture resting state, MCI patients showed increased ReHo values mainly in the MTG, superior parietal lobule (SPL), middle frontal gyrus (MFG), supramarginal (SMG), and PCG, and decreased ReHo values mainly in the frontal regions, PHIP, and posterior cingulated cortex (PCC) compared to healthy controls.

Conclusion: Though we found some ReHo changes between MCI patients and healthy controls, the two-way ANCOVA results showed no significant effects after multiple corrections. Further study is needed to reveal the real acupuncture effects on MCI patients.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0099335PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4072601PMC
October 2015

Multivariate granger causality analysis of acupuncture effects in mild cognitive impairment patients: an FMRI study.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2013 19;2013:127271. Epub 2013 Aug 19.

Baoan Hospital, Southern Medical University, Shenzhen 518101, China.

Evidence from clinical reports has indicated that acupuncture has a promising effect on mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, it is still unknown that by what way acupuncture can modulate brain networks involving the MCI. In the current study, multivariate Granger causality analysis (mGCA) was adopted to compare the interregional effective connectivity of brain networks by varying needling depths (deep acupuncture, DA; superficial acupuncture, SA) and at different cognitive states, which were the MCI and healthy control (HC). Results from DA at KI3 in MCI showed that the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and hippocampus emerged as central hubs and had significant causal influences with each other, but significant in HC for DA. Moreover, only several brain regions had remarkable causal interactions following SA in MCI and even few brain regions following SA in HC. Our results indicated that acupuncture at KI3 at different cognitive states and with varying needling depths may induce distinct reorganizations of effective connectivities of brain networks, and DA at KI3 in MCI can induce the strongest and more extensive effective connectivities related to the therapeutic effect of acupuncture in MCI. The study demonstrated the relatively functional specificity of acupuncture at KI3 in MCI, and needling depths play an important role in acupuncture treatments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/127271DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3760118PMC
September 2013

Characterizing acupuncture de qi in mild cognitive impairment: relations with small-world efficiency of functional brain networks.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2013 11;2013:304804. Epub 2013 Jul 11.

The Key Laboratory of Biomedical Information Engineering, Ministry of Education, Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Life Science and Technology, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049, China.

As an intermediate state between normal aging and dementia, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) became a hot topic and early treatments can improve disease prognosis. Acupuncture is shown to have possible effect in improving its cognitive defect. However, the underlying neural mechanism of acupuncture and relations between De Qi and different needling depths are still elusive. The present study aimed to explore how acupuncture can exert effect on the reorganization of MCI and to what extent needling depths, associating with De Qi sensations, can influence the acupuncture effects for MCI treatment. Our results presented that MCI patients exhibited losses of small-world attributes indicated by longer characteristic path lengths and larger clustering coefficients, compared with healthy controls. In addition, acupuncture with deep needling can induce much stronger and a wide range of De Qi sensations both in intensity and prevalence. Acupuncture with deep needling showed modulatory effect to compensate the losses of small-world attributes existed in MCI patients while acupuncture with superficial needling did not. Furthermore, acupuncture with deep needling enhanced the nodal centrality primarily in the abnormal regions of MCI including the hippocampus, postcentral cortex as well as anterior cingulate cortex. This study provides evidence to understand neural mechanism underlying acupuncture and the key role of De Qi for MCI treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/304804DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3725922PMC
August 2013

Nogo-A is associated with secondary degeneration of substantia nigra in hypertensive rats with focal cortical infarction.

Brain Res 2012 Aug 4;1469:153-63. Epub 2012 Jul 4.

Department of Neurology, The Affiliated Shenzhen Bao'an Hospital of Nanfang Medical College, No. 118 Longjing Road 2, Shenzhen 518101, China.

We investigated the association of Nogo-A protein, a myelin-associated inhibitor of axon regeneration, with secondary damage of the ipsilateral substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) after distal middle cerebral artery occlusion (dMCAO) in adult stroke-prone, renovascular hypertensive rats. Intracerebroventricular infusion of NEP1-40, a Nogo-66 receptor antagonist peptide, or vehicle was administered starting 24h after dMCAO and continued for 1, 2, or 4 weeks. The expression of Nogo-A in the ipsilateral SNr was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Neuron death and apoptosis were evaluated using Nissl and terminal uridine nick-end labeling (TUNEL) staining. Glial activation was monitored by immunoreactivity of glial fibrillary acidic protein and the oligodendrocyte marker RIP. Axonal damage and regeneration were determined by Bielschowsky's silver staining and immunoreactivity of growth associated protein 43 and microtubule associated protein 2. We found progressive damage in the center of the ipsilateral SNr through 4 weeks after dMCAO. The neuronal loss was topographically related to axonal degeneration that occurred indirectly from the infarcted cortex. Nogo-A protein in oligodendrocytes was persistently increased in the damaged SNr. Administration of NEP1-40 inhibited Nogo-A expression, the loss of neurons, apoptosis, and proliferation of oligodendrocytes and astrocytes. It also boosted the regenerative response of injured axons and encouraged compensatory neurite growth in the ipsilateral SNr. Our data suggest that secondary damage in the ipsilateral SNr may be due to trans-synaptic axonal degeneration that followed the cortical infarct. Further, we showed that Nogo-A is involved in axonal degeneration, and NEP1-40 reduces secondary nigral damage after focal cortical ischemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2012.06.040DOI Listing
August 2012

FMRI connectivity analysis of acupuncture effects on the whole brain network in mild cognitive impairment patients.

Magn Reson Imaging 2012 Jun 27;30(5):672-82. Epub 2012 Mar 27.

Medical Image Processing Group, Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China.

The increased risk for the elderly with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to progress to Alzheimer's disease makes it an appropriate condition for investigation. While the use of acupuncture as a complementary therapeutic method for treating MCI is popular in certain parts of the world, the underlying mechanism is still elusive. We sought to investigate the acupuncture effects on the functional connectivity throughout the entire brain in MCI patients compared to healthy controls (HC). The functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment was performed with two different paradigms, namely, deep acupuncture (DA) and superficial acupuncture (SA), at acupoint KI3. We first identified regions showing abnormal functional connectivity in the MCI group compared to HC during the resting state and subsequently tested whether these regions could be modulated by acupuncture. Then, we made the comparison of MCI vs. HC to test whether there were any specific modulatory patterns in the poststimulus resting brain between the two groups. Finally, we made the comparisons of DA vs. SA in each group to test the effect of acupuncture with different needling depths. We found the temporal regions (hippocampus, thalamus, fusiform gyrus) showing abnormal functional connectivity during the resting state. These regions are implicated in memory encoding and retrieving. Furthermore, we found significant changes in functional connectivity related with the abnormal regions in MCI patients following acupuncture. Compared to HC, the correlations related with the temporal regions were enhanced in the poststimulus resting brain in MCI patients. Compared to SA, significantly increased correlations related with the temporal regions were found for the DA condition. The enhanced correlations in the memory-related brain regions following acupuncture may be related to the purported therapeutically beneficial effects of acupuncture for the treatment of MCI. The heterogeneous modulatory patterns between DA and SA may suggest that deep muscle insertion of acupuncture is necessary to achieve the appreciable clinical effect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mri.2012.01.003DOI Listing
June 2012

Modulatory effects of acupuncture on resting-state networks: a functional MRI study combining independent component analysis and multivariate Granger causality analysis.

J Magn Reson Imaging 2012 Mar 8;35(3):572-81. Epub 2011 Nov 8.

Medical Image Processing Group, Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

Purpose: To investigate acupuncture specificity by exploring causal relationships of brain networks following acupuncture at GB40 (Qiuxu), with the acupoint KI3 (Taixi) as a control (belonging to the same nerve segment but different meridians).

Materials And Methods: Needling at acupoints GB40 and KI3 was performed in 12 subjects separately. The specific coherent patterns, resting-state networks (RSNs), were retrieved by independent component analysis (ICA) from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data of resting state and post-acupuncture resting states, respectively. Then multivariate Granger causality analysis (mGCA) was applied to evaluate the effective connectivity within and among the detected RSNs-default model, memory, executive, auditory, and motor brain networks.

Results: Following acupuncture at GB40, the strength of causal connectivity between the superior temporal gyrus (STG) and anterior insula was enhanced, while the connection strength between the STG and postcentral gyrus increased following acupuncture at KI3. Additionally, the causal influences within the auditory network increased following acupuncture at GB40, in comparison with the executive network following acupuncture at KI3.

Conclusion: The current study demonstrates that acupuncture at different acupoints could exert different modulatory effects on RSNs. Our findings may help to understand the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying acupuncture specificity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmri.22887DOI Listing
March 2012

Neural specificity of acupuncture stimulation from support vector machine classification analysis.

Magn Reson Imaging 2011 Sep 29;29(7):943-50. Epub 2011 Apr 29.

Life Sciences Research Center, School of Life Sciences and Technology, Xidian University, Xi'an 710071, China.

Acupoint specificity, as a crucial issue in acupuncture neuroimaging studies, is still a controversial topic. Previous studies have generally adopted a block-based general linear model (GLM) approach, which predicts the temporal changes in the blood oxygenation level-dependent signal conforming to the "on-off" specifications. However, this method might become impractical since the precise timing and duration of acupuncture actions cannot be specified a priori. In the current study, we applied a data-driven multivariate classification approach, namely, support vector machine (SVM), to explore the neural specificity of acupuncture at gall bladder 40 (GB40) using kidney 3 (KI3) as a control condition (belonging to different meridians but the same nerve segment). In addition, to verify whether the typical GLM approach is sensitive enough in exploring the neural response patterns evoked by acupuncture, we also employed the GLM method to the same data sets. The SVM analysis detected distinct neural response patterns between GB40 and KI3--positive predominantly for the GB40, while negative following the KI3. By contrast, group analysis from the GLM showed that acupuncture at these different acupoints can both evoke similar widespread signal decreases in multiple brain regions, and most of these regions were spatially overlapped, mainly distributing in the limbic and subcortical structures. Our findings may provide additional evidence to support the specificity of acupuncture, relevant to its clinical efficacy. Moreover, we also proved that GLM analysis is prone to be susceptible to errors and is not appropriate for detecting neural response patterns evoked by acupuncture stimulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mri.2011.03.003DOI Listing
September 2011
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