Publications by authors named "Shan Zhu"

293 Publications

Abnormal bile acid metabolism is an important feature of gut microbiota and fecal metabolites in patients with slow transit constipation.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2022 28;12:956528. Epub 2022 Jul 28.

School of Integrative Medicine, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin, China.

Destructions in the intestinal ecosystem are implicated with changes in slow transit constipation (STC), which is a kind of intractable constipation characterized by colonic motility disorder. In order to deepen the understanding of the structure of the STC gut microbiota and the relationship between the gut microbiota and fecal metabolites, we first used 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing to evaluate the gut microbiota in 30 STC patients and 30 healthy subjects. The α-diversity of the STC group was changed to a certain degree, and the β-diversity was significantly different, which indicated that the composition of the gut microbiota of STC patients was inconsistent with healthy subjects. Among them, Bacteroides, Parabacteroides, Desulfovibrionaceae, and Ruminiclostridium were significantly upregulated, while Subdoligranulum was significantly downregulated. The metabolomics showed that different metabolites between the STC and the control group were involved in the process of bile acids and lipid metabolism, including taurocholate, taurochenodeoxycholate, taurine, deoxycholic acid, cyclohexylsulfamate, cholic acid, chenodeoxycholate, arachidonic acid, and 4-pyridoxic acid. We found that the colon histomorphology of STC patients was significantly disrupted, and TGR5 and FXR were significantly downregulated. The differences in metabolites were related to changes in the abundance of specific bacteria and patients' intestinal dysfunction. Analysis of the fecal genomics and metabolomics enabled separation of the STC from controls based on random forest model prediction [STC . control (14 gut microbiota and metabolite biomarkers)-Sensitivity: 1, Specificity: 0.877]. This study provided a perspective for the diagnosis and intervention of STC related with abnormal bile acid metabolism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2022.956528DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9366892PMC
August 2022

Glycyrrhetinic acid regulates impaired macrophage autophagic flux in the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

Front Immunol 2022 28;13:959495. Epub 2022 Jul 28.

School of Integrative Medicine, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin, China.

Macrophages are involved in hepatocyte steatosis and necroinflammation and play an important role in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Impaired autophagy function (decreased autophagy or blocked autophagic flow) leads to cell damage and death and promotes NAFLD progression. The experimental and clinical research of glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) in the treatment of NAFLD has gradually attracted attention with clear pharmacological activities such as immune regulation, antiviral, antitumor, antioxidant, liver protection, and anti-inflammatory. However, the effects of GA on the STAT3-HIF-1α pathway and autophagy in macrophages are still unclear, and its mechanism of action in the treatment of NAFLD remains to be further elucidated. We constructed a NAFLD mouse model through a high-fat and high-sugar diet to investigate the therapeutic effects of GA. The results showed that GA reduced weight, improved the pathological changes and hepatic lipid deposition of liver, and abnormally elevated the levels of serum biochemical (AST, ALT, TG, T-CHO, LDL-C, and HDL-C) and inflammatory indexes (IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, MCP-1, and TNF-α) in NAFLD mice. Further examination revealed that GA ameliorates excessive hepatic macrophage infiltration and hepatocyte apoptosis. The results of the cell experiments further elaborated that GA modulated the PA-induced macrophage STAT3-HIF-1α pathway and ameliorated impaired autophagic flux (blockade of autophagosome-lysosome fusion) and overactivation of inflammation. Excessive hepatocyte apoptosis caused by the uncontrolled release of inflammatory cytokines was also suppressed by GA.

Conclusion: This study demonstrated that GA could regulate the STAT3-HIF-1α pathway of macrophages, ameliorate the impaired autophagy flux, and reduce the excessive production of inflammatory cytokines to improve the excessive apoptosis of liver cells, thus playing a therapeutic role on NAFLD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2022.959495DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9365971PMC
August 2022

[Application value of metagenomic next-generation sequencing for pathogen detection in childhood agranulocytosis with fever].

Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi 2022 Jul;24(7):753-758

Department of Pediatrics, Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha 410008, China.

Objectives: To study the application value of metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) for pathogen detection in childhood agranulocytosis with fever.

Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on the mNGS results of pathogen detection of 116 children with agranulocytosis with fever who were treated from January 2020 to December 2021. Among these children, 38 children with negative mNGS results were enrolled as the negative group, and 78 children with positive results were divided into a bacteria group (=22), a fungal group (=23), and a viral group (=31). Clinical data were compared between groups.

Results: For the 116 children with agranulocytosis and fever, the median age was 8 years at diagnosis, the median turnaround time of mNGS results was 2 days, and the positive rate of mNGS testing was 67.2% (78/116). Compared with the negative group, the bacterial group had a higher procalcitonin level (<0.05), the fungal group had higher level of C-reactive protein and positive rate of (1,3)-β-D glucan test/galactomannan test (<0.05), and the fungal group had a longer duration of fever (<0.05). Among the 22 positive microbial culture specimens, 9 (41%) were consistent with the mNGS results. Among the 17 positive blood culture specimens, 8 (47%) were consistent with the mNGS results. Treatment was adjusted for 28 children (36%) with the mNGS results, among whom 26 were cured and discharged.

Conclusions: The mNGS technique has a shorter turnaround time and a higher sensitivity for pathogen detection and can provide evidence for the pathogenic diagnosis of children with agranulocytosis and fever.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7499/j.issn.1008-8830.2204038DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9336627PMC
July 2022

An extensive theoretical study on the thermochemistry of aromatic compounds: from electronic structure to group additivity values.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2022 Aug 10;24(31):18582-18599. Epub 2022 Aug 10.

School of Energy and Power Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191, P. R. China.

An extensive and reliable database of thermodynamic properties of C-C aromatic molecules is constructed by using quantum chemistry calculations. There are 101 molecules in total, which cover a variety of structures including mono-substituted, di-substituted, and bi-cyclic aromatics which can be important intermediates in the combustion of alkylbenzenes. Based on the database, a consistent set of Benson group additive values (GAV) and non-nearest neighbor interactions (NNI) is developed to extend the applicability of Benson's group additivity method for aromatic molecules. Meanwhile, GAVs of existing groups are also updated to improve their accuracy. Geometry optimizations, and vibrational frequency calculations are conducted at the M06-2X/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory. Internal rotor potentials for lower-frequency modes are obtained at the M06-2X/6-31G level of theory. G3 and G4 compound methods are used to derive the 0 K enthalpies of formation the atomization approach. The entropy and temperature-dependent heat capacity values of all species are calculated the Master Equation System Solver (MESS) code. This work also provides an extensive literature comparison to validate the calculated results, and good agreement is observed with literature data. The correction terms beyond a group range are explored. The NNIs of di-substituted aromatics with substituents including OH, CHO, and CH groups are reported. Entropy reduction is observed in the molecules with two substituents in the position, which mainly derives from the hindered internal rotations. In addition, ring strain corrections (RSC) of dicyclic aromatics are evaluated. The strain energies of molecules with a four-membered side ring are prominently large, as the bond length and bond angle distortions are severely restricted. Ring strain also plays a key role in the C-H bond strength associated with the benzylic carbons in dicyclic aromatics. The loss of a hydrogen atom can destroy the high ring-strain geometry leading to a large C-H bond energy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d2cp01459aDOI Listing
August 2022

Identification of UCP1 and UCP2 as Potential Prognostic Markers in Breast Cancer: A Study Based on Immunohistochemical Analysis and Bioinformatics.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2022 7;10:891731. Epub 2022 Jul 7.

Department of Breast and Thyroid Surgery, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.

Uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) and UCP2 are associated with tumor metabolism and immunity. However, the prognostic value and molecular mechanisms underlying their action in breast cancer (BC) remain unclear. In TCGA-BRCA cohort, we investigated the expression characteristics of UCP mRNAs, analyzed their prognostic value by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, their potential molecular functions by gene set enrichment analysis, and their relationship with immune infiltrating cell types using TIMER and CIBERSORT, along with the assessment of their association with mutational profiles. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was performed for UCPs in our cohort and their association with BC thermogenesis was assessed by thermal tomography. High expression of UCP1 and UCP2 were positive prognostic markers for BC. UCP1 was associated with the impaired glucose metabolism, while UCP2 with enhanced anti-tumor immunity. High expressions of UCP1 and UCP2 were associated with CDH1 mutations. High UCP1 expression was associated with a high rate of thermogenesis in BC. These results implied a key role of UCP1 and UCP2 in prognosis, metabolism, and immune infiltration in BC. Further investigation of the relevant molecular mechanisms may provide new strategies for BC treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2022.891731DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9300932PMC
July 2022

ZSTK474 Sensitizes Glioblastoma to Temozolomide by Blocking Homologous Recombination Repair.

Biomed Res Int 2022 13;2022:8568528. Epub 2022 Jul 13.

Tianjin Key Laboratory on Technologies Enabling Development of Clinical Therapeutics and Diagnostics, School of Pharmacy, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300070, China.

Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary malignant brain tumor in adults. Temozolomide (TMZ) is used as the standard chemotherapeutic agent for GBM but with limited success, and treatment failure is mainly due to tumor resistance. One of the leading causes of TMZ resistance is the upregulation of the DNA repair mechanism. Therefore, targeting the DNA damage response (DDR) is proposed to be an effective strategy to sensitize tumor cells to TMZ. In the present study, we demonstrated that the combined use of the PI3K inhibitor ZSTK474 and TMZ showed synergetic anticancer effects on human GBM cells in vitro and in vivo. The combination treatment led to significantly increased cell apoptosis and DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). In addition, a mechanistic study indicated that TMZ enhanced the homologous recombination (HR) repair efficiency in GBM cells, while ZSTK474 impaired HR repair by blocking the phosphorylation of ATM and the expression of BRCA1/2 and Rad51, thereby sensitizing GBM cells to TMZ. Moreover, TMZ activated the PI3K signaling pathway through upregulation of the PI3K catalytic subunits p110 and p110 and the phosphorylation of Akt. Meanwhile, ZSTK474 blocked the activity of the PI3K/Akt pathway. Taken together, our findings suggested that the combination of ZSTK474 and TMZ might be a potential therapeutic option for GBM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/8568528DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9300311PMC
July 2022

Application of Ontology Matching Algorithm Based on Linguistic Features in English Pronunciation Quality Evaluation.

Authors:
Shan Zhu

Occup Ther Int 2022 28;2022:2734672. Epub 2022 Jun 28.

China University of Petroleum (Huadong), Qingdao, Shandong 266580, China.

Traditional English classroom teaching is difficult to meet the oral learning needs of most learners. Thanks to the continuous advancement of speech processing technology, computer-assisted language learning systems are becoming more intelligent, not only pointing out learners' pronunciation errors but also assessing their overall pronunciation level. . This paper uses the method of tree kernel function to measure the similarity of two ontology trees. According to the features of nodes in ontology tree, methods to calculate the external features and internal features of nodes are proposed, respectively. External features are mainly obtained by calculating the hierarchical centrality, node density, and node coverage of nodes in the ontology tree; internal features are mainly obtained by measuring the richness of internal information. According to the similarity of ontology tree and the external features and internal features of nodes, the calculation formula of structural comprehensive similarity is improved, and the features of ontology itself can be fully considered in the calculation. According to the difference of the structure, the weights of the corresponding features during the calculation are adjusted autonomously, so that the calculation results are closer to reality. In spectral image preprocessing, endpoint detection utilizes the harmonic characteristics presented by narrowband spectrograms with high frequency resolution and eliminates useless nonspeech segments by detecting the presence of voiced segments. When building the neural network model, four convolutional layers, two fully connected layers, and one softmax output layer were conceived, and dropout was used to randomly suspend the work of some neurons to avoid overfitting. . Through the data analysis of mean and variance and verified by one-way analysis of variance, it proves that the sentiment evaluation method in this paper is effective. The traditional multiple linear regression method is not suitable for the corpus and application scenarios of this paper. This paper proposes a decision tree structure, which is similar to the overall scoring process of raters, and uses the Interactive Dicremiser version 3 (ID3) algorithm to build a comprehensive evaluation decision tree for pitch, rhythm, intonation, speech rate, and emotion indicators. It is proved by experiments that the accurate consistency rate of the human-machine evaluation in this paper is 93%, the adjacent consistency rate is 96%, and the Pearson correlation coefficient value of the human-machine evaluation results is 0.89. The data results prove that the evaluation method in this paper is credible.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/2734672DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9256437PMC
July 2022

Corylin from Psoralea fructus (Psoralea corylifolia L.) protects against UV-induced skin aging by activating Nrf2 defense mechanisms.

Phytother Res 2022 Aug 12;36(8):3276-3294. Epub 2022 Jul 12.

Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin, People's Republic of China.

Oxidative stress damage can lead to premature skin aging or age-related skin disorders. Therefore, strategies to improve oxidative stress-induced aging are needed to protect the skin and to treat skin diseases. This study aimed to determine whether the flavonoid corylin derived from Psoralea corylifolia can prevent UV-induced skin aging and if so, to explore the potential molecular mechanisms. We found that corylin potently blocked UV-induced skin photoaging in mice by reducing oxidative stress and increasing the nuclear expression of nuclear factor-erythroid factor 2-related factor 2 Nrf2. We also found that corylin stimulated Nrf2 translocation into the nucleus and increased the delivery of its target antioxidant genes together with Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) to dissociate Nrf2. These findings indicate that corylin could prevent skin aging by inhibiting oxidative stress via Keap1-Nrf2 in mouse cells. Thus, Nrf2 activation might be a therapeutic target for preventing skin aging or skin diseases caused by aging. Our findings also provided evidence that warrants the further investigation of plant ingredients to facilitate the discovery of novel therapies targeting skin aging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.7501DOI Listing
August 2022

Oncological and Reproductive Outcomes in Patients With Advanced-Stage Ovarian Immature Teratoma: Experience From a Tertiary Center.

Front Oncol 2022 22;12:822341. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, National Clinical Research Center for Obstetric and Gynecologic Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

Objective: To evaluate the oncological and reproductive outcomes in patients with advanced-stage ovarian immature teratoma (IMT).

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients with advanced-stage IMT who were treated with surgery between January 1985 and December 2020. Fertility-sparing surgery (FSS) was defined as preservation of the uterus and at least one adnexa. Oncological outcomes were compared between patients who underwent FSS and radical surgery. Patients who underwent FSS were also contacted to gather information about their menstrual history and reproductive outcomes.

Results: Forty-six patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria, of whom 38 underwent FSS and eight were treated with radical surgery. Fifteen patients suffered recurrence after a median follow-up time of 74.2 months (range: 4.1-434.1 months). The 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were 69.1% and 89.9%, respectively. Multivariate analysis identified suboptimal cytoreductive surgery as the only independent risk factor for recurrence. There was no significant difference in DFS or OS between patients with different surgical procedures. Ten of the 15 relapsed patients had optimal salvage surgery and all remained alive with no evidence disease. Among the 32 patients who underwent FSS, 29 resumed menstruation after surgery, and five of seven patients who designed pregnancy achieved a total of five successful pregnancies.

Conclusions: Ovarian IMT has a favorable prognosis, even when diagnosed at an advanced stage. FSS is feasible in patients with advanced-stage IMT who wish to preserve their fertility. Patients may benefit from optimal cytoreductive surgery during initial and salvage surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2022.822341DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9257032PMC
June 2022

Sideburn Reconstruction Using a Pre-Expanded Island Scalp Flap Based on the Parietal Branch of Superficial Temporal Vessels.

J Craniofac Surg 2022 Jun 29. Epub 2022 Jun 29.

Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Plastic Surgery Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Peking Union Medical college, Beijing, China.

Abstract: Sideburns are crucial for head and face esthetics. Absence of sideburns is associated with physical and psychological consequences. Many methods have been described for sideburn reconstruction; however, characteristics of the ideal method include optimal vascularization, ideal hair density, natural hair growth, and facial symmetry with minimum donor-site morbidity. In this study, the authors describe a novel method of sideburn reconstruction using a pre-expanded island scalp flap based on the parietal branch of the superficial temporal artery. Between February 2012 and December 2020, 9 patients underwent sideburn reconstruction surgery that involved 2 stages. During the first stage, an appropriately sized tissue expander was inserted underneath the scalp. After sufficient inflation of the expander, at the second stage, an island scalp flap based on the parietal branch of the superficial temporal vessels was elevated to reconstruct the sideburns. The mean size of the defects was 8 × 4.4 cm (range, 6 × 3-12 × 5 cm), whereas the average flap dimension was 10.22 × 5.67 cm (range, 8 × 4-13 × 8 cm). All flaps survived completely without any perfusion-related complications. Patients were followed up after surgery, ranging from 4 to 34 months (mean, 15.67 months). All patients and/or their parents were satisfied with the final appearance in terms of hair density, hair growth direction, and facial symmetry. Although a 2-stage procedure, this novel technique allows the reconstruction of a new sideburn with natural growth and orientation of the hair and minimal morbidity for patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SCS.0000000000008673DOI Listing
June 2022

Use of Serial Flap Transfer Technique in En Bloc Reconstruction of Extensive Soft Tissue Defects in the Head and Neck.

J Craniofac Surg 2022 May 12;33(3):809-813. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Plastic Surgery Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Peking Union Medical College, Shijingshan District, Beijing, china.

Abstract: En bloc reconstruction of extensive head and neck defects is feasible with matched tissue from the medial arm or chest. Nevertheless, the donor site faces significant morbidity following massive cutaneous flap harvesting. The serial flap transfer technique can increase the reconstructive ability of these flaps and minimize the donor site morbidity. A retrospective review was conducted from 2016 to 2020 on all patients who had undergone extensive head and neck reconstruction with the serial flap transfer technique. En bloc reconstruction of defects in the head and neck was performed using expanded perforator-plus flaps from the medial arm or chest; various flaps from the back were used to close the donor-site defects. Flap type, flap survival, complications, and revision procedures were assessed. This case series included 16 patients. The donor site of the chest or medial arm was successfully closed with the assistance of the thoracodorsal artery perforator flap, the latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap, ortheparascapular flap. A medial arm flap with a width of 15 cm and a chest flap with a 16 cm width could be transferred with the primary closure of the donor sites. All flaps survived, except 1 had marginal necrosis. Complications occurred in 2 patients and were successfully managed nonsurgically. Both the recipient and donor sites were restored with good aesthetic results. Application of the serial flap transfer technique in extensive head and neck reconstruction decreases the donor site morbidity to a minimum and improves the overall outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SCS.0000000000007682DOI Listing
May 2022

A Comparison of Handheld Doppler and Indocyanine Green Angiography for Perforator Localization.

Ann Plast Surg 2022 07 28;89(1):89-94. Epub 2022 May 28.

From the Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Plastic Surgery Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

Background: The preoperative identification of perforators is critical to the success of perforator flaps. Several technologies, including handheld Doppler (HHD) and indocyanine green angiography (ICGA), facilitate this process; however, each technology comes with unique downsides. This study directly compares the performance of HHD and ICGA in preoperative perforator identification and measures the effects of flap thickness and body mass index (BMI) on perforator localization.

Method: Data from preoperative HHD and ICGA assessments were compared with the criterion standard of intraoperative perforator localization. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and positive predictive values were calculated for both and correlated with flap thickness and BMI.

Results: Thirty flaps were transferred in 30 patients across 15 different donor sites. Indocyanine green angiography had higher sensitivity, accuracy, and positive predictive value (79.2%, 74.2%, and 87.5%, respectively) than HHD (55.6%, 46.6%, and 69.4%, respectively). Perforators detected by ICGA were used as flap pedicles in 21 cases compared with 13 with HHD. There were no correlations between HHD or ICGA performance and patient BMI (both P > 0.05). Increasing flap thickness was negatively correlated with the accuracy of ICGA ( P = 0.001) but not HHD ( P > 0.05).

Conclusions: Indocyanine green angiography was more sensitive, specific, and accurate than HHD in identifying perforators across various donor sites; however, its performance suffered in thicker flaps, whereas HHD did not. Patient BMI was not correlated with the performance of either technology. Additional research can further delineate the interrelationships of flap thickness and technologies for perforator localization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SAP.0000000000003203DOI Listing
July 2022

Inclusion of a latissimus dorsi segment in an extended lower trapezius musculocutaneous flap facilitates complex defect reconstruction.

J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 2022 Apr 30. Epub 2022 Apr 30.

Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Plastic Surgery Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Peking Union Medical College, No. 33 Ba-Da-Chu Road, Beijing, 100144, China. Electronic address:

The pedicled lower trapezius musculocutaneous flap (LTMF) can extend far beyond the lateral border of the trapezius muscle, with a reliable blood supply. However, the distal part of the extended LTMF lacks a muscular component, limiting its usage in complex defect reconstruction, which often requires obliteration of dead space and coverage of vital structures. To overcome this limitation, we modified the LTMF by adding a segment of latissimus dorsi muscle (LDM). Between 2014 and 2021, the modified extended LTMF was used to reconstruct complex defects in the head, neck, shoulder, and contralateral chest wall and back in 19 patients. By preserving the interconnections between the branches of the posterior intercostal arteries, we were able to include various amounts of LDM within the extended LTMF. The LDM component was used to obliterate dead space and repair wounds involving cerebrospinal fluid leakage, infection, radioactive osteomyelitis, exposed carotid artery, lung, and implant materials. The average flap size was 30.7 cm × 10.9 cm (range: 25 × 8 cm-40 × 14 cm). The average size of the LDM was 113.9 cm (range: 27.7-216.6 cm). Partial flap necrosis occurred in two patients and the secondary defects were reconstructed using a local flap. The remaining 17 flaps survived completely. The LTMF carrying a segment of the LDM could be considered for patients undergoing reconstruction of complex defects in the head, neck, shoulder, and contralateral chest wall and back and for patients who are ineligible for free flap reconstruction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bjps.2022.04.053DOI Listing
April 2022

The Nanostructured lipid carrier gel of Oroxylin A reduced UV-induced skin oxidative stress damage.

Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2022 Aug 17;216:112578. Epub 2022 May 17.

State Key laboratory of Component Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin 301617, China; Engineering Research Center of Modern Chinese Medicine Discovery and Preparation Technique, Ministry of Education, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin 301617, China. Electronic address:

Oxidative stress damage caused by sun exposure damages the appearance and function of the skin, which is one of the essential inducements of skin aging and even leads to skin cancer. Oroxylin A (OA) is a flavonoid with excellent antioxidant activity and has protective effects against photoaging induced by UV irradiation. However, the strong barrier function of the skin stratum corneum prevents transdermal absorption of the drug, which limits the application of OA in dermal drug delivery. Studies have shown that nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) can promote not only transdermal absorption of drugs but also increase drug stability and control drug release efficiency, which has broad prospects for clinical applications. In this paper, NLC loaded with OA (OA-NLC) was prepared in order to improve the skin permeability and stability of OA. In vitro studies revealed that OA-NLC had better therapeutic effects than OA solution (OA-Sol) in the cellular model of UVB radiation. OA-Sol and OA-NLC were immobilized in a hydrogel matrix to facilitate application to the dorsal skin of mice. It was found that OA-NLC-gel showed significant antioxidant and anti-apoptotic activity compared to OA-Sol-gel, which was able to protect against skin damage in mice after UV radiation. These results suggest that OA-NLC can improve the deficiencies of OA in skin delivery and show better resistance to UV-induced oxidative damage. The application of OA-NLC to skin delivery systems has good prospects and deserves further development and investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfb.2022.112578DOI Listing
August 2022

Tunable Cherenkov radiation based on a van der Waals semiconductor α-MoO and graphene hybrid.

Opt Lett 2022 May;47(10):2458-2461

In this Letter, we explore the Cherenkov radiation properties of α-phase molybdenum trioxide (α-MoO). We demonstrate that the asymmetric, forward, and reverse Cherenkov radiation can simultaneously exist by rotating the α-MoO slab at the same working frequency and structure. In addition, thanks to the tunable functionalities of graphene, the conversion of forward and reverse Cherenkov radiation can be actualized by altering the Fermi level of graphene. These dynamically adjustable features provide a novel, to the best of our knowledge, and intuitive way for tunable Cherenkov radiation in the mid-infrared range, which opens up new opportunities in designing and manufacturing tunable radiation sources in future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.456998DOI Listing
May 2022

Evolution of osmosensing OSCA1 Ca channel family coincident with plant transition from water to land.

Plant Genome 2022 06 3;15(2):e20198. Epub 2022 May 3.

Dep. of Biology, Duke Univ., Durham, NC, 27708, USA.

Water is crucial to plant growth, development, and environmental adaptation. Water stress triggers cytosolic Ca ([Ca ] ) increases, and the osmosensor OSCA1 (REDUCED-HYPEROSMOLALITY-INDUCED-[Ca ] -INCREASE 1), a member of the OSCA family, perceives the initial water stress and governs its downstream responses. OSCA homologs exist in eukaryotes and largely radiate in higher plants. However, it is enigmatic whether the OSCA family is crucial for plant evolution from aqueous to terrestrial environments and for the subsequent adaptation on land. Here, we carried out the first phylogenetic and molecular evolutionary analyses of the OSCA family. The family originated and diversified during the early evolution of protists, and three more lineages were established (a) in plants, (b) in fungi, and (c) in a complex clade of several major eukaryotic lineages. The chlorophyte algal cluster is directly basal to streptophyte-specific Clades 1-3, consistent with plant transition from water to land. The Clades 1-3 present different gene expansion pattern and together with previous functional analysis of OSCAs reveal that they probably have evolved diverse functions in respond to various mechanical stresses during the independent evolution of land plant clades. Moreover, variable selection pressures on different land plant lineages were explored. OSCAs in early land plants (mosses and lycophytes) were under decelerated evolution, whereas OSCAs in seed plants showed accelerated evolution. Together, we hypothesize OSCAs have evolved to sense water stress in the ancestor of euphyllophytes, which occupies typical leaves, typical roots, and phloem tissues, all of which require osmosensors to maintain water balance and food conduction through plant bodies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/tpg2.20198DOI Listing
June 2022

Genomic and TCR profiling data reveal the distinct molecular traits in epithelial ovarian cancer histotypes.

Oncogene 2022 05 25;41(22):3093-3103. Epub 2022 Apr 25.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, National Clinical Research Centre for Obstetric and Gynecologic Diseases, State Key Laboratory of Complex Severe and Rare Diseases, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is classified into five major histotypes: high-grade serous (HGSOC), low-grade serous (LGSOC), clear cell (CCOC), endometrioid (ENOC), and mucinous (MOC). However, the landscape of molecular and immunological alterations in these histotypes, especially LGSOC, CCOC, ENOC, and MOC, is largely uncharacterized. We collected 101 treatment-naive EOC patients. The resected tumor tissues and paired preoperative peripheral blood samples were collected and subjected to target sequencing of 1021 cancer-associated genes and T cell repertoire sequencing. Distinct characteristics of mutations were identified among the five histotypes. Furthermore, tumor mutation burden (TMB) was found to be higher in CCOC and ENOC, but lower in LGSOC and HGSOC. Alterations associated with DNA damage repair (DDR) pathways and homologous recombination deficiencies (HRD) were prevalent in five histotypes. CCOC demonstrated increased level of T cell clonality compared with HSGOC. Interestingly, the proportion of the 100 most common T cell clones was associated with TMB and tumor neoantigen burden in CCOC, highlighting more sensitive anti-tumor responses in this histotype, which was also evidenced by the enhanced convergent recombination of T cell clones. These findings shed light on the molecular traits of genomic alteration and T cell repertoire in the five major EOC histotypes and may help optimize clinical management of EOC with different histotypes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41388-022-02277-yDOI Listing
May 2022

The miR-145-MMP1 axis is a critical regulator for imiquimod-induced cancer stemness and chemoresistance.

Pharmacol Res 2022 05 28;179:106196. Epub 2022 Mar 28.

Institute of Translational Medicine, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun 130061, China. Electronic address:

Cancer stemness, chemoresistance, and metastasis are related biological events. However, whether they have common molecular mechanisms remains to be determined. Here, we report that imiquimod (IMQ) facilitates the acquisition of stem-cell-like properties and chemoresistance via the upregulation of matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP1) and downregulation of microRNA-145 (miR-145). MiR-145-5p was found to suppress MMP1 expression through direct binding, and miR-145-mediated downregulation of MMP1 reversed the effects of IMQ. In addition, IMQ downregulated miR-145 by promoting DNA methylation at its promoter. DNA methyltransferase inhibitors limited IMQ-induced MMP1 expression, stemness, and chemoresistance. Collectively, our results highlight the miR-145-MMP1 axis as a potential coordinator of cancer stemness and chemoresistance. Given the role of MMP1 in the initiation of metastasis, the miR-145-MMP1 axis serves as a promising therapeutic target for improved cancer treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phrs.2022.106196DOI Listing
May 2022

Interleukin-22 Deficiency Reduces Angiotensin II-Induced Aortic Dissection and Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm in ApoE-/- Mice.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2022 18;2022:7555492. Epub 2022 Mar 18.

Department of Thyroid Breast Surgery, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430060, China.

Background: Our previous study showed that interleukin-22 (IL-22) levels were increased in patients with aortic dissection (AD). This study evaluated the effects of IL-22 on AD/abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) formation in angiotensin II (Ang II)-infused ApoE-/- mice.

Methods: ApoE-/- mice were treated with Ang II for 28 days, and IL-22 expression was examined. In addition, the effects of IL22 deficiency on AAA/AD formation induced by Ang II infusion in ApoE-/- mice were investigated. ApoE-/-IL-22-/- mice were transplanted with bone marrow cells isolated from ApoE-/- mice or ApoE-/-IL-22-/- mice, and AAA/AD formation was observed.

Results: IL-22 expression was increased in both the aortas and serum of ApoE-/- mice after Ang II infusion and was mainly derived from aortic CD4+ T lymphocytes (CD4+ TCs). IL-22 deficiency significantly reduced the AAA/AD formation as well as the maximal aortic diameter in Ang II-infused ApoE-/- mice. Decreased elastin fragmentation and reduced fibrosis were observed in the aortas of ApoE-/-IL-22-/- mice compared with ApoE-/- mice. The deletion of IL-22 also decreased aortic M1 macrophage differentiation, alleviated M1 macrophage-induced oxidative stress, and reduced aortic smooth muscle cell loss. Furthermore, M1 macrophage-induced oxidative stress was worsened and AAA/AD formation was promoted in ApoE-/-IL-22-/- mice that received transplanted bone marrow cells from ApoE-/- mice compared with those that were transplanted with bone marrow cells isolated from ApoE-/-IL-22-/- mice.

Conclusions: IL-22 deficiency inhibits AAA/AD formation by inhibiting M1 macrophage-induced oxidative stress. IL-22 potentially represents a promising new target for preventing the progression of AAA/AD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/7555492DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8956387PMC
April 2022

[Clinical application of computed tomographic angiography in predicting the vascular pedicle length of the proximally-based anterolateral thigh flap].

Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi 2022 Mar;36(3):322-328

Scar Comprehensive Treatment Center, Plastic Surgery Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100144, P. R. China.

Objective: To explore the reliability and effectiveness of prediction of the pedicle length of the proximally-based anterolateral thigh (pALT) flap which was used to repair the defects following the resection of various malignant tumors using computed tomographic angiography (CTA).

Methods: The clinical data of 12 patients who met the selection criteria by using pALT flap to repair wounds left after malignant tumor resection between June 2015 and December 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. There were 5 males and 7 females; the age ranged from 16 to 80 years, with an average age of 54.4 years. After tumor resection, the soft tissue defect ranged from 15 cm×5 cm to 30 cm×12 cm; defect sites included 4 cases of lower abdomen, 3 cases of groin, 2 cases of thigh, and 3 cases of buttocks. Preoperative CTA was used to obtain the location information of the descending branch of the lateral femoral circumflex artery and its perforators by maximum density projection, and the length of the pedicle of pALT flap was estimated. Fasciocutaneous flap (5 cases) or myocutaneous flap (7 cases) were cut during operation to repair the defect, and the size of flap ranged from 20 cm×7 cm to 30 cm×12 cm. The donor site of thigh was directly sutured (11 cases) or repaired with skin graft (1 case). Bland-Altman analysis was used to detect the consistency between the pALT flap vascular pedicle length estimated by CTA and the pALT flap vascular pedicle length actually obtained during operation.

Results: One case had distal blood supply disturbance of the flap and was repaired with skin graft after debridement; the remaining 11 flaps survived. All donor and recipient incisions healed by first intention. All 12 cases were followed up 1-12 months, with an average of 4.3 months. One patient died of pelvic tumor recurrence at 6 months after operation, and no tumor recurrence was found in the other patients. Preoperative CTA estimated that the length of pALT flap vascular pedicle was 9.3-24.7 cm, with an average of 14.7 cm; the actual length of pALT flap vascular pedicle was 9.5-25.0 cm, with an average of 14.8 cm. Bland-Altman analysis showed that there was no significant difference between the pALT flap vascular pedicle length estimated by CTA before operation and the pALT flap vascular pedicle length actually obtained during operation, and the average difference was 0.1 (95% consistency limit: -0.89, 0.74), indicating that they had good consistency.

Conclusion: CTA can be accurately used to localize the perforator and predict the possible pedicle length of the pALT flap. When performing a pALT flap surgery, preoperative CTA is helpful for surgeons to make a preliminary assessment of the difficult of the operation. The time for exploration of perforators and dissection of the vascular pedicle, and complications can be reduced, and the safety of the operation can be improved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7507/1002-1892.202111002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8923919PMC
March 2022

Mesenchymal Stem Cells Alleviate Inflammatory Bowel Disease Via Tr1 Cells.

Stem Cell Rev Rep 2022 Mar 10. Epub 2022 Mar 10.

Institute of Translational Medicine, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, 130061, China.

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been used to achieve exciting therapeutic outcomes in many animal studies and clinical trials for various autoimmune diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Type 1 regulatory T (Tr1) cells are the main source of interleukin (IL) 10 in the intestine. Whether Tr1 cells are involved during MSC-mediated IBD treatment is unclear. We treated a murine model of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis with human umbilical cord-derived MSCs (hUCMSCs) and found that the disease severity was alleviated significantly in a dose-dependent manner. hUCMSCs increased the proportion of Tr1 cells and decreased that of T helper (Th)-1 and Th17 cells in the spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes in different stages of colitis. We found that the upregulation of Tr1 cells by hUCMSCs was abrogated after blocking indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), and IDO knockdown in hUCMSCs reversed the increase in Tr1 cell proportions caused by hUCMSCs in colitis. Moreover, hUCMSCs inhibited apoptosis and promoted the proliferation of Tr1 cells. Our results suggest that Tr1 cells play an important role in the amelioration of IBD by MSCs, and they are the target population for the alleviation of IBD by MSCs, providing meaningful references for the study of therapeutic mechanisms of MSCs in other inflammatory diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12015-022-10353-9DOI Listing
March 2022

Deep learning-enabled pelvic ultrasound images for accurate diagnosis of ovarian cancer in China: a retrospective, multicentre, diagnostic study.

Lancet Digit Health 2022 03;4(3):e179-e187

Department of Gynecologic Oncology, Women's Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Background: Ultrasound is a critical non-invasive test for preoperative diagnosis of ovarian cancer. Deep learning is making advances in image-recognition tasks; therefore, we aimed to develop a deep convolutional neural network (DCNN) model that automates evaluation of ultrasound images and to facilitate a more accurate diagnosis of ovarian cancer than existing methods.

Methods: In this retrospective, multicentre, diagnostic study, we collected pelvic ultrasound images from ten hospitals across China between September 2003, and May 2019. We included consecutive adult patients (aged ≥18 years) with adnexal lesions in ultrasonography and healthy controls and excluded duplicated cases and patients without adnexa or pathological diagnosis. For DCNN model development, patients were assigned to the training dataset (34 488 images of 3755 patients with ovarian cancer, 541 442 images of 101 777 controls). For model validation, patients were assigned to the internal validation dataset (3031 images of 266 patients with ovarian cancer, 5385 images of 602 with benign adnexal lesions), external validation datasets 1 (486 images of 67 with ovarian cancer, 933 images of 268 with benign adnexal lesions), and 2 (1253 images of 166 with ovarian cancer, 5257 images of 723 benign adnexal lesions). Using these datasets, we assessed the diagnostic value of DCNN, compared DCNN with 35 radiologists, and explored whether DCNN could augment the diagnostic accuracy of six radiologists. Pathological diagnosis was the reference standard.

Findings: For DCNN to detect ovarian cancer, AUC was 0·911 (95% CI 0·886-0·936) in the internal dataset, 0·870 (95% CI 0·822-0·918) in external validation dataset 1, and 0·831 (95% CI 0·793-0·869) in external validation dataset 2. The DCNN model was more accurate than radiologists at detecting ovarian cancer in the internal dataset (88·8% vs 85·7%) and external validation dataset 1 (86·9% vs 81·1%). Accuracy and sensitivity of diagnosis increased more after DCNN-assisted diagnosis than assessment by radiologists alone (87·6% [85·0-90·2] vs 78·3% [72·1-84·5], p<0·0001; 82·7% [78·5-86·9] vs 70·4% [59·1-81·7], p<0·0001). The average accuracy of DCNN-assisted evaluations for six radiologists reached 0·876 and were significantly augmented when they were DCNN-assisted (p<0·05).

Interpretation: The performance of DCNN-enabled ultrasound exceeded the average diagnostic level of radiologists matched the level of expert ultrasound image readers, and augmented radiologists' accuracy. However, these observations warrant further investigations in prospective studies or randomised clinical trials.

Funding: National Key Basic Research Program of China, National Sci-Tech Support Projects, and National Natural Science Foundation of China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2589-7500(21)00278-8DOI Listing
March 2022

Research on Direction of Arrival Estimation Based on Self-Contained MEMS Vector Hydrophone.

Micromachines (Basel) 2022 Jan 30;13(2). Epub 2022 Jan 30.

State Key Laboratory of Dynamic Measurement Technology, North University of China, Taiyuan 030051, China.

A self-contained MEMS vector hydrophone with a scalar-vector integrated design is proposed in this paper. Compared with traditional MEMS vector hydrophones, this design solves the problem of ambiguity in the port and starboard during orientation, and also realizes the self-contained storage of acoustic signals. First, the sensor principle and structural design of the self-contained MEMS hydrophone are introduced, and then the principle of the combined beamforming algorithm is given. In addition to this, the amplitude and phase calibration method based on the self-contained MEMS vector hydrophone is proposed. Then, the sensitivity and phase calibrations of the sensor are carried out in the standing wave tube. The sensitivity of the vector channel is -182.7 dB (0 [email protected] V/μPa) and the sensitivity of the scalar channel is -181.8 dB (0 [email protected] V/μPa). Finally, an outdoor water experiment was carried out. The experimental results show that the self-contained MEMS vector hydrophone can accurately pick up and record underwater acoustics information. It realizes the precise orientation of the target by combining beamforming algorithms. The direction of arrival (DOA) error is within 5° under the outdoor experimental conditions with an SNR of 13.67 dB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/mi13020236DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8877541PMC
January 2022

Parental Preferences of Influenza Vaccination for Children in China: A National Survey with a Discrete Choice Experiment.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2022 02 14;19(4). Epub 2022 Feb 14.

Health Science Center, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710061, China.

The influenza vaccination coverage among children is low in China. We aimed to conduct a nationwide survey to quantify parental preferences and willingness to pay (WTP) for influenza vaccination for their children. Parents with children aged six months to 18 years from six provinces in China were investigated by a discrete choice experiment regarding six influenza vaccination attributes. Mixed logit models were used to estimate the relative importance of vaccine attributes and parents' WTP. Interaction analysis and subgroup analysis were conducted to explore preference heterogeneity. A total of 1206 parents were included in the analysis. Parents reported vaccine effectiveness as the most important vaccine attribute. The mode of vaccine administration had no significant impact on parents' preferences. Parents aged over 30 years with higher education or income levels were more likely to prefer no influenza vaccination for their children. The largest marginal WTP (CNY 802.57) for vaccination and the largest increase in vaccine uptake (41.85%) occurred with improved vaccine effectiveness from 30% to 80%. Parents from central regions or mid-latitude areas had a relatively lower WTP than those from other regions. No significant difference in the relative importance of vaccine attributes were observed among parents from various regions of China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19042145DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8871809PMC
February 2022

Exogenous sucrose influences KEA1 and KEA2 to regulate abscisic acid-mediated primary root growth in Arabidopsis.

Plant Sci 2022 Apr 4;317:111209. Epub 2022 Feb 4.

College of Life Sciences, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070, China. Electronic address:

Arabidopsis K-efflux antiporter (KEA)1 and KEA2 are chloroplast inner envelope membrane K/H antiporters that play an important role in plastid development and seedling growth. However, the function of KEA1 and KEA2 during early seedling development is poorly understood. In this work, we found that in Arabidopsis, KEA1 and KEA2 mediated primary root growth by regulating photosynthesis and the ABA signaling pathway. Phenotypic analyses revealed that in the absence of sucrose, the primary root length of the kea1kea2 mutant was significantly shorter than that of the wild-type Columbia-0 (Col-0) plant. However, this phenotype could be remedied by the external application of sucrose. Meanwhile, HPLC-MS/MS results showed that in sucrose-free medium, ABA accumulation in the kea1kea2 mutant was considerably lower than that in Col-0. Transcriptome analysis revealed that many key genes involved in ABA signals were repressed in the kea1kea2 mutant. We concluded that KEA1 and KEA2 deficiency not only affected photosynthesis but was also involved in primary root growth likely through an ABA-dependent manner. This study confirmed the new function of KEA1 and KEA2 in affecting primary root growth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plantsci.2022.111209DOI Listing
April 2022

Transcriptional control of mature ILC3 function and plasticity: not just RORγt.

Cell Mol Immunol 2022 02 7;19(2):142-144. Epub 2022 Jan 7.

Institute of Translational Medicine, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41423-021-00816-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8803961PMC
February 2022

[Segmentation method of myocardial perfusion bull-eye for the degree of loss of cardiac ischemia].

Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi 2021 Dec;38(6):1072-1080

School of Microelectronics, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, P.R.China.

As one of the non-invasive imaging techniques, myocardial perfusion imaging provides a basis for the diagnosis of myocardial ischemia in coronary heart disease. Aiming at the bull-eye image in myocardial perfusion imaging, this paper proposed a branching structure, which included multi-layer transposed convolution up-sampling concatenate module and four-channel weighted channels attention module, and the output results of the branch structure were fused with the output results of trunk U-Net, to achieve accurate segmentation of the cardiac ischemia missing degree in myocardial perfusion bull-eye image. The experimental results show that the multi-layer transposed convolution up-sampling concatenate module realizes the fusion of different depth feature maps, and effectively reduces the interference of the severe sparse degree which is similar to the missing degree on the segmentation. Four-channel weighted attention module can further improve the ability to distinguish between the two similar degrees and the ability to learn edge details of the targets, and retain more abundant edge details features. The experimental data came from Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin TEDA Hospital, Tianjin First Central Hospital and Third Central Hospital. The Jaccard scores in the self-built dataset was 5.00% higher than that of U-Net. The model presented in this paper is superior to other optimized models based on U-Net, and the subjective evaluation meets the accuracy requirements for clinical diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7507/1001-5515.202102019DOI Listing
December 2021

DCN released from ferroptotic cells ignites AGER-dependent immune responses.

Autophagy 2021 Dec 29:1-14. Epub 2021 Dec 29.

Department of Surgery, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA.

Ferroptosis is a form of inflammatory cell death for which key mediators remain obscure. Here, we report that the proteoglycan decorin (DCN) is released by cells that are dying from ferroptosis and then acts as an alarm signal to trigger innate and adaptive immune responses. The early release of DCN during ferroptosis is an active process that involves secretory macroautophagy/autophagy and lysosomal exocytosis. Once released, extracellular DCN binds to the receptor advanced glycosylation end-product-specific receptor (AGER) on macrophages to trigger the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in an NFKB/NF-κB-dependent manner. Pharmacological and genetic inhibition of the DCN-AGER axis protects against ferroptotic death-related acute pancreatitis and limits the capacity of ferroptotic cancer cells to induce a tumor-protective immune response. Thus, DCN is an essential mediator of the inflammatory and immune consequences of ferroptosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15548627.2021.2008692DOI Listing
December 2021

[Clinical application of superior lateral genicular artery perforator propeller flap in repair of soft-tissue defects around knee joint].

Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi 2021 Dec;35(12):1603-1608

Scar Comprehensive Treatment Center, Plastic Surgery Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100144, P.R.China.

Objective: To explore the feasibility and effectiveness of using the superior lateral genicular artery (SLGA) perforator propeller flap to reconstruct soft-tissue defects around the knee joint.

Methods: Between October 2013 and May 2019, 10 patients underwent repairing of soft-tissue defects around the knee joint using the SLGA perforator propeller flap. There were 6 males and 4 males, with a median age of 34.5 years (range, 6-66 years). Etiologies included radical tumor resection in 4 cases, post-burn scar contracture in 3 cases, post-burn hypertrophic scar in 2 cases, and prothesis exposure after knee arthroplasty in 1 case. Defects located on the lateral knee in 6 cases, proximal lateral leg in 2 cases, popliteal fossa in 1 cases, and infrapatellar region in 1 case. The size of soft-tissue defects was from 6 cm×4 cm to 14 cm×8 cm. The extraction range of the flap was from 10.0 cm×5.5 cm to 23.0 cm×7.0 cm; the length of the perforator pedicle was 2.5-5.0 cm, with an average of 3.65 cm; the flaps were rotated 180°, the large paddle of the propeller flap was used to repair the defect, and the small paddle was used to assist the closure of donor site.

Results: Blister was observed in the distal 3-cm of one flap and the flap survived after conservative management. All the flaps survived, and the wounds in the donor and recipient areas healed by first intention. There was no vascular crisis, incision dehiscence, infection, or other complications. All 10 patients were followed up 4 to 48 months, with an average of 12.6 months. The color and texture of the flap were similar to those of the recipient area, and there was no need for secondary operation for degreasing and thinning. Scar contracture was corrected; no tumor recurrence was found in tumor patients; the artificial knee joint was preserved, the knee joint flexion and extension activities were good, and all the patient and family members were satisfied with the appearance and function of the lower limbs after operation.

Conclusion: The SLGA perforator propeller flap surgery is relatively simple without the need of microvascular anastomosis, has the minimal donor-site morbidities, and can provide a compound flap for the repairing of a complex wound. The SLGA perforator propeller flap is one of the optional methods to repair soft-tissue defects around the knee joint.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7507/1002-1892.202106024DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8669197PMC
December 2021

Data-driven design and controllable synthesis of Pt/carbon electrocatalysts for H evolution.

iScience 2021 Dec 13;24(12):103430. Epub 2021 Nov 13.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300350, China.

To achieve net-zero emissions, a particular interest has been raised in the electrochemical evolution of H by using catalysts. Considering the complexity of designing catalyst, we demonstrate a data-driven strategy to develop optimized catalysts for H evolution. This work starts by collecting data of Pt/carbon catalysts, and applying machine learning to reveal the importance of ranking various features. The algorithms reveal that the Pt content and Pt size have the greatest impact on the catalyst overpotentials. Following the data-driven analysis, a space-confined method is used to fabricate the size-controllable Pt nanoclusters that anchor on nitrogen-doped (N-doped) mesoporous carbon nanosheet network. The obtained catalysts use less platinum and exhibit better catalytic activity than current commercial catalysts in alkaline electrolytes. Moreover, the data formed in this work can be used as feedback to further improve the data-driven model, thereby accelerating the development of high-performance catalysts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isci.2021.103430DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8637634PMC
December 2021
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