Publications by authors named "Shan Xu"

352 Publications

Hierarchically porous calcium-silicon nanosphere-enabled co-delivery of microRNA-210 and simvastatin for bone regeneration.

J Mater Chem B 2021 Apr;9(16):3573-3583

School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641, P. R. China. and National Engineering Research Center for Tissue Restoration and Reconstruction, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006, P. R. China. and Innovation Center for Tissue Restoration and Reconstruction, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006, P. R. China.

The regenerative repair of large bone defects is a major problem in orthopedics and clinical medicine. The key problem is the lack of ability of existing bone graft materials to promote osteogenesis and angiogenesis. Previous studies have shown that the osteogenic or angiogenic abilities of these materials could be significantly improved by adding miRNA or small-molecule drugs to bone graft materials; however, the synergistic effect arising from this combination is not clear. Therefore, we proposed to construct a dual drug delivery system that could simultaneously achieve the co-encapsulation and co-delivery of miRNA and small-molecule drugs to explore the effect of a dual drug delivery system on bone repair. In this study, we constructed dual-sized pore structure calcium-silicon nanospheres (DPNPs) and achieved the co-encapsulation of miR-210, angiogenic gene drugs, and simvastatin (Siv), a small-molecule osteogenic drug, through metal-ion coordination and physical adsorption. In vitro and in vivo osteogenic and angiogenic experiments showed that the dual drug delivery system (Siv/DPNP/miR-210) exhibited better properties than those of the individual unloaded and single drug-loaded systems and could significantly accelerate the process of bone repair, which provides a novel strategy for the regeneration and repair of bone defects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1tb00063bDOI Listing
April 2021

Association between blood urea nitrogen and incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in a Chinese population: a cohort study.

Endocr J 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Epidemiology, School of Medicine, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, Guangdong, China.

To examine the association between blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and risk of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) among Chinese adults, we performed an ongoing cohort study of 38578 Chinese adults (56.3% males; average age, 41.6 y) who underwent repeated health check-up examinations between 2009 and 2016 and without T2DM at baseline. During follow-up, incident T2DM cases were identified based on self-report, medication use, measurements of fasting plasma glucose, 2 h post oral glucose, or haemoglobinA1c. 2009 (5.2%) cases confirmed with incident T2DM were identified during median follow-up of 3.1 years. With increasing quartiles of BUN levels, the incidences of T2DM gradually increased with 0.69%, 1.11%, 1.53%, and 1.87% for quartile 1 to quartile 4 (p trend <0.001). Compared with quartile 1, the multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and its 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for T2DM risk were 1.16 (0.97-1.38) for quartile 2, 1.28 (1.07-1.51) for quartile 3, and 1.28 (1.08-1.52) for quartile 4 (p trend = 0.005). HR for per each standard deviation increase in BUN level was 1.10 (1.04-1.16) (p trend <0.001). This association tended to be more pronounced in those with a lower body mass index at baseline (p-interaction <0.001). Our results suggested that BUN levels were positively associated with incident T2DM risk among Chinese adults. Future prospective investigations in other populations are necessary to confirm our findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1507/endocrj.EJ20-0794DOI Listing
April 2021

Innovative method for Amplatzer device implantation in patients with bronchopleural fistulas.

BMC Pulm Med 2021 Apr 26;21(1):137. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital of Zhejiang University, No. 3 East Qingchun Road, Jianggan District, Hangzhou, 310016, Zhejiang Province, China.

Background: Bronchopleural fistula (BPF) is a relatively rare complication after various types of pulmonary resection. The double-sided mushroom-shaped occluder (Amplatzer device, AD) has been gradually used for BPF blocking due to its reliable blocking effect. We have improved the existing AD implantation methods to facilitate clinical use and named the new approach Sheath-free method (SFM). The aim of the present report was to explore the reliability and advantages of the SFM in AD implantation.

Methods: We improved the existing implantation methods by abandoning the sheath of the AD and using the working channel of the bronchoscope to directly store or release the AD without general anesthesia, rigid bronchoscopy, fluoroscopy, or bronchography. A total of 6 patients (5 men and 1 woman, aged 66.67 ± 6.19 years [mean ± SD]) had BPF blocking and underwent the SFM in AD implantation.

Results: AD implantation was successfully performed in all 6 patients with the SFM, 4 persons had a successful closure of the fistula, one person died after few days and one person did not have a successful closure of the fistula. The average duration of operation was 16.17 min (16.17 ± 4.67 min [mean ± SD]). No patients died due to operation complications or BPF recurrence. The average follow-up time was 13.2 months (range 10-17 months).

Conclusion: We observed that the SFM for AD implantation-with accurate device positioning and a clear field of vision-is efficient and convenient. The AD is effective in BPF blocking, and could contribute to significantly improved symptoms of patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12890-021-01493-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8077945PMC
April 2021

Seeking sustainable development policies at the municipal level based on the triad of city, economy and environment: evidence from Hunan province, China.

J Environ Manage 2021 Apr 15;290:112554. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

State Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing Science, Jointly Sponsored by Beijing Normal University and Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100875, China; Beijing Engineering Research Center for Global Land Remote Sensing Products, Institute of Remote Sensing Science and Engineering, Faculty of Geographical Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, 100875, China.

Keeping urbanization, economy and eco-environment in harmony is a core issue for attaining Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in any complex geographical regions. Previous studies mainly focused on seeking the balance between urban expansion levels, eco-environment quality and socioeconomic degree. But the challenges still exist in solving the negative influence of urban expansion that affects eco-environmental and economic development. Based on the Environmental Kuznets Curve theory, we involved inclusive indexes to analyze the interlinkages of eco-environment quality, economic level, and urban expansion degree, which closely relate to urban sustainable development goals and spatial complexity, as well as using available data corresponding to waterfront cities. Cities in Hunan were taken as a study-case, and the study period of 2006-2016 covers the last 10 years of the millennium development goals agenda and the first 2 years of SDGs agenda. The key indicators of city-economy-environment relationships were different at the provincial level, urban level and urbanization grade. According to the regression models and inverted N shape curve, urban expansion resulted in high positive effects on economic development level and negative effects on ecological environment quality, partically higher at high urbanization level than that of the low ones. But the overall trends were that the environmental quality of the cities was undergoing slowly improving processes both at low and high urban expansion levels. Promoting adaptations with the eco-environmental capacity when formulating policies and taking actions is necessary for realizing sustainable cities and communities (SDG11), life on land (SDG15), decent work and economic growth (SDG8) and responsible consumption and production (SDG12) at the same time. Regulating citizens' density, urban expansion speed in area, the quantity of enterprises with heavy pollution, and the structure of industry to the suitable urbanization stages is an important way for achieving SDGs at provincial and municipal levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.112554DOI Listing
April 2021

ER-to-Golgi protein delivery through an interwoven, tubular network extending from ER.

Cell 2021 Apr 13;184(9):2412-2429.e16. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Janelia Research Campus, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Ashburn, VA 20147, USA. Electronic address:

Cellular versatility depends on accurate trafficking of diverse proteins to their organellar destinations. For the secretory pathway (followed by approximately 30% of all proteins), the physical nature of the vessel conducting the first portage (endoplasmic reticulum [ER] to Golgi apparatus) is unclear. We provide a dynamic 3D view of early secretory compartments in mammalian cells with isotropic resolution and precise protein localization using whole-cell, focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy with cryo-structured illumination microscopy and live-cell synchronized cargo release approaches. Rather than vesicles alone, the ER spawns an elaborate, interwoven tubular network of contiguous lipid bilayers (ER exit site) for protein export. This receptacle is capable of extending microns along microtubules while still connected to the ER by a thin neck. COPII localizes to this neck region and dynamically regulates cargo entry from the ER, while COPI acts more distally, escorting the detached, accelerating tubular entity on its way to joining the Golgi apparatus through microtubule-directed movement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2021.03.035DOI Listing
April 2021

Design, synthesis and evaluation of anti-proliferative activity of 2-aryl-4-aminoquinazoline derivatives as EGFR inhibitors.

Bioorg Chem 2021 Mar 22;112:104848. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Jiangxi Provincial Key Laboratory of Drug Design and Evaluation, School of Pharmacy, Jiangxi Science & Technology Normal University, 605 Fenglin Road, Nanchang 330013, China. Electronic address:

A class of 2-aryl-4-aminoquinazoline derivatives (7a-7j, 8a-8h, 9a-9h and 10a-10k) were designed, synthesized and evaluated as EGFR inhibitors. The anti-proliferative activity of compounds in vitro showed that compound 9e was considered to be a promising derivative. Compared with the lead compound Angew2017-7634-1, 9e exhibited excellent inhibitory activity against A549, NCI-H460 and H1975 cell lines, with IC values of 14.33 ± 1.16 μM, 17.81 ± 1.25 μM and 13.41 ± 1.14 μM, respectively. Moreover, 9e could effectively inhibit against Ba/F3-EGFR cell lines. In the kinase experiment, the most promising compound 9e exhibited excellent enzymatic inhibitory activity and selectivity for EGFR, with an IC value of 0.74 μM. Further activity studies showed that 9e could not only induce remarkable cell-apoptosis of A549, but also block A549 cell lines in S-phase in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, molecular docking study revealed the binding mode of 9e. All in all, we analyzed the structure-activity relationship of the target compounds, and explored their mechanism of action.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bioorg.2021.104848DOI Listing
March 2021

Daily Challenge/Hindrance Demands and Cognitive Wellbeing: A Multilevel Moderated Mediation Model.

Front Psychol 2021 8;12:616002. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

School of Business Administration, Southwestern University of Finance and Economics, Chengdu, China.

Based on the challenge-hindrance stressor model, this study explored the mechanism of how challenge/hindrance demands affect cognitive wellbeing on a daily basis. Specifically, we examined the mediating effect of work-family enrichment on the relationship between challenge/hindrance demands and cognitive wellbeing. In addition, we tested the moderating effect of overqualification on the relationship between challenge/hindrance demands and work-family enrichment on a daily basis. Finally, we examined the moderated mediation effect of perceived overqualification in a multilevel model. To capture changes in work-family enrichment and cognitive wellbeing that individuals perceived daily, the experience sampling method was adopted to test our theoretical models. A total of 99 participants from China were involved in this investigation. The results showed that daily challenge demands had a significant positive effect on daily cognitive wellbeing, and daily hindrance demands had a significant negative effect on wellbeing. In addition, daily work-family enrichment mediated the positive relationship between daily challenge demands and daily cognitive wellbeing. Moreover, perceived overqualification moderated the relationship between daily challenge demands and daily cognitive wellbeing in the multilevel model. Finally, a significant moderated mediating effect of this overqualification on the indirect effect of daily work-family enrichment on the relationship between daily challenge demands and daily cognitive wellbeing was observed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.616002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7982414PMC
March 2021

The characteristics and evolution of pulmonary fibrosis in COVID-19 patients as assessed by AI-assisted chest HRCT.

PLoS One 2021 23;16(3):e0248957. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei, P. R. China.

The characteristics and evolution of pulmonary fibrosis in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have not been adequately studied. AI-assisted chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) was used to investigate the proportion of COVID-19 patients with pulmonary fibrosis, the relationship between the degree of fibrosis and the clinical classification of COVID-19, the characteristics of and risk factors for pulmonary fibrosis, and the evolution of pulmonary fibrosis after discharge. The incidence of pulmonary fibrosis in patients with severe or critical COVID-19 was significantly higher than that in patients with moderate COVID-19. There were significant differences in the degree of pulmonary inflammation and the extent of the affected area among patients with mild, moderate and severe pulmonary fibrosis. The IL-6 level in the acute stage and albumin level were independent risk factors for pulmonary fibrosis. Ground-glass opacities, linear opacities, interlobular septal thickening, reticulation, honeycombing, bronchiectasis and the extent of the affected area were significantly improved 30, 60 and 90 days after discharge compared with at discharge. The more severe the clinical classification of COVID-19, the more severe the residual pulmonary fibrosis was; however, in most patients, pulmonary fibrosis was improved or even resolved within 90 days after discharge.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0248957PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7987145PMC
April 2021

EA-Directing Formamidinium-Based Perovskite Microwires with A-Site Doping.

ACS Omega 2021 Mar 8;6(10):7157-7164. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

School of Science and Engineering and Shenzhen Key Lab of Semiconductor Lasers, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shenzhen, Guangdong 518172, China.

One recent development to improve optoelectronic properties of perovskites is to use a larger cation for multication engineering. The chain-like ethylammonium (EA) [(CH)NH] cation is more likely to form a one-dimensional perovskite structure; however, there is no remarkable evidence in this connection. Therefore, in this work, for the first time, the EA cation as an alternative cation was introduced into FAPbBr cubic crystals to explore the stabilities and optoelectronic properties of mixed FA EAPbBr perovskites. The results indicate that replacing FA with EA is a more effective way to realize band gap tuning and morphology transformation between the cubic shape and microwires. The tuned band gap of perovskite is due to the variation of Pb-Br-Pb angles induced by the insertion of the larger EA cation. We highlight that this work provides new physical insights into the correlation between the engineering of organic cations and the formation of perovskite microwires and the tunable band gap. This observation will help us to find new ways to grow perovskite microwires and subsequently study the optoelectronic performance of low-dimensional perovskites devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.1c00213DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7970562PMC
March 2021

[Precision of eDNA Metabarcoding Technology for Biodiversity Monitoring of Eukaryotic Phytoplankton in Lakes].

Huan Jing Ke Xue 2021 Feb;42(2):796-807

State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control & Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, China.

Environmental DNA (eDNA) metabarcoding provides a fast and efficient way to obtain biodiversity information that has been widely used in aquatic biodiversity monitoring and assessment. To facilitate the application of eDNA metabarcoding in China, the accuracy of metabarcoding data needs to be further assessed. Here, the eukaryotic phytoplankton in Dianchi Lake and the northern portion of Fuxian Lake were examined. The effect of sequencing depth on species diversity was also explored, and accuracy was evaluated by comparing the taxon overlap and coefficient of variation (CV) of the diversity index among biological replicates. The results showed that:① Sequencing depth significantly affected the taxon number and accuracy of alpha diversity determinations. The suggested sequencing depth for metabarcoding of eukaryotic phytoplankton in Dianchi Lake and Fuxian Lake is at least 30000. ② The OTU overlap was 45.97%±1.67% among three biological replicates, the genera overlap was 64.21%±3.25%, and the CV of alpha diversity was less than 10%. ③ Seventy-five and 90 genera of eukaryotic algae were identified in Dianchi Lake and Fuxian Lake, respectively, covering 62.5% and 71.05% of the morphologically detected species, respectively. ④ There was no significant variation in the diversity of eukaryotic algae with depth in Dianchi Lake, while diversity showed significant vertical patterns in Fuxian Lake. Overall, eukaryotic algal diversity was significantly lower in Dianchi Lake compared to Fuxian Lake, and diversity in the southern portion of Dianchi Lake was significantly higher than that in the central and northern portions (<0.05). Our study demonstrates the feasibility and accuracy of using eDNA-based techniques to monitor eukaryotic phytoplankton diversity, which supports the widespread application of eDNA metabarcoding in China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13227/j.hjkx.202007236DOI Listing
February 2021

Migration of ingested sharp foreign body into the bronchus: a case report and review of the literature.

BMC Pulm Med 2021 Mar 17;21(1):90. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Regional Medical Center for National Institute of Respiratory Disease, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, China.

Background: Foreign body ingestion is a common emergence in gastroenterology. Foreign bodies are most likely to be embedded in the esophagus. The sharp ones may penetrate the esophageal wall and lead to serious complications.

Case Presentation: A 72-year-old Chinese female was admitted to our hospital with a 4-day history of retrosternal pain and a growing cough after eating fish. Chest computed tomography scan indicated that a high-density foreign body (a fish bone) penetrated through the esophageal wall and inserted into the left main bronchus. First, we used a rigid esophagoscope to explore the esophagus under general anesthesia. However, the foreign body was invisible in the side of the esophagus. Then, the fiberoptic bronchoscopy was performed. We divided the fish bone, which traversed the left main bronchus, into two segments under holmium laser and removed the foreign body successfully. The operation time was short and there were no complications. The patient was discharged 1 week postoperatively and was symptom free even under a liquid diet.

Conclusions: There are several challenges in the management of this rare condition. We applied the technique of interventional bronchoscopy to the management of esophageal foreign body flexibly in an emergency. A surgery was avoided, which was more invasive and costly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12890-021-01458-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7968162PMC
March 2021

Research progress of imaging technologies for ischemic cerebrovascular diseases.

J Int Med Res 2021 Mar;49(3):300060520972601

Department of Neurology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Shandong First Medical University, Jinan, China.

Cerebrovascular diseases mainly affect the blood supply of the brain, which has a high demand for oxygen and glucose for the nerve tissues to perform its nerve functions. Ischemic cerebrovascular disease can not only cause stroke, but is also associated with a high incidence of asymptomatic infarction and minimal bleeding that can lead to cognitive and behavioral changes. These changes ultimately manifest as vascular dementia or cognitive impairment. In clinical settings, ischemic cerebrovascular disease can be classified as a transient ischemic attack, reversible ischemic neurological deficit, progressive stroke, complete stroke, marginal infarction, or lacunar infarction. In this review, the research progress of imaging technologies for ischemic cerebrovascular diseases was reviewed, with an aim to provide evidence for clinical practitioners.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0300060520972601DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7983435PMC
March 2021

Protocol for preparation of heterogeneous biological samples for 3D electron microscopy: a case study for insects.

Sci Rep 2021 Feb 25;11(1):4717. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Janelia Research Campus of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Ashburn, USA.

Modern morphological and structural studies are coming to a new level by incorporating the latest methods of three-dimensional electron microscopy (3D-EM). One of the key problems for the wide usage of these methods is posed by difficulties with sample preparation, since the methods work poorly with heterogeneous (consisting of tissues different in structure and in chemical composition) samples and require expensive equipment and usually much time. We have developed a simple protocol allows preparing heterogeneous biological samples suitable for 3D-EM in a laboratory that has a standard supply of equipment and reagents for electron microscopy. This protocol, combined with focused ion-beam scanning electron microscopy, makes it possible to study 3D ultrastructure of complex biological samples, e.g., whole insect heads, over their entire volume at the cellular and subcellular levels. The protocol provides new opportunities for many areas of study, including connectomics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-83936-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7907262PMC
February 2021

Interferon-γ induces tumor resistance to anti-PD-1 immunotherapy by promoting YAP phase separation.

Mol Cell 2021 03 18;81(6):1216-1230.e9. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Department of Human Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, School of Basic Medicine, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 13 Hangkong Road, Wuhan 430030, China. Electronic address:

Interferon-γ (IFN-γ)-mediated adaptive resistance is one major barrier to improving immunotherapy in solid tumors. However, the mechanisms are not completely understood. Here, we report that IFN-γ promotes nuclear translocation and phase separation of YAP after anti-PD-1 therapy in tumor cells. Hydrophobic interactions of the YAP coiled-coil domain mediate droplet initiation, and weak interactions of the intrinsically disordered region in the C terminus promote droplet formation. YAP partitions with the transcription factor TEAD4, the histone acetyltransferase EP300, and Mediator1 and forms transcriptional hubs for maximizing target gene transcriptions, independent of the canonical STAT1-IRF1 transcription program. Disruption of YAP phase separation reduced tumor growth, enhanced immune response, and sensitized tumor cells to anti-PD-1 therapy. YAP activity is negatively correlated with patient outcome. Our study indicates that YAP mediates the IFN-γ pro-tumor effect through its nuclear phase separation and suggests that YAP can be used as a predictive biomarker and target of anti-PD-1 combination therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molcel.2021.01.010DOI Listing
March 2021

Magnesium Isoglycyrrhizinate Alleviates Arsenic Trioxide-Induced Cardiotoxicity: Contribution of Nrf2 and TLR4/NF-κB Signaling Pathway.

Drug Des Devel Ther 2021 12;15:543-556. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

School of Pharmacy, Hebei University of Chinese Medicine, Shijiazhuang, Hebei, 050200, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: Magnesium isoglycyrrhizinate (MgIG), a single stereoisomer magnesium salt of glycyrrhizic acid, has beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system through anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidation, and anti-apoptotic actions. However, MgIG has not been shown to provide protection against cardiotoxicity induced by arsenic trioxide (ATO). This study aims to demonstrate the protection of MgIG against ATO-induced cardiac toxicity in mice and to investigate the underlying mechanism.

Methods: A mouse cardiotoxicity model was established by administering 5 mg/kg ATO for 7 days. MgIG used in conjunction with the ATO to assess its cardioprotection.

Results: MgIG administration could significantly reduce reactive oxygen species generation and the changes in tissue morphology. Also, MgIG administration increased the activity of antioxidase, such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase, and reduced malondialdehyde content and pro-inflammatory cytokine levels. Western blotting showed decreased expression of Bcl-2 associated X protein and Caspase-3, with increased expression of B-cell lymphoma 2. Importantly, MgIG administration increased nuclear factor-erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) expression, while the expressions of nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) and toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) were significantly decreased.

Conclusion: Our data showed that MgIG alleviates ATO-induced cardiotoxicity, which is associated to the anti-inflammation, anti-oxidation, and anti-apoptosis action, potentially through activation of the Nrf2 pathway and suppression of the TLR4/NF-κB pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/DDDT.S296405DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7886103PMC
February 2021

Exploring the Effect of Differentially Expressed Long Non-coding RNAs Driven by Copy Number Variation on Competing Endogenous RNA Network by Mining Lung Adenocarcinoma Data.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2020 28;8:627436. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, College of Medicine, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Lung cancer is the first cause of cancer death, and gene copy number variation (CNV) is a vital cause of lung cancer progression. Prognosis prediction of patients followed by medication guidance by detecting CNV of lung cancer is emerging as a promising precise treatment in the future. In this paper, the differences in CNV and gene expression between cancer tissue and normal tissue of lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) from The Cancer Genome Atlas Lung Adenocarcinoma data set were firstly analyzed, and greater differences were observed. Furthermore, CNV-driven differentially expressed long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) were screened out, and then, a competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) regulatory network related to the gene CNV was established, which involved 9 lncRNAs, seven microRNAs, and 178 downstream messenger RNAs (mRNAs). Pathway enrichment analyses sequentially performed revealed that the downstream mRNAs were mainly enriched in biological pathways related to cell division, DNA repair, and so on, indicating that these mRNAs mainly affected the replication and growth of tumor cells. Besides, the relationship between lncRNAs and drug effects was explored based on previous studies, and it was found that LINC00511 and LINC00942 in the CNV-associated ceRNA network could be used to determine tumor response to drug treatment. As examined, the drugs affected by these two lncRNAs mainly targeted metabolism, target of rapamycin signaling pathway, phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase signaling pathway, epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathway, and cell cycle. In summary, the present research was devoted to analyzing CNV, lncRNA, mRNA, and microRNA of lung cancer, and nine lncRNAs that could affect the CNV-associated ceRNA network we constructed were identified, two of which are promising in determining tumor response to drug treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2020.627436DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7876300PMC
January 2021

Implementation-Independent Representation for Deep Convolutional Neural Networks and Humans in Processing Faces.

Front Comput Neurosci 2020 26;14:601314. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Department of Psychology & Tsinghua Laboratory of Brain and Intelligence, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.

Deep convolutional neural networks (DCNN) nowadays can match human performance in challenging complex tasks, but it remains unknown whether DCNNs achieve human-like performance through human-like processes. Here we applied a reverse-correlation method to make explicit representations of DCNNs and humans when performing face gender classification. We found that humans and a typical DCNN, VGG-Face, used similar critical information for this task, which mainly resided at low spatial frequencies. Importantly, the prior task experience, which the VGG-Face was pre-trained to process faces at the subordinate level (i.e., identification) as humans do, seemed necessary for such representational similarity, because AlexNet, a DCNN pre-trained to process objects at the basic level (i.e., categorization), succeeded in gender classification but relied on a completely different representation. In sum, although DCNNs and humans rely on different sets of hardware to process faces, they can use a similar and implementation-independent representation to achieve the same computation goal.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fncom.2020.601314DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7870475PMC
January 2021

ITPR3 facilitates tumor growth, metastasis and stemness by inducing the NF-ĸB/CD44 pathway in urinary bladder carcinoma.

J Exp Clin Cancer Res 2021 Feb 11;40(1):65. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Department of Urology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, #277 Yanta West Road, Xi'an, 710061, China.

Background: Bladder carcinoma is one of the most common urological cancers. ITPR3, as a ubiquitous endoplasmic reticulum calcium channel protein, was reported to be involved in the development and progression of various types of cancer. However, the potential roles and molecular mechanism of ITPR3 in bladder cancer are still unclear. Herein, we elucidated a novel role of ITPR3 in regulating the proliferation, metastasis, and stemness of bladder cancer cells.

Methods: The expression of ITPR3 in bladder cancer was analyzed using public databases and bladder cancer tissue microarrays. To demonstrate the role of ITPR3 in regulating the NF-ĸB/CD44 pathway and the progression of bladder cancer, a series of molecular biology and biochemistry methods was performed on clinical tissues, along with in vivo and in vitro experiments. The methods used included western blot assay, quantitative RT-PCR assay, immunofluorescence assay, immunohistochemistry (IHC) assays, wound healing assay, Transwell assay, colony formation assay, tumorsphere formation assay, cell flow cytometry analysis, EdU assay, MTT assay, cell transfection, bisulfite sequencing PCR (BSP), a xenograft tumor model and a tail vein cancer metastasis model.

Results: Higher ITPR3 expression was found in bladder cancer tissues and bladder cancer cells compared with the corresponding normal peritumor tissues and SV-HUC-1 cells, which was attributed to demethylation in the ITPR3 promoter region. ITPR3 promoted the proliferation of bladder cancer by accelerating cell cycle transformation and promoted local invasion and distant metastasis by inducing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Meanwhile, ITPR3 maintained the cancer stemness phenotype by regulating CD44 expression. NF-κB, which is upstream of CD44, also played a critical role in this process.

Conclusions: Our study clarifies that ITPR3 serves as an oncogene in bladder cancer cells and represents a novel candidate for bladder cancer diagnosis and treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13046-021-01866-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7877014PMC
February 2021

Zebularine elevates STING expression and enhances cGAMP cancer immunotherapy in mice.

Mol Ther 2021 May 9;29(5):1758-1771. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Fujian Key Laboratory of Innate Immune Biology, Biomedical Research Center of South China, College of Life Science, Fujian Normal University Qishan Campus, Fuzhou, Fujian Province 350117, China; Key Laboratory of OptoElectronic Science and Technology for Medicine of Ministry of Education, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350117, China. Electronic address:

DNA methylation abnormality is closely related to tumor occurrence and development. Chemical inhibitors targeting DNA methyltransferase (DNMTis) have been used in treating cancer. However, the impact of DNMTis on antitumor immunity has not been well elucidated. In this study, we show that zebularine (a demethylating agent) treatment of cancer cells led to increased levels of interferon response in a cyclic guanosine monophosphate-AMP (cGAMP) synthase (cGAS)- and stimulator of interferon genes (STING)-dependent manner. This treatment also specifically sensitized the cGAS-STING pathway in response to DNA stimulation. Incorporation of zebularine into genomic DNA caused demethylation and elevated expression of a group of genes, including STING. Without causing DNA damage, zebularine led to accumulation of DNA species in the cytoplasm of treated cells. In syngeneic tumor models, administration of zebularine alone reduced tumor burden and extended mice survival. This effect synergized with cGAMP and immune checkpoint blockade therapy. The efficacy of zebularine was abolished in nude mice and in cGAS or STING mice, indicating its dependency on host immunity. Analysis of tumor cells indicates upregulation of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) following zebularine administration. Zebularine promoted infiltration of CD8 T cells and natural killer (NK) cells into tumor and therefore suppressed tumor growth. This study unveils the role of zebularine in sensitizing the cGAS-STING pathway to promote anti-tumor immunity and provides the foundation for further therapeutic development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymthe.2021.02.005DOI Listing
May 2021

Association between serum prostate-specific antigen concentrations and the risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus in Chinese men: A cohort study.

J Diabetes Investig 2021 Feb 5. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Department of Epidemiology, School of Medicine, Jinan University, Guangzhou, China.

Aims/introduction: The current literature suggests that men with diabetes have a lower prostate-specific antigen concentration than men without diabetes, but the causal association remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the association between serum prostate-specific antigen concentrations and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in a cohort study of a Chinese population.

Materials And Methods: We designed a cohort study that comprised 16,811 initially non-diabetic Chinese men who received annual health checkups between 2009 and 2016. The outcome of this study was type 2 diabetes mellitus, identified by medical diagnosis, self-reportage, medication use, fasting glucose, 2-h post oral glucose or glycated hemoglobin measurements. Cox proportional hazards models were carried out to evaluate the association.

Results: During a median follow-up period of 3.8 years (interquartile range 1.91-5.73 years), 1,260 participants developed incident type 2 diabetes mellitus. The multivariable model, adjusted for various potential confounders, showed that serum prostate-specific antigen concentrations were inversely related to type 2 diabetes mellitus risk (P for trend = 0.014). Compared with the lowest quartile of serum prostate-specific antigen, the hazard ratio and 95% confidence intervals of type 2 diabetes mellitus risk for quartile 2-4 were 0.84 (0.66-1.07), 0.75 (0.59-0.94) and 0.77 (0.62-0.96), respectively. Subgroup analyses suggested the inverse relationship was more prominent in overweight or obese participants (P for interaction = 0.013).

Conclusions: High serum prostate-specific antigen concentration was associated with a low risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Chinese men. Future studies are required to confirm these findings and investigate underlying mechanisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jdi.13521DOI Listing
February 2021

A non-bioartificial liver support system combined with transplantation in HBV-related acute-on-chronic liver failure.

Sci Rep 2021 Feb 3;11(1):2975. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, National Clinical Research Center for Infectious Diseases, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, 79 Qingchun Rd, Hangzhou, 310003, China.

We aim to determine the impact of an artificial liver support system (ALSS) treatment before liver transplantation (LT), and identify the prognostic factors and evaluate the predictive values of the current commonly used ACLF prognostic models for short-term prognosis after LT. Data from 166 patients who underwent LT with acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) were retrospectively collected from January 2011 to December 2018 from the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine. Patients were divided into two groups depending on whether they received ALSS treatment pre-LT. In the observation group, liver function tests and prognostic scores were significantly lower after ALSS treatment, and the waiting time for a donor liver was significantly longer than that of the control group. Both intraoperative blood loss and period of postoperative ICU care were significantly lower; however, there were no significant differences between groups in terms of total postoperative hospital stays. Postoperative 4-week and 12-week survival rates in the observation group were significantly higher than those of the control group. Similar trends were also observed at 48 and 96 weeks, however, without significant difference. Multivariate Cox regression analysis of the risk factors related to prognosis showed that preoperative ALSS treatment, neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio, and intraoperative blood loss were independent predicting factors for 4-week survival rate after transplantation. ALSS treatment combined with LT in patients with HBV-related ACLF improved short-term survival. ALSS treatment pre-LT is an independent protective factor affecting the 4-week survival rate after LT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-82719-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7859234PMC
February 2021

Depletion of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor increases radiosensitivity in colorectal cancer.

J Gastrointest Oncol 2020 Dec;11(6):1135-1145

Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, the Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao, China.

Background: Although radiation therapy for advanced colorectal cancer (CRC) is very effective in some patients, treatment resistance limits its efficacy. Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) can affect tumor responsiveness and sensitivity to radiation in several cancer types. Herein, we studied the underlying function of IGF1R in the resistance of advanced CRC to radiation therapy and the possible use of drugs targeting IGF1R to overcome this resistance in patients with CRC.

Methods: Differences in the expression levels of the IGF1R were assessed in CRC samples from patients who were radiosensitive or radioresistant. Two radio-resistant colorectal cancer cell lines, SW480 and HT29, were selected for studies, and the involvement of the IGF1R in their radiation resistance was elucidated by suppressing its expression through a targeted siRNA and through the use of a specific IGF1R inhibitor, BMS-754807. We assessed radiosensitivity in these human CRC cells lines by examining their proliferation and colony formation, as well as cell cycle analysis. Activation of the Akt pathway was assessed using western blotting.

Results: Compared with tissues from radiosensitive patients, higher IGF1R expression levels were found in patients with radiation-resistant colorectal cancer, while BMS-754807 had improved radiosensitivity and reversed radiation tolerance in both colorectal cancer cell lines. Pre-treatment with BMS-754807 prior to irradiation inhibited Akt phosphorylation, induced cell cycle arrest, and increased DNA damage. Therefore, the IGF1R contributes to radiation resistance of CRC cells .

Conclusions: This study supports the notion that the radiosensitivity of radiation-resistant colorectal cancer cells can be enhanced by directly targeting IGF1R expression or activity. Ultimately, the combination of radiotherapy with IGF1R targeted inhibitors could potentially increase its effectiveness in the treatment of advanced colorectal cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/jgo-20-210DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7807270PMC
December 2020

Use of Cardiovascular Drugs for Primary and Secondary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease Among Rural-Dwelling Older Chinese Adults.

Front Pharmacol 2020 18;11:608136. Epub 2020 Dec 18.

Department of Neurology, Shandong Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong First Medical University, Jinan, China.

Cardiovascular risk factors and related disorders are common among older adults, and use of various classes of cardiovascular (CV) drugs could reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, data are sparse with regard to the use of CV drugs among rural-dwelling older adults in China. Therefore, this population-based study aimed to describe use of CV drugs among older adults living in the rural communities in China, while taking into account the use of CV drugs for primary and secondary prevention of CVDs. This study included 5,246 participants (age ≥65 years; 57.17% women; 40.68% illiteracy) in the baseline examination of the MIND-China study. In March-September 2018, data on health-related factors, CVDs (ischemic heart disease, atrial fibrillation, heart failure, and stroke), and CV drug use were collected via face-to-face survey, clinical examination, and laboratory tests. We classified CV drugs according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification system for western medications and specific cardiovascular effects for the products of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). We conducted descriptive analysis. The overall prevalence of major cardiovascular risk factors ranged from 14.30% in diabetes and 23.81% in dyslipidemia to 66.70% in hypertension, and CVDs affected 35.07% of all participants (36.28% in women vs. 33.47% in men, = 0.035). In the total sample, calcium channel blockers (C08) were most commonly used (10.39%), followed by TCM products (7.64%), hypoglycemic agents (A10, 4.73%), renin-angiotensin system (RAS)-acting agents (C09, 4.61%), and lipid-lowering agents (C10, 4.17%). The proportions of CV drugs for primary prevention (i.e., use of CV drugs among people without CVD) were 3.14% for antithrombotic agents (mainly aspirin), 1.38% for lipid-lowering agents, and 3.11% for RAS-acting agents; the corresponding figures for secondary prevention (i.e., use of CV drugs among people with CVD) were 13.97%, 9.35%, and 7.39%. In conclusion, despite highly prevalent cardiovascular risk factors and CVDs, a fairly low proportion of the rural-dwelling older adults take CV medications for primary and secondary prevention. Notably, TCM products are among the most commonly used CV drugs. These results call for additional efforts to promote implementation of the evidence-based recommendations for prevention of CVDs in the primary care settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2020.608136DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7793651PMC
December 2020

A comprehensive association analysis between homocysteine metabolic pathway gene methylation and ischemic stroke in a Chinese hypertensive population.

J Clin Lab Anal 2021 Mar 31;35(3):e23689. Epub 2020 Dec 31.

Hwa Mei Hospital, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo, China.

Background: Ischemic stroke (IS) is a serious global health burden. In order to improve our understanding of the risk factors associated with IS, we investigated the combined effect of the methylation of five genes related to the metabolism of homocysteine on developing IS.

Methods: Quantitative methylation-specific PCR was used to measure the levels of promoter methylation in hypertensive and stroke patients. The cutoff value calculated by the maximum Youden index was used to classify the levels of gene methylation as hypomethylation and hypermethylation. Logistic regression was used to explore the relationship between gene methylation and IS.

Results: The methylation levels of the genes encoding methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase 1 [MTHFD1], cystathionine β-synthase [CBS], and dihydrofolate reductase [DHFR] in hypertensive patients were higher than those in stroke patients (all p < 0.01). MTHFD1 hypermethylation, CBS hypermethylation, and DHFR hypermethylation were protective factors for stroke after adjustment for confounding factors. Compared with individuals carrying none of the biomarkers, the ORs [95% CIs] for stroke of those with 1 and 2 elevated biomarkers were 4.068 [1.670-9.913] and 15.345 [6.198-37.994] after adjustment for confounding factors. The participants with a larger number of biomarkers had an increased risk of stroke (p for trend <0.001). For the combination biomarkers, the area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic was 0.716.

Conclusion: A significant linear relationship between the number of elevated biomarkers and the risk of stroke has been observed, suggesting that elevations of these biomarkers could be used for potentially predicting the disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcla.23689DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7957978PMC
March 2021

Clinical and Imaging Prognosis in Patients with Delayed Encephalopathy after Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning.

Behav Neurol 2020 7;2020:1719360. Epub 2020 Dec 7.

Department of Neurology, Shandong Provincial Qianfoshan Hospital, The First Affiliated Hospital of Shandong First Medical University, Jinan, China.

Objective: To study the clinical manifestations, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, and prognosis of delayed encephalopathy after carbon monoxide poisoning (DEACMP).

Methods: The medical records of 20 patients with DEACMP were retrospectively reviewed. All the patients received hyperbaric oxygen treatment and other treatments as necessary.

Results: The patients had diverse clinical manifestations, including memory deficits, personality changes, cognitive or executive function deficits, mood disorders, Parkinsonism, dystonia or other motor impairments, and akinetic mutism. MRI revealed lesions in the bilateral cerebral white matter and/or basal ganglia. Except for the pathologically confirmed DEACMP, epileptic seizure, hemiplegia, and vegetative state, the remaining symptoms had been improved, especially the cognitive impairment, which had been decreased from 95% to 25% and psychiatric symptoms also decreased from 95% to 55% at the 6-month follow-up.

Conclusions: The prognosis of patients with DEACMP was poor, and they had a relatively severe disability. The early use of hyperbaric oxygen is of great significance to improve clinical efficacy and get a better prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/1719360DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7744233PMC
December 2020

Does Inconsistent Social Support Matter? The Effects of Social Support on Work Absorption Through Relaxation at Work.

Front Psychol 2020 3;11:555501. Epub 2020 Dec 3.

School of Management, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, China.

Drawing upon the conservation of resources theory and social exchange theory, we examined the effects of family supportive supervisor behavior (FSSB) and family support (FS) on work absorption at the within- and between-person levels. A 10-day study of 91 workers using 710 observations was employed. At the within-person level, the results suggested that daily relaxation at work mediated the relationships between daily FS, daily shifts in FS, and daily work absorption. However, at the between-person level, the results revealed that chronic relaxation at work mediated the relation between the average level of FSSB/FS and chronic work absorption. We conclude that FSSB/FS plays a vital role in relaxation at work and work absorption at the within- and between-person levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.555501DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7744690PMC
December 2020

3D FIB-SEM reconstruction of microtubule-organelle interaction in whole primary mouse β cells.

J Cell Biol 2021 Feb;220(2)

Molecular Diabetology, University Hospital and Faculty of Medicine, Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany.

Microtubules play a major role in intracellular trafficking of vesicles in endocrine cells. Detailed knowledge of microtubule organization and their relation to other cell constituents is crucial for understanding cell function. However, their role in insulin transport and secretion is under debate. Here, we use FIB-SEM to image islet β cells in their entirety with unprecedented resolution. We reconstruct mitochondria, Golgi apparati, centrioles, insulin secretory granules, and microtubules of seven β cells, and generate a comprehensive spatial map of microtubule-organelle interactions. We find that microtubules form nonradial networks that are predominantly not connected to either centrioles or endomembranes. Microtubule number and length, but not microtubule polymer density, vary with glucose stimulation. Furthermore, insulin secretory granules are enriched near the plasma membrane, where they associate with microtubules. In summary, we provide the first 3D reconstructions of complete microtubule networks in primary mammalian cells together with evidence regarding their importance for insulin secretory granule positioning and thus their supportive role in insulin secretion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1083/jcb.202010039DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7748794PMC
February 2021

Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer: a patent review (2014-present).

Expert Opin Ther Pat 2021 Mar 14;31(3):223-238. Epub 2020 Dec 14.

Jiangxi Provincial Key Laboratory of Drug Design and Evaluation, School of Pharmacy, Jiangxi Science & Technology Normal University, Nanchang, Jiangxi, China.

: EGFR is the receptor for epidermal growth factor (EGF) and belongs to the protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) receptor. It is closely related to the inhibition of tumor cell proliferation, invasion, and apoptosis. Overexpression or mutation activation of EGFR is involved in the development of many human malignancies, especially non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). At present, numerous small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have been developed to target the ATP-binding region of EGFR, aiming to develop selective and effective inhibitors for the treatment of NSCLC against EGFR mutants.: This review covers the latest progress in the patented EGFR inhibitors and the inhibition activity against NSCLC from 2014 to present.: EGFR is an important anti-tumor target, and small molecule inhibitors targeting EGFR have become important biologically active compounds for the treatment of cancer, especially against NSCLC. Among the recent patents available, great majority of them focus on selective inhibitors of EGFR mutants. Although great achievements have been made in the development of selective EGFR inhibitors, there is still an urgent need to discover new EGFR inhibitors which are safe, efficient, selective, and low-toxic to avoid the adverse pharmacokinetics caused by wild-type EGFR feature.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13543776.2021.1860210DOI Listing
March 2021

Gefitinib encapsulation based on nano-liposomes for enhancing the curative effect of lung cancer.

Cell Cycle 2020 12 10;19(24):3581-3594. Epub 2020 Dec 10.

Department of Pulmology and Critical Care Medicine, Regional medical center for National Institute of Respiratory Diseases, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine , Hangzhou, China.

Gefitinib (GEB) is one of the drugs used for patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-positive mutations in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, application of GEB is limited by its low water solubility, stability, and utilization rate, especially the side effects while GEB is given by oral. In this study, nanoliposome was used as a carrier to prepare nanoliposome compound drug (GL) by embedding GEB in the nanoliposome perfectly combined with green nontoxic solvent and thin-film dispersion method. The nanoliposome structure was expected to improve the water solubility and biocompatibility of GEB, thus improving the effect of cancer treatment. The surface electronegative nanoliposomes can effectively avoid protein adsorption and prolong the circulation time . Meanwhile, the ratio of lecithin to cholesterol (LE/CH) was explored to maximize the encapsulation efficiency of nanoliposome. Subsequent test results showed that GL exhibited better stability, smaller particle size and higher encapsulation efficiency. In addition, drug release curve also further confirmed that GL had a promising drug sustained-release effect. In particular, a series of tests such as cell activity, apoptosis, colony formation, scratch, invasion, and cell cycle assays were performed. The results indicated that GL significantly enhanced the pro-apoptotic effect on A549 cells. Most cell cycles of A549 cells were blocked in the G0/G1 phase influenced by GL, thus inhibiting the proliferation of cancer cells. anti-tumor studies showed that compared with pure GEB, GL had a significant inhibiting effect on NSCLC. In conclusion, the GL which was synthesized by a simple method in this study significantly improved the treatment effect of cancer cells, which proved that the nanoliposome carrier had an excellent application prospect in the treatment of lung cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15384101.2020.1852756DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7781631PMC
December 2020

Coping strategies of students for anxiety during the COVID-19 pandemic in China: a cross-sectional study.

F1000Res 2020 10;9:1115. Epub 2020 Sep 10.

Xi'an Jiaotong University, Shaanxi, China.

COVID-19 has severely affected university students everywhere in the world. Due to fear of infection, government and local authorities in China immediately closed academic institutions and tried to find survival techniques to cope with market turbulence. COVID-19 was present in China at the end of 2019. However, little attention has been paid by researchers to coping strategies during the COVID-19 pandemic, and few measures were taken to assess the coping strategies of university students, specifically following the closure of their institutions. To address this gap, this study attempted to discover the coping strategies of Chinese students during the COVID-19 pandemic in China. We conducted an online survey using a semi-structured questionnaire with a simple random sampling technique and received 559 responses. The survey questions captured information about students' lives during the COVID-19 outbreak, actions to control anxiety, and what students care about during the pandemic. The associations between coping strategies used and levels of anxiety were tested using analysis of variance (ANOVA) procedures. SPSS Statistics v27 was used for statistical analysis in this study. The university students reported that coping strategies and survival techniques were required due to high levels of anxiety and psychological pressure during the COVID-19 pandemic. Most of the respondents reported the prompt closure of their academic institutions due to COVID-19. Psychological concerns, such as lack of sleep, emotional support, mental support and social appeal, were also reported. This is one of the very first studies on coping strategies for anxiety in China. The study reveals that university students employ a number of coping strategies in relation to COVID-19, but also suggests a need to strengthen such strategies in this population. However, the study was limited to a small number of provinces in China, which may affect the generalizability of the research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12688/f1000research.25557.1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7682494PMC
December 2020