Publications by authors named "Shan Xiao"

130 Publications

Diverse RNA Viruses Discovered in Three Parasitoid Wasps of the Rice Weevil .

mSphere 2021 May 5;6(3). Epub 2021 May 5.

State Key Laboratory of Rice Biology, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology of Crop Pathogens and Insects, Institute of Insect Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China

In this study, many virus-like fragments were obtained from transcriptomes of three wasp species, including (8), (3), and (18), which can parasitize and control rice weevil , a serious insect pest of farm-stored grains. By further bioinformatic analysis and sequencing, we identified six novel RNA viruses with complete genomes and named them WWPSRV-1, WWPSRV-2, AcPSRV-1, AcNSRV-1, AcNSRV-2, and LdNSRV-1. PCR-based detection revealed that WWPSRV-1 and WWPSRV-2 had the possibility of interspecies virus transmission, especially WWPSRV-2, which was also present in the rice weevil adults. Phylogenetically, three out of these six viruses appeared to be members of order : WWPSRV-1 belonged to unassigned virus families of this order, whereas WWPSRV-2 and AcPSRV-1 belonged to families and , respectively. The conserved picornavirus-typical domains helicase, protease, and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase could be found in the nonstructural protein encoded by the three viruses, whose genomes consisted of the different numbers of open reading frames (ORFs). The other three RNA viruses could be classified to order : AcNSRV-1 and AcNSRV-2 belonged to family , whereas LdNSRV-1 belonged to a big family The genomes of the three viruses contained at least five ORFs, encoding deduced proteins in the following order: 3'-N-P-M-G-L-5'. All the ORFs were separated by conserved intergenic sequences which likely regulated the transcription termination and initiation. Our findings enhance the understanding of RNA viruses in weevil wasps and set the foundation for the future study of the association among weevils, weevil wasps, and RNA viruses. The enormous diversity of RNA viruses in insects is continuously validated. Parasitoid wasps, as biocontrol insects which are widely used against insect pests in agroecosystems, may also carry many "good" RNA viruses. Some RNA viruses in parasitoid wasps have been reported to affect the host wasps or the wasps' host. Here, six novel RNA viruses with complete genomes were identified in three parasitoid wasps of the rice weevil. One of these viruses was also detected in the rice weevil adults. Phylogenetically, WWPSRV-1 was the first unambiguous detection of Nora-like virus in insect parasitoids. WWPSRV-2 and AcPSRV-1 belong to families and , some viruses of which can result in lethal infections in silkworms and honeybees. The other three RNA viruses belong to order , which comprises many well-known insect-associated viruses.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mSphere.00331-21DOI Listing
May 2021

The complete mitochondrial genome of the mudskipper, (Gobiiformes, Oxudercidae) from Beibu Bay.

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2021 Apr 5;6(4):1337-1338. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Guangxi Key Laboratory of Aquatic Genetic Breeding and Healthy Aquaculture, Nanning, China.

The mudskipper, (), is an amphibious fish that lives in the intertidal mudflats. It is a cultured economic fish with nutritional and pharmacological value. Here, we report the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of , which is 17,111 base pairs (55.3% A + T content) in length and consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs, 2 ribosomal RNAs, and a 1453 bp D-loop region. The complete mitochondrial genome of will provide useful genetic information for future phylogenetic and taxonomic classification of .
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2021.1909433DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8023618PMC
April 2021

Liraglutide Regulates the Kidney and Liver in Diabetic Nephropathy Rats through the miR-34a/SIRT1 Pathway.

J Diabetes Res 2021 5;2021:8873956. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Endocrinology, People's Hospital of Shenzhen Baoan District, The Second School of Clinical Medicine, Southern Medical University, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Shenzhen University, Shenzhen, Guangdong, China.

Purpose: To explore the regulatory effects of liraglutide on the kidney and liver through the miR-34a/SIRT1 pathway with related factors in diabetic nephropathy (DN) rats.

Methods: DN rats were randomly divided into two groups ( = 10) and were injected with liraglutide or normal saline twice a day. The 24-hour urine microalbumin content and biochemical index levels were measured. qRT-PCR was performed to detect the expression of miR-34a in the kidney and liver tissues. The levels of SIRT1, HIF-1a, Egr-1, and TGF-1 in kidney and liver tissues were determined using qRT-PCR, western blot, and immunohistochemistry. Electron microscopy and HE staining were used to observe the ultrastructure and pathological changes.

Results: Liraglutide treatment in DN rats decreased blood glucose, 24-hour urine microalbumin, TC, TG, LDL-C, UA, Cr, UREA, ALT, and AST levels and increased the level of HDL-C ( < 0.05). Compared with the control group, the miR-34a levels were significantly decreased in kidney and liver tissues followed by liraglutide treatment ( < 0.05). The levels of SIRT1 in the liraglutide group are significantly higher than those in the control group with the kidney and liver tissues ( < 0.05). Conversely, the contents of HIF-1a, Egr-1, and TGF-1 were significantly lower in the liraglutide group than in the control group ( < 0.05). Electron microscopy showed that the kidney of the liraglutide-treated group exhibited minor broadening of the mesangial areas, fewer deposits, and a well-organized foot process. HE staining revealed that the kidney of the liraglutide-treated rats had a more regular morphology of the glomerulus and Bowman sac cavity and lighter tubular edema. Additionally, the liraglutide-treated DN rats had a clear hepatic structure, a lower degree of steatosis, and mild inflammatory cell infiltration.

Conclusion: Liraglutide, through its effect on the miR-34a/SIRT1 pathway, may have a protective role in the kidney and liver of DN rats.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/8873956DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8046563PMC
April 2021

Pulmonary tuberculosis as a risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Mar;9(5):390

State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease & National Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Disease, Guangzhou Institute of Respiratory Health, the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Background: Prior pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) can cause permanent changes in lung anatomy and is associated with lung function loss. However, it remains unclear whether pulmonary function impairment owing to TB is associated with airflow obstruction, the hallmark of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the association and quantify the magnitudes of association between pulmonary TB and COPD, and to evaluate the prevalence of COPD in patients with prior pulmonary TB.

Methods: We searched the PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science databases for studies published from inception to January 1, 2020. Pooled effect sizes were calculated according to a random effects model or fixed effect model depending on heterogeneity. Specific subgroups (different diagnostic criteria, smoking status, income level) were examined.

Results: A total of 23 articles were included in this study. Compared with controls, patients with pulmonary TB had an odds ratios (ORs) of 2.59 [95% confidence interval (CI): 2.12-3.15; P<0.001] for developing COPD. In jackknife sensitivity analyses, the increased risk of prior pulmonary TB remained consistent for COPD; when the meta-analysis was repeated and one study was omitted each time, the ORs and corresponding 95% CIs were greater than 2. Funnel plots of ORs with Egger's linear regression (t=2.00, P=0.058) and Begg's rank correlation (Z=0.75, P=0.455) showing no significant publication bias. Subgroup analysis showed that the same conclusion was still present in never smokers (ORs 2.41; 95% CI: 1.74-3.32; P<0.001), patients with pulmonary TB diagnosed using chest X-ray (ORs 2.47; 95% CI: 1.23-4.97; P<0.001), and low- and middle-income country (LMIC) settings (ORs 2.70; 95% CI: 2.08-3.51; P<0.001). The pooled prevalence of COPD in patients with prior pulmonary TB was 21% (95% CI: 16-25%; P<0.001).

Conclusions: Individuals with prior pulmonary TB have an increased risk and high prevalence of COPD. Future studies identifying the underlying mechanisms for TB-associated COPD and therapeutic strategies are required.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-20-4576DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8033376PMC
March 2021

Serine metabolism antagonizes antiviral innate immunity by preventing ATP6V0d2-mediated YAP lysosomal degradation.

Cell Metab 2021 May 1;33(5):971-987.e6. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Key Laboratory of Immune Microenvironment and Disease (Ministry of Education), Department of Immunology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300070, China; Department of Pharmacology and Tianjin Key Laboratory of Inflammation Biology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300070, China; The Province and Ministry Co-sponsored Collaborative Innovation Center for Medical Epigenetics, Department of Pharmacology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300070, China. Electronic address:

Serine metabolism promotes tumor oncogenesis and regulates immune cell functions, but whether it also contributes to antiviral innate immunity is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that virus-infected macrophages display decreased expression of serine synthesis pathway (SSP) enzymes. Suppressing the SSP key enzyme phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PHGDH) by genetic approaches or by treatment with the pharmaceutical inhibitor CBR-5884 and by exogenous serine restriction enhanced IFN-β-mediated antiviral innate immunity in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistic experiments showed that virus infection or serine metabolism deficiency increased the expression of the V-ATPase subunit ATP6V0d2 by inhibiting S-adenosyl methionine-dependent H3K27me3 occupancy at the promoter. ATP6V0d2 promoted YAP lysosomal degradation to relieve YAP-mediated blockade of the TBK1-IRF3 axis and, thus, enhance IFN-β production. These findings implicate critical functions of PHGDH and the key immunometabolite serine in blunting antiviral innate immunity and also suggest manipulation of serine metabolism as a therapeutic strategy against virus infection.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmet.2021.03.006DOI Listing
May 2021

Glioblastoma stem cell (GSC)-derived PD-L1-containing exosomes activates AMPK/ULK1 pathway mediated autophagy to increase temozolomide-resistance in glioblastoma.

Cell Biosci 2021 Mar 31;11(1):63. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Neurosurgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Shenzhen University (People's Hospital of Shenzhen Baoan District), Longjing Second Road No. 118, Shenzhen, 518101, Guang Dong, China.

Temozolomide (TMZ)-resistance hampers the therapeutic efficacy of this drug for glioblastoma (GBM) treatment in clinic, and emerging evidences suggested that exosomes from GBM-derived stem cells (GSCs) contributed to this process, but the detailed mechanisms are still largely unknown. In the present study, we reported that GSCs derived programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) containing exosomes activated AMPK/ULK1 pathway mediated protective autophagy enhanced TMZ-resistance in GBM in vitro and in vivo. Specifically, we noticed that continuous low-dose TMZ stimulation promoted GSCs generation and PD-L1 containing exosomes (PD-L1-ex) secretion in GBM cells, and that PD-L1-ex inhibited cell apoptosis and promoted cell autophagy to increased TMZ-resistance in GBM cells, which were reversed by co-treating cells with the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA). Consistently, upregulation of PD-L1 also increased TMZ-resistance in TS-GBM cells, and silencing of PD-L1 sensitized TR-GBM cells to TMZ. In addition, PD-L1-ex activated AMPK/ULK1 pathway to induce autophagy in TMZ treated GBM cells, and the inhibitors for AMPK (compound C) and ULK1 (SBI-0206965) promoted cell apoptosis in GBM cells co-treated with PD-L1-ex and high-dose TMZ. Finally, we evidenced that PD-L1-ex promoted tumor growth and Ki67 protein expressions to increase TMZ-resistance in GBM in vivo. Collectively, we concluded that GSCs-derived PD-L1-ex activated AMPK1/ULK1 signaling cascade mediated autophagy to increase TMZ-resistance in GBM, and this study provided potential strategies to improve the therapeutic efficacy of TMZ in GBM.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13578-021-00575-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8011168PMC
March 2021

Safety and efficacy of daclizumab beta in patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis in a 5-year open-label study (EXTEND): final results following early termination.

Ther Adv Neurol Disord 2021 26;14:1756286420987941. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Biogen, Cambridge, MA, USA.

Background: EXTEND (NCT01797965), an open-label extension study, evaluated the safety and efficacy of daclizumab beta in participants with relapsing multiple sclerosis (MS) who had completed the randomized DECIDE study.

Methods: Eligible participants who received either daclizumab beta or interferon beta-1a in DECIDE received daclizumab beta 150 mg subcutaneously every 4 weeks for up to 5 years in EXTEND, followed by 24 weeks of post-dosing follow-up. Safety and tolerability were evaluated, as were clinical efficacy and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). EXTEND was terminated ahead of schedule by the sponsors.

Results: The total safety population ( = 1203) received at least one dose of daclizumab beta in EXTEND. In the DECIDE and EXTEND combined periods, the median number of doses of daclizumab beta was 53; median time on treatment was 196 weeks. By 24 September 2018, the end of the study, 110/1203 (9%) participants had completed the protocol-specified treatment period and 1101/1203 (92%) had experienced an adverse event (AE). The most commonly reported AEs were MS relapse, nasopharyngitis, and upper respiratory tract infection. Hepatic events (18%), cutaneous events (45%), and infections (62%) were common treatment-related AEs. The incidence of serious AEs was 29%, most commonly MS relapse and infections. The incidence of immune-mediated disorders was 2%; three of seven were encephalitis. Two of six deaths were considered treatment related. In participants who received continuous daclizumab beta throughout DECIDE and EXTEND, the treatment effects on clinical and MRI outcomes were maintained for up to 6 years.

Conclusion: Results from the combined DECIDE-EXTEND study elucidate outcomes of longer-term treatment with daclizumab beta in the clinical trial setting and underscore the importance of pharmacovigilance with immunomodulatory therapies in the real-world setting.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1756286420987941DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7934044PMC
February 2021

Effects of Ergothioneine-enriched mushroom extract on oxidative stability, volatile compounds and sensory quality of emulsified sausage.

Anim Biosci 2021 Mar 11. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Engineering Research Center of Health Food Design & Nutrition Regulation, School of Chemical Engineering and Energy Technology, Dongguan University of Technology, Dongguan, 523808, China.

Objective: The aim of this work was to assess the effect of Ergothioneine-enriched mushroom extract on oxidative stability, volatile compounds, and sensory quality of emulsified sausage.

Methods: The ESH (Ergothioneine) content was determined by HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography). The antioxidant activity of Flammulina velutipes (F. velutipes) extract was determined through radical-scavenging activity of 1,1 diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and hydroxyl radicals. Four different groups of emulsified sausage were manufactured: control, no antioxidants; BHA, 0.01% butylated hydroxyanisole; EEME, 0.8% ergothioneine-enriched mushroom (Flammulina velutipes) extract; AE, 0.012% authentic ergothioneine, after storage for 14 days (at 4 °C), the quality of sausage including oxidative stability (2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and protein carbonyls content), volatile compounds and sensory quality were studied.

Results: It was demonstrated that adding ESH-enriched F. velutipes extract to sausage could effectively prevent lipid and protein oxidation, and its efficacy was equivalent with 0.01% BHA. During meat processing, the ESH mainly contributed to the antioxidative activity of F. velutipes extract. The flavor and sensory attributes of emulsified sausage were improved through adding ESH-enriched F. velutipes extract.

Conclusion: Accordingly, the extract of F. velutipes contained high-level of ESH and could be a good antioxidant candidate for processed meat production.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.5713/ab.20.0817DOI Listing
March 2021

Evaluation of endometrial immune status of polycystic ovary syndrome.

J Reprod Immunol 2021 04 2;144:103282. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Reproductive Immunology for Peri-implantation, Shenzhen Zhongshan Institute for Reproduction and Genetics, Fertility Center, Shenzhen Zhongshan Urology Hospital, Shenzhen, China. Electronic address:

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is described as a low-grade chronic inflammatory state. However, there are limited studies on the specific endometrial immune status of PCOS patients. Whether this endometrial immune cell pattern is intrinsic to PCOS or the consequence of PCOS-associated obesity is a subject of debate. This study retrospectively included one hundred women diagnosed with PCOS and ninety-five normal fertile controls, which further divided into four groups (normoweight PCOS; overweight PCOS; normoweight control; overweight control) based on body mass index. The percentages of endometrial CD68 macrophages (1.97 % vs. 1.17 %; P < 0.001), CD163 M2 macrophages (2.30 % vs. 1.83 %; P = 0.001), CD1a iDCs (0.044 % vs. 0.029 %; P = 0.002), CD83 mDCs (1.72 % vs. 1.07 %; P < 0.001) and CD8 T cells (2.82 % vs. 1.95 %; P < 0.001) were significantly higher in normoweight PCOS women than normoweight controls. The percentage of CD68 macrophages (2.09 % vs. 1.15 %; P < 0.001) was significantly higher in overweight PCOS women compared with overweight controls. In multivariant linear regression analysis, participants' PCOS status was the main predictors of endometrial CD68 macrophages, CD163 M2 macrophages, CD1a iDCs, CD83 mDCs and CD8 T cells in the whole study population. Additionally, in PCOS group, positive correlations were found between endometrial CD56 NK, CD163 M2 macrophages and QUICKI, indicating there was an association between endometrial immune cells and insulin resistance in PCOS women. Our study suggests that women with PCOS have altered endometrial immune cells, which may reflect a state of chronic low grade inflammation. The chronic inflammation, independent of obesity, may help understand the pathophysiologic mechanisms of intrinsic PCOS.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jri.2021.103282DOI Listing
April 2021

Identification and characterization of a novel rhabdovirus in green rice leafhopper, Nephotettix cincticeps.

Virus Res 2021 Apr 3;296:198281. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

State Key Laboratory of Rice Biology, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology of Crop Pathogens and Insects, Institute of Insect Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058, China. Electronic address:

The family Rhabdoviridae is one of the most ecological diverse groups of RNA viruses, with remarkable genome complexity and wide host range. Rhabdoviruses are discovered in many insect species, and insects, such as midges, mosquitoes, aphids and leafhoppers, act as crucial vectors for rhabdovirus transmission. Here, a novel rhabdovirus was identified in green rice leafhopper, Nephotettix cincticeps (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), a common virus vector on rice. This virus was named as Nephotettix cincticeps negative-stranded RNA virus-1 (NcNSRV-1). The genome of NcNSRV-1 is 12,361 nucleotides in length, flanked by untranslated 3' leader and 5' trailer. The anti-sense viral genome consists of five major structural protein genes (N, P, M, G and L), which shares a typical architecture with the family Rhabdoviridae. An additional gene, P6, is interposed between G and L genes. NcNSRV-1 is phylogenetically clustered with the unclassified rhabdoviruses isolated from insects and exhibits low sequence identities with other viruses. The transcription regulatory sequences in NcNSRV-1 gene junctions were determined, revealing a unique transcription initiation sequence. In view of the phylogeny, sequence identity and genome organization, NcNSRV-1 is likely to be an insect rhabdovirus. Field surveys showed NcNSRV-1 was prevalent in the rice field populations of N. cincticeps in China.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.virusres.2020.198281DOI Listing
April 2021

Effects of catheter-based renal denervation on glycemic control and lipid levels: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Acta Diabetol 2021 May 18;58(5):603-614. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Department of Cardiology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Sichuan province, Chengdu, China.

Aims: As an emerging interventional technique to treat resistant hypertension, renal denervation (RDN) has also attracted considerable attention due to its potential beneficial effects on glucose and lipid metabolism. Given that inconsistent results were documented among studies, we aimed to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to elaborate on this issue.

Methods: The PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science (SCI) and ClinicalTrials.gov databases were comprehensively searched from their inception date to June 18, 2020, for relevant clinical studies evaluating the efficacy of RDN on glucose and lipid levels. The outcomes of interest were changes in fasting glucose, insulin, C-peptide, hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C), homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), cholesterol and triglyceride (TG) levels before versus after RDN and also RDN versus the control group. The mean differences (MDs) of the outcomes measured before versus after RDN and RDN versus the control group were pooled by a randomized effects model. Heterogeneity was quantified with Chi-square (χ) and inconsistency index (I). Assessment of publication bias was performed by the funnel plot and Egger's test.

Results: A total of 1600 studies were initially identified. Nineteen of the identified studies (six randomized controlled studies, one non-randomized controlled studies and 12 observational cohort studies) involving 2245 subjects were included in the final analysis. No significant change was observed after RDN in fasting glucose (weighted mean difference [WMD]  - 0.19 mmol/L; 95% CI  - 0.37, 0.00 mmol/L), insulin (standardized mean difference [SMD]  - 0.01; 95% CI  - 0.41, 0.39), C-peptide (SMD  - 0.05; 95% CI  - 0.30, 0.21), HbA1C (SMD  - 0.05; 95% CI  - 0.17, 0.07), HOMA-IR (SMD  - 0.29; 95% CI  - 0.72, 0.14), total cholesterol (TC) (WMD  - 0.11 mmol/L; 95% CI  - 0.37, 0.15 mmol/L), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels (WMD  - 0.18 mmol/L; 95% CI  - 0.59, 0.24 mmol/L) during follow-up. Changes in fasting glucose, insulin, HbA1C and TC levels in RDN groups were not significantly different from those in the control group. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and TG were slightly improved after RDN (WMD 0.07 mmol/L, 95% CI 0.01, 0.14 mmol/L; WMD - 0.26 mmol/l, 95% CI  - 0.51,  - 0.01 mmol/L, respectively). The funnel plot and Egger's test demonstrated the absence of potential publication bias.

Conclusions: Catheter-based RDN appeared to have no impact on glucose metabolism. There was a statistically significant but clinically negligible improvement in HDL-C and TG levels based on the current evidence. Future research with more rigorous designs is warranted to draw definitive conclusions.

Registration Details: The protocol of this meta-analysis was registered on PROSPERO (CRD42020192805). ( https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/display_record.php?RecordID=192805 ).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00592-020-01659-6DOI Listing
May 2021

Association of change in air quality with hospital admission for acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Guangdong, China: A province-wide ecological study.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Jan 11;208:111590. Epub 2020 Nov 11.

State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, National Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Disease, Guangzhou Institute of Respiratory Health, the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Aims: To assess possible effect of air quality improvements, we investigated the temporal change in hospital admissions for acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) associated with pollutant concentrations.

Methods: We collected daily concentrations of particulate matter (i.e., PM, PM and PM), sulfur dioxide (SO), nitrogen dioxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O), and admissions for AECOPD for 21 cities in Guangdong from 2013 to 2017. We examined the association of air pollution with AECOPD admissions using two-stage time-series analysis, and estimated the annual attributable fractions, numbers, and direct hospitalization costs of AECOPD admissions with principal component analysis.

Results: From 2013-2017, mean daily concentrations of SO, PM and PM declined by nearly 40%, 30%, and 26% respectively. As the average daily 8 h O concentration increased considerably, the number of days exceeding WHO target (i.e.,100 μg/m³) increased from 103 in 2015-152 in 2017. For each interquartile range increase in pollutant concentration, the relative risks of AECOPD admission at lag 0-3 were 1.093 (95% CI 1.06-1.13) for PM, 1.092 (95% CI 1.08-1.11) for O, and 1.092 (95% CI 1.05-1.14) for SO. Attributable fractions of AECOPD admission advanced by air pollution declined from 9.5% in 2013 to 4.9% in 2016, then increased to 6.0% in 2017. A similar declining trend was observed for direct AECOPD hospitalization costs.

Conclusion: Declined attributable hospital admissions for AECOPD may be associated with the reduction in concentrations of PM, PM and SO in Guangdong, while O has emerged as an important risk factor. Summarizes the main finding of the work: Reduction in PM may result in declined attributable hospitalizations for AECOPD, while O has emerged as an important risk factor following an intervention.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2020.111590DOI Listing
January 2021

Association of hospital admission for bronchiectasis with air pollution: A province-wide time-series study in southern China.

Int J Hyg Environ Health 2021 Jan 3;231:113654. Epub 2020 Nov 3.

State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, National Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Disease, Guangzhou Institute of Respiratory Health, the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, China. Electronic address:

The relation of acute fluctuations of air pollution to hospital admission for bronchiectasis remained uncertain, and large-scale studies were needed. We collected daily concentrations of particulate matter (PM), sulfur dioxide (SO), nitrogen dioxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O), and daily hospitalizations for bronchiectasis for 21 cities across Guangdong Province from 2013 through 2017. We examined their association using two-stage time-series analysis. Our analysis was stratified by specific sub-diagnosis, sex and age group to assess potential effect modifications. Relative risks of hospitalization for bronchiectasis were 1.060 (95%CI 1.014-1.108) for PM at lag0-6, 1.067 (95%CI 1.020-1.116) for PM at lag0-6, 1.038 (95%CI 1.005-1.073) for PM at lag0-6, 1.058 (95%CI 1.015-1.103) for SO at lag0-4, 1.057 (95%CI 1.030-1.084) for NO at lag0 and 1.055 (95%CI 1.025-1.085) for CO at lag0-6 per interquartile range increase of air pollution. Specifically, acute fluctuations of air pollution might be a risk factor for bronchiectasis patients with lower respiratory infection but not with hemoptysis. Patients aged ≥65 years, and female patients appeared to be particularly susceptible to air pollution. Acute fluctuations of air pollution, particularly PM may increase the risk of hospital admission for bronchiectasis exacerbations, especially for the patients complicated with lower respiratory infection. This study strengthens the importance of reducing adverse impact on respiratory health of air pollution to protect vulnerable populations.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheh.2020.113654DOI Listing
January 2021

Pregnancy Outcomes of Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome for the First Fertilization Treatment: A Retrospective Cohort Study With 7678 Patients.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2020 25;11:575337. Epub 2020 Sep 25.

Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Reproductive Immunology for Peri-implantation, Shenzhen Zhongshan Institute for Reproduction and Genetics, Shenzhen Zhongshan Urology Hospital, Shenzhen, China.

Background: The risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes is increased by having a polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) diagnosis. However, the confounders in previous studies preclude firm conclusions, and further studies are warranted.

Objectives: To investigate whether PCOS affects pregnancy outcomes and complications in infertile women undergoing their first fertilization (IVF) treatment, taking into account important confounders.

Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study of 7,678 infertile women, including 666 women with PCOS and 7,012 controls undergoing their first IVF treatment at a private fertility center from January 2010 to December 2017. Our main outcome was the impact of PCOS on adverse pregnancy outcomes (miscarriage, preterm delivery, pregnancy-induced hypertension) and pregnancy outcomes (live birth rate, clinical pregnancy rate, implantation rate). PCOS effects were summarized by adjusted odds ratios (aORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) after controlling for maternal characteristics.

Results: After adjusting for differences in maternal age, BMI, infertility duration, total dose of gonadotropin, serum E and endometrial thickness on the day of hCG trigger, number of fertilized occytes, number of embryos transferred, embryo type (cleavage-stage embryo or blastocyst) and quality, women with PCOS had an increased risk of developing unfavorable pregnancy complications, including miscarriage (aOR 1.629, 95% CI 1.240-2.141), very preterm delivery (< 32 weeks) (aOR 2.072, 95% CI 1.133-3.791). For pregnancy outcomes, PCOS was associated with higher clinical pregnancy rate (aOR 1.248, 95% CI 1.038-1.501) and implantation rate (aOR 1.238, 95% CI 1.030-1.489) after adjusting for the above-mentioned confounders.

Conclusions: Women with PCOS are at increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes after adjusting for differences in maternal characteristics. These women may need more frequent medical consultants and management during pregnancy and parturition.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2020.575337DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7546360PMC
September 2020

Association of diurnal temperature range with daily hospitalization for exacerbation of chronic respiratory diseases in 21 cities, China.

Respir Res 2020 Sep 29;21(1):251. Epub 2020 Sep 29.

State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, National Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Disease, Guangzhou Institute of Respiratory Health, the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Background: The association between diurnal temperature range (DTR) and hospitalization for exacerbation of chronic respiratory diseases (CRD) was rarely reported.

Objectives: To examine the association between DTR and daily hospital admissions for exacerbation of CRD and find out the potential effect of modifications on this association.

Method: Data on daily hospitalization for exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma and bronchiectasis and meteorology measures from 2013 through 2017 were obtained from 21 cities in South China. After controlling the effects of daily mean temperature, relative humidity (RH), particulate matter < 2.5 μm diameter (PM) and other confounding factors, a standard generalized additive model (GAM) with a quasi-Poisson distribution was performed to evaluate the relationships between DTR and daily hospital admissions of CRD in a two-stage strategy. Subgroup analysis was performed to find potential modifications, including seasonality and population characteristics.

Result: Elevated risk of hospitalization for exacerbation of CRD (RR = 1.09 [95%CI: 1.08 to 1.11]) was associated with the increase in DTR (the 75th percentile versus the 25th percentile of DTR at lag0-6). The effects of DTR on hospital admissions for CRD were strong at low DTR in the hot season and high DTR in the cold season. The RR (the 75th percentile versus the 25th percentile of DTR at lag0-6) of hospitalization was 1.11 (95%CI: 1.08 to 1.12) for exacerbations of COPD and 1.09 (95%CI: 1.05 to 1.13) for asthma. The adverse effect of DTR on hospitalization for bronchiectasis was only observed in female patients (RR = 1.06 [95%CI: 1.03 to 1.10]).

Conclusion: Our study provided additional evidence for the association between DTR and daily hospitalization for exacerbation of CRD, and these associations are especially stronger in COPD patients and in the cold season than the hot season. Preventive measures to reduce the adverse impacts of DTR were needed for CRD patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12931-020-01517-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7526384PMC
September 2020

N-Methyladenosine co-transcriptionally directs the demethylation of histone H3K9me2.

Nat Genet 2020 09 10;52(9):870-877. Epub 2020 Aug 10.

Department of Developmental Biology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, P. R. China.

A dynamic epigenome is critical for appropriate gene expression in development and health. Central to this is the intricate process of transcription, which integrates cellular signaling with chromatin changes, transcriptional machinery and modifications to messenger RNA, such as N-methyladenosine (mA), which is co-transcriptionally incorporated. The integration of these aspects of the dynamic epigenome, however, is not well understood mechanistically. Here we show that the repressive histone mark H3K9me2 is specifically removed by the induction of mA-modified transcripts. We demonstrate that the methyltransferase METTL3/METTL14 regulates H3K9me2 modification. We observe a genome-wide correlation between mA and occupancy by the H3K9me2 demethylase KDM3B, and we find that the mA reader YTHDC1 physically interacts with and recruits KDM3B to mA-associated chromatin regions, promoting H3K9me2 demethylation and gene expression. This study establishes a direct link between mA and dynamic chromatin modification and provides mechanistic insight into the co-transcriptional interplay between RNA modifications and histone modifications.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-020-0677-3DOI Listing
September 2020

Characterization of a cell death-inducing endonuclease-like venom protein from the parasitoid wasp Pteromalus puparum (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

Pest Manag Sci 2021 Jan 6;77(1):224-233. Epub 2020 Aug 6.

State Key Laboratory of Rice Biology & Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology of Crop Pathogens and Insects, Institute of Insect Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Background: Parasitoid wasps are valuable natural enemies for controlling pests. To ensure successful parasitism, these wasps inject venoms along with their eggs that are deposited either into or on their hosts. Parasitoid venoms regulate host behaviors, development, metabolism and immune responses. Pteromalus puparum is a pupal endoparasitoid that parasitizes a number of butterflies, including the worldwide pest cabbage butterfly, Pieris rapae. Venom from P. puparum has a variety of effects on host hemocytes, including alteration of absolute and relative hemocyte counts, and inhibition of hemocyte spreading and encapsulation. In particular, P. puparum venom causes hemocyte cell death in vivo and in vitro.

Results: Using assay-guided chromatography, a cell death-inducing venom fraction was identified and defined as P. puparum endonuclease-like venom protein (PpENVP). It belongs to the DNA/RNA nonspecific endonuclease family, which contains two conserved endonuclease activation sites. We analyzed its expression profiles and demonstrated that PpENVP inhibits gene expression in transfected cells relying on two activation sites. However, RNA interference of PpENVP did not significantly reduce P. puparum venom cytotoxicity, suggesting that PpENVP may not be the sole cytotoxic factor present.

Conclusion: Our results provide novel insight into the function of the P. puparum venom cocktail and identify a promising insecticide candidate endonuclease that targets insect hemocytes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ps.6011DOI Listing
January 2021

Low-threshold topological nanolasers based on the second-order corner state.

Light Sci Appl 2020 29;9:109. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190 China.

Topological lasers are immune to imperfections and disorder. They have been recently demonstrated based on many kinds of robust edge states, which are mostly at the microscale. The realization of 2D on-chip topological nanolasers with a small footprint, a low threshold and high energy efficiency has yet to be explored. Here, we report the first experimental demonstration of a topological nanolaser with high performance in a 2D photonic crystal slab. A topological nanocavity is formed utilizing the Wannier-type 0D corner state. Lasing behaviour with a low threshold of approximately 1 µW and a high spontaneous emission coupling factor of 0.25 is observed with quantum dots as the active material. Such performance is much better than that of topological edge lasers and comparable to that of conventional photonic crystal nanolasers. Our experimental demonstration of a low-threshold topological nanolaser will be of great significance to the development of topological nanophotonic circuitry for the manipulation of photons in classical and quantum regimes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41377-020-00352-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7324580PMC
June 2020

A chromosome-level genome assembly of the parasitoid wasp Pteromalus puparum.

Mol Ecol Resour 2020 Sep 13;20(5):1384-1402. Epub 2020 Jul 13.

State Key Laboratory of Rice Biology, Ministry of Agricultural and Rural Affairs Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology of Crop Pathogens and Insect Pests & Key Laboratory of Biology of Crop Pathogens and Insects of Zhejiang Province, Institute of Insect Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Parasitoid wasps represent a large proportion of hymenopteran species. They have complex evolutionary histories and are important biocontrol agents. To advance parasitoid research, a combination of Illumina short-read, PacBio long-read and Hi-C scaffolding technologies was used to develop a high-quality chromosome-level genome assembly for Pteromalus puparum, which is an important pupal endoparasitoid of caterpillar pests. The chromosome-level assembly has aided in studies of venom and detoxification genes. The assembled genome size is 338 Mb with a contig N50 of 38.7 kb and a scaffold N50 of 1.16 Mb. Hi-C analysis assembled scaffolds onto five chromosomes and raised the scaffold N50 to 65.8 Mb, with more than 96% of assembled bases located on chromosomes. Gene annotation was assisted by RNA sequencing for the two sexes and four different life stages. Analysis detected 98% of the BUSCO (Benchmarking Universal Single-Copy Orthologs) gene set, supporting a high-quality assembly and annotation. In total, 40.1% (135.6 Mb) of the assembly is composed of repetitive sequences, and 14,946 protein-coding genes were identified. Although venom genes play important roles in parasitoid biology, their spatial distribution on chromosomes was poorly understood. Mapping has revealed venom gene tandem arrays for serine proteases, pancreatic lipase-related proteins and kynurenine-oxoglutarate transaminases, which have amplified in the P. puparum lineage after divergence from its common ancestor with Nasonia vitripennis. In addition, there is a large expansion of P450 genes in P. puparum. These examples illustrate how chromosome-level genome assembly can provide a valuable resource for molecular, evolutionary and biocontrol studies of parasitoid wasps.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1755-0998.13206DOI Listing
September 2020

Full-genome sequences of GII.13[P21] recombinant norovirus strains from an outbreak in Changsha, China.

Arch Virol 2020 Jul 30;165(7):1647-1652. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

Changsha Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beside the Liuyang River Bridge, No. 509, Wanjiali Second North Road, Changsha, Hunan, People's Republic of China.

On 31 March 2019, 68 school students suffered from vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain after participating in a group activity at a commercial park. In this outbreak, multiple norovirus genotypes were observed, including GII.2[P16], GII.17[P17], and GII.13[P21]. Further, we determined the full-genome sequences of two strains of GII.13[P21] recombinant noroviruses, which were 7434 nt long. Phylogenetic analysis based on open reading frames (ORFs) 1 and 2 revealed that these recombinants were related to stains of different genotypes from different countries. The full genome nucleotide sequences of the two isolates were 97.0% and 98.0% identical to those of strains from London and Thailand, respectively. Simplot analysis revealed the presence of a break point at nt 5059 in the ORF1 region. The histo-blood group antigen binding sites were conserved in both recombinant viruses. Our findings not only provide valuable genetic information about a recombinant norovirus but also contribute to our general understanding of the evolution, genetic diversity, and distribution of noroviruses.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00705-020-04643-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7223583PMC
July 2020

Dimethylation of eEF1A at Lysine 55 Plays a Key Role in the Regulation of eEF1A2 on Malignant Cell Functions of Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

Technol Cancer Res Treat 2020 Jan-Dec;19:1533033820914295

Department of Pharmacy, The Central Hospital of Wuhan, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, People's Republic of China.

Objective: This study aimed to explore whether eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 2 affected cell proliferation, migration, and apoptosis via regulating the dimethylation of eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha at lysine 55 in acute myeloid leukemia.

Methods: The expressions of eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 2 and dimethylation of eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha at lysine 55 in acute myeloid leukemia cell lines and human normal bone marrow mononuclear cells (as control) were assessed. Control CRISPR-Cas9 lentivirus, eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 2 knockout CRISPR-Cas9 lentivirus, vector plasmid, eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 2 wild type overexpression plasmid, and eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 2 with a K55R substitution overexpression plasmid were transfected into AML-193 and Kasumi-1 cells combined or alone, and were accordingly divided into 4 groups (Sgcontrol + vector group, SgeEF1A2 + vector group, SgeEF1A2 + eEF1A2 group, and SgeEFIA2 + eEF1A2 group).

Results: Eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 2 and dimethylation of eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha at lysine 55 expressions were higher in AML-193, Kasumi-1, and KG-1 cell lines compared to the control. In AML-193 and Kasumi-1 cells, the knockout and compensated experiments revealed that eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 2 promoted cell proliferation and migration but repressed apoptosis. Additionally, the knockout of eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 2 decreased dimethylation of eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha at lysine 55 expression, meanwhile, eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 2 wild type overexpression enhanced while eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 2 with a K55R substitution overexpression did not influence the dimethylation of eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha at lysine 55 expression. Furthermore, eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 2 wild type overexpression promoted cell proliferation, enhanced migration, and decreased apoptosis, but eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 2 with a K55R substitution overexpression did not influence these cellular functions in AML-193 and Kasumi-1 cells, suggesting the implication of dimethylation of eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha at lysine 55 in eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 2 mediated oncogenesis of acute myeloid leukemia.

Conclusion: Eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 2 and its dimethylated product may serve as therapeutic targets, and these findings may provide support for exploring novel strategies in acute myeloid leukemia treatment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1533033820914295DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7225831PMC
November 2020

Interaction analysis on transmissibility of main pathogens of hand, foot, and mouth disease: A modeling study (a STROBE-compliant article).

Medicine (Baltimore) 2020 Mar;99(11):e19286

State Key Laboratory of Molecular Vaccinology and Molecular Diagnostics, School of Public Health, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian Province, People's Republic of China.

Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) has spread widely and led to high disease burden in many countries. In this study, we aimed to analyze the interaction of the main pathogens of HFMD using a mathematical model.A dataset on reported HFMD cases was collected from April, 2009 to December, 2017 in Changsha City. A long-term etiological surveillance was conducted focusing on the pathogens of the disease including enterovirus A71 (EV71), coxsachievirus A16 (CA16), and other enteroviruses. A susceptible-infectious-recovered model was adopted to calculate the reproduction number during the ascending period of reported cases (defined as Rasc) and the descending period (defined as Rdes).About 214,178 HFMD cases (including clinically diagnosed cases and confirmed cases) were reported in Changsha City, among which 31 were death cases with a fatality of 0.01%. The number of reported HFMD cases increased yearly with a Linear model of "f(t) = 18542.68 + 1628.91t" where f(t) and t referred to number of reported cases and sequence of year, respectively. The fatality of the disease decreased yearly with a linear model of "f(t) = - 0.012 + 0.083/t". About 5319 stool or anal swab specimens were collected from the reported cases. Among them, 1201 were tested EV71 positive, 836 were CA16 positive, and 1680 were other enteroviruses positive. Rasc and Rdes of HFMD was 1.34 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.28-1.40) and 0.73 (95% CI: 0.69-0.76), respectively. EV71 and CA16 interacted with each other, and the interaction between EV71 and other enteroviruses and the interaction between CA16 and other enteroviruses were both directional. However, during the reported cases decreasing period, interactions only occurred between EV71 and other enteroviruses and between CA16 and other enteroviruses. These interactions all decreased Rasc but increased Rdes of affected pathogens.The interactions of the pathogens exist in Changsha City. The effective reproduction number of the affected pathogen is adjusted and verges to 1 by the interaction.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000019286DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7220420PMC
March 2020

Hydrogen tunnelling in the rearrangements of carbenes: the role of dynamical calculations.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2020 Jan 24;22(3):962-965. Epub 2019 Dec 24.

Physical and Theoretical Chemical Laboratory, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, OX1 3QZ, Oxford, UK.

Tunnelling controlled chemical reactions are those which preferably proceed through pathways with high but narrow potential energy barriers, via quantum tunnelling, resulting in a product that would be disfavoured classically. These reactions are very sensitive to barrier width, height and temperature and so dynamical theoretical methods are required to describe these processes. Recent experimental work on charge-tagged phenyl pyruvic acid derivatives has found, in contrast to similar systems, no evidence of tunnelling control. Using semiclassical transition state theory, we rationalise these results and find tunnelling is significant in this system.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9cp06300eDOI Listing
January 2020

Calculations on the unimolecular decomposition of the nerve agent VX.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2020 Jan;22(2):564-574

Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3QZ, UK.

It is very difficult to perform experiments on the physical parameters for the thermal decomposition of chemical nerve agents such as VX and computations, therefore, are useful. The reaction dynamics of the gas-phase pericyclic hydrogen transfer of the nerve agent VX is studied computationally. The geometries of the stationary structures are calculated at M06-2X/jul-cc-pVTZ level of theory. Single point energy calculations are carried out at the CBS/QB3 level to correct the energy barriers. Canonical reaction rate constants are calculated as a function of temperature. The one-dimensional semiclassical transition state theory is used to analyse the quantum tunneling effects. A reduced-dimensional hindered rotor model is proposed, tested, and applied to calculate the vibrational partition functions. It is found that the ester (O-side) and thioester (S-side) side chains of VX undergo pericyclic H-transfer reactions that result in decomposition of the molecule. The S-side reaction is favoured both kinetically and thermodynamically and dominates the pyrolysis over the temperature range from 600 K to 1000 K. It is predicted that VX completely decomposes in 2 s at temperatures above 750 K.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9cp05109kDOI Listing
January 2020

Highly sensitive quantification of site-specific 5-hydroxymethylcytosine at single-base resolution by HpaII-mediated ligation PCR.

Org Biomol Chem 2019 12 20;17(46):9849-9853. Epub 2019 Nov 20.

Key laboratory of Applied Surface and Colloid Chemistry Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science of Shaanxi Province, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an 710062, Shaanxi Province, P. R. China.

A highly sensitive HpaII-mediated ligation PCR assay that can precisely discriminate 5hmC from 5mC and C is developed for the quantitative determination of site-specific 5hmC in genomic DNA samples.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9ob02429hDOI Listing
December 2019

Application of the Partial Wave QP Decomposition to the Angular Scattering of the State-to-State F + H Reaction at = 0.04088 eV.

J Phys Chem A 2019 Dec 2;123(49):10500-10513. Epub 2019 Dec 2.

Department of Chemistry , The University of Manchester , Manchester M13 9PL , United Kingdom.

We analyze the physical content of structures present in the product differential cross sections (DCSs) of the benchmark F + H(, , ) → FH(, , ) + H reaction, where , , and are the vibrational, rotational, and helicity quantum numbers, respectively, for the initial and final states. We analyze three state-to-state transitions: 000 → 300, 000 → 310, and 000 → 320. Accurate quantum matrix elements are employed at a translational energy of 0.04088 eV for the Fu-Xu-Zhang potential energy surface. Our analysis of the DCSs uses a new technique called the QP decomposition; it makes an exact decomposition of the scattering () matrix into a Q part and a P part. The P part consists of a partial wave (PW) sum of Regge poles (involving both positions and residues) together with a rapidly oscillating quadratic phase. The Q part of the decomposition is then constructed exactly by subtracting the rapidly oscillating phase and the PW Regge pole sum from the input PW matrix. In practice, it is convenient to make a small modification, which we call the QmodPmod decomposition. All our calculations use only integer values of the total angular momentum quantum number, namely, = 0, 1, 2,... We find that the QmodPmod decomposition is successful and physically meaningful, in that the properties of Qmod matrix are simpler than those of the input matrix. We then carry out a QmodPmod analysis of the DCSs, which provides novel insights into interference structures present in the angular scattering. In particular, we find for all three reactions that Regge resonances contribute across the whole angular range of the DCSs, being particularly pronounced at small angles. The techniques of nearside-farside decomposition and local angular momentum analysis for resummed Legendre PW series are also employed to provide additional insights into the angular scattering.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpca.9b07959DOI Listing
December 2019

Genes acting in longevity-related pathways in the endoparasitoid, Pteromalus puparum.

Arch Insect Biochem Physiol 2020 Feb 17;103(2):e21635. Epub 2019 Oct 17.

State Key Laboratory of Rice Biology & Ministry of Agricultural and Rural Affairs Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology of Crop Pathogens and Insects, Institute of Insect Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Among insects, lifespans vary over a broad range, from the short-lived mayflies to the 17-year periodical cicadas. Generally, lifespans are determined by a phase in life, the reproductive lifespan, which varies among species. Numerous pathways, such as the insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling pathway, the target of rapamycin pathway and the mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinases pathways, influence aging and lifespan. Components of these pathways were identified as lifespan-related genes, including genes mediating growth, metabolism, development, resistance, and other processes. Many age-related genes have been discovered in fruit flies, honeybees, and ants among other insect species. Studies of insect aging and longevity can help understand insect biology and develop new pest management technologies. In this paper, we interrogated the new Pteromalus puparum genome, from which we predicted 133 putative lifespan-related genes based on their homology with known lifespan-related genes of Drosophila melanogaster. These genes function in five signaling pathways and three physiological processes. The conserved domain structures of these genes were predicted and their expression patterns were analyzed. Amino acid sequence alignments and domain structure analysis indicate that most components remain conserved across at least six insect orders. The data in this paper will facilitate future work on parasitoid lifespans, which may have economic value in biocontrol programs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/arch.21635DOI Listing
February 2020

Genome-wide identification and analysis of genes encoding cuticular proteins in the endoparasitoid wasp Pteromalus puparum (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

Arch Insect Biochem Physiol 2020 Feb 9;103(2):e21628. Epub 2019 Oct 9.

State Key Laboratory of Rice Biology & Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology of Crop Pathogens and Insects, Institute of Insect Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

The multifunctional insect cuticle serves as the exoskeleton, determines body shape, restricts water loss, provides attachment sites for muscles and internal organs and is a formidable barrier to invaders. It is morphologically divided into three layers, including envelope, epicuticle, and procuticle and is composed of chitin and cuticular proteins (CPs). Annotation of CPs and their cognate genes may help understand the structure and functions of insect cuticles. In this paper, we interrogated the genome of Pteromalus puparum, an endoparasitoid wasp that parasitizes Pieris rapae and Papilio xuthus pupae, and identified 82 genes encoding CPs belonging to six CP families, including 62 in the CPR family, 8 in CPAP3, 5 in CPF/CPFL, 2 low complexity proteins, 2 in TWDL, and 3 in Apidermin. We used six RNA-seq libraries to determine CP gene expression profiles through development and compared the cuticle hydrophobicity between the P. puparum and the ectoparasitoid Nasonia vitripennis based on GRAVY values of CPR sequences. In the Nasonia-Pteromalus comparison, we found in both N. vitripennis and P. puparum, the peak of their CPR hydrophobicity displayed at their pupal stage, whereas their adult stage showed the lowest level. Except at the adult stage, the CPR hydrophobicity in N. vitripennis is always higher than P. puparum. Finally, we identified three novel Apidermin genes, a family found solely in Hymenoptera and revealed a new sequence feature of this family. This new information contributes to a broader understanding of insect CPs generally.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/arch.21628DOI Listing
February 2020

Identification and characterization of miRNAs in an endoparasitoid wasp, Pteromalus puparum.

Arch Insect Biochem Physiol 2020 Feb 6;103(2):e21633. Epub 2019 Oct 6.

State Key Laboratory of Rice Biology & Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology of Crop Pathogens and Insects, Institute of Insect Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a form of endogenous small noncoding RNAs that regulate protein-coding gene expression at the posttranscriptional level. So far, knowledge of miRNAs in parasitoids remains rudimentary. We investigated miRNAs in Pteromalus puparum, a pupal endoparasitoid wasp with genome and transcriptome sequences completed. In this study, we constructed eight small RNA libraries from selected developmental stages and genders: male embryos, male larvae, male pupae, male adults, mixed-sex embryos, mixed-sex larvae, mixed-sex pupae, and female adults. We identified 254 mature miRNAs with 5p/3p arm features originated from 75 known and 119 novel miRNA genes in P. puparum, 88 of which reside in 26 clusters. The miRNAs in more than half of the clusters exhibit a consistent expression pattern, indicating they were co-transcribed from a long transcript. Comparing miRNA expression in the eight libraries, we found that 84 mature miRNAs were differentially expressed between embryos and larvae, 20 between larvae and pupae, and 26 between pupae and adults. We found some miRNAs were differentially expressed between sexes in embryos (10), larvae (29), pupae (8), and adults (14). Target predictions resulted in 211,571 miRNA-mRNA interactions for 254 different mature miRNAs. These miRNAs may be involved in sexual and developmental regulation of gene expression.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/arch.21633DOI Listing
February 2020

Genomic and transcriptomic analyses of glutathione S-transferases in an endoparasitoid wasp, Pteromalus puparum.

Arch Insect Biochem Physiol 2020 Feb 6;103(2):e21634. Epub 2019 Oct 6.

State Key Laboratory of Rice Biology & Ministry of Agricultural and Rural Affairs Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology of Crop Pathogens and Insects, Institute of Insect Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Pteromalus puparum is a gregarious pupal endoparasitoid with a wide host range. It deposits eggs into pierid and papilionid butterfly pupae. Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are a family of multifunctional detoxification enzymes that act in xenobiotic metabolism in insects. Insect genome projects have facilitated identification and characterization of GST family members. We identified 20 putative GSTs in the P. puparum genome, including 19 cytosolic and one microsomal. Phylogenetic analysis showed that P. puparum GSTs are clustered into Hymenoptera-specific branches. Transcriptomic data of embryos, larvae, female pupae, male pupae, female adults, male adults, venom glands, carcass, salivary glands, and ovaries revealed stage-, sex-, and tissue-specific expression patterns of GSTs in P. puparum. This is the most comprehensive study of genome-wide identification, characterization, and expression profiling of GST family in hymenopterans. Our results provide valuable information for understanding the metabolic adaptation of this wasp.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/arch.21634DOI Listing
February 2020