Publications by authors named "Shan Wang"

1,152 Publications

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Morphological, Physiological, and Biochemical Changes in Magnolia zenii Cheng Seed During Development.

Physiol Plant 2021 May 2. Epub 2021 May 2.

Jiangsu Vocational College of Agriculture and Forestry, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu, China.

An understanding of the seed dynamics of endangered plant species, such as Magnolia zenii Cheng, is important for successful conservation. This study examined the morphological, physiological, and biochemical changes that occur in M. zenii Cheng during seed development to determine the appropriate harvest stage. The appearance of the seeds was influenced by the physiological and biochemical changes occurring during the developmental period, during which the colour of the fruits changed from green to red, while that of the seed changed from light brown to dark brown. There was a significant decrease in the seed moisture content from 90-120 d after flowering (DAF); however, there was no significant change from 135-165 DAF. The seeds from 135 DAF onwards showed developed cotyledonary embryos. The seed viability exceeded 95% from 135 DAF onwards; however, the germination percentage was 0, hypothesising that the seeds of M. zenii Cheng might exhibit physiological dormancy under certain conditions of this experiment. There was a significant increase in the fat, soluble sugar, and soluble starch content of the seeds while approaching maturity. There were significant changes in malate dehydrogenase (MDH), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH), 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6-PGDH), and β-amylase activities in the seeds during the developmental period. At 135-165 DAF, the MDH activity remained stable, whereas that of 6-PGDH reached its maximum, indicating that the seeds underwent vigorous metabolism. The findings of this study provide a theoretical basis for researching seed dormancy and seed harvest time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ppl.13445DOI Listing
May 2021

In Situ and Intraoperative Detection of the Ureter Injury Using a Highly Sensitive Piezoresistive Sensor with a Tunable Porous Structure.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Schlegel Research Institute for Aging, University of Waterloo, Waterloo N2L 3G1, Canada.

Iatrogenic ureteral injury, as a commonly encountered problem in gynecologic, colorectal, and pelvic surgeries, is known to be difficult to detect in situ and in real-time. Consequently, this injury may be left untreated, thereby leading to serious complications such as infections, renal failure, or even death. Here, high-performance tubular porous pressure sensors were proposed to identify the ureter in situ intraoperatively. The electrical conductivity, mechanical compressibility, and sensor sensitivity can be tuned by changing the pore structure of porous conductive composites. A low percolation threshold of 0.33 vol % was achieved due to the segregated conductive network by pores. Pores also lead to a low effective Young's modulus and high compressibility of the composites and thus result in a high sensitivity of 448.2 kPa of sensors, which is consistent with the results of COMSOL simulation. Self-mounted on the tip of forceps, the sensors can monitor tube pressures with different frequencies and amplitudes, as demonstrated using an artificial pump system. The sensors can also differentiate ureter pulses from aorta pulses of a Bama minipig in situ and in real-time. This work provides a facile, cost-effective, and nondestructive method to identify the ureter intraoperatively, which cannot be effectively achieved by traditional methods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c22791DOI Listing
April 2021

Antioxidant activities of chlorogenic acid derivatives with different acyl donor chain lengths and their stabilities during in vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion.

Food Chem 2021 Apr 20;357:129904. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122, China; International Joint Laboratory on Food Safety, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122, China. Electronic address:

In this study, chlorogenic acid (CA) was acylated with vinyl esters of different carbon chain lengths under the action of the lipase Lipozyme RM. Five CA derivatives (C2-CA, C4-CA, C6-CA, C8-CA, and C12-CA) with different lipophilicities were obtained, and their digestive stabilities and antioxidant activities were evaluated. The lipophilicities were positively correlated with the digestive stabilities of CA derivatives. The antioxidant activities of CA derivatives did not change with the reduction of phenolic hydroxyl groups, and their capacity to scavenge 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS•) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) were similar to those of CA. In cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) tests, it was found that the capacity of these derivates to cross cell membranes were enhanced upon enhancing lipophilicity, and their antioxidant activities were improved. C12-CA showed the best antioxidant activity with a median effective dose (EC) of 9.40 μg/mL, which was significantly lower than that of CA (i.e., 29.08 μg/mL).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.129904DOI Listing
April 2021

[Discussion on published in ].

Zhongguo Zhen Jiu 2021 Apr;41(4):359-64

American TCM Society, New York NY 10016, USA.

Professor ' team from Chengdu University of TCM published in on July 29, 2019, which demonstrates that acupuncture as an adjunctive therapy is safety and effective for mild and moderate chronic stable angina. Sixteen experts at home and abroad conducted serious discussions on the research design, evaluation methods, principles and mechanisms, clinical significance and enlightenment of future acupuncture research, and provided practical suggestions for acupuncture and moxibustion to go global and gain international recognition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13703/j.0255-2930.20190929-k0003DOI Listing
April 2021

A longitudinal study of white matter functional network in mild traumatic brain injury.

J Neurotrauma 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Xi'an International Studies University, 66271, Key laboratory for artificial intelligence and cognitive neuroscience of language, Xi'an, Shaanxi, China.

Some patients after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) results in microstructural damages in the long-distance white matter (WM) connections and thus disrupts the functional connectome of large-scale brain networks that support cognitive function. Patterns of WM structural damage following mTBI were well documented using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), however, the functional organization of WM and its association with grey matter functional networks (GM-FNs) and its DTI metrics remains unknown. The present study adopted resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to explore WM functional properties in mTBI patients (108 acute patients, 48 chronic patients, 46 healthy controls (HCs)). Eleven large-scale WM functional networks (WM-FNs) were constructed by the k-means clustering algorithm which carried out in voxel-wise WM functional connectivity (FC). Compared to HCs, acute mTBI patients observed enhanced FC between inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF) WM-FN and primary sensorimotor WM-FNs, and cortical primary sensorimotor GM-FNs. Besides, acute mTBI patients showed increased DTI metrics (mean diffusivity, axial diffusivity, and radial diffusivity) in deep WM-FNs and higher-order cognitive WM-FNs. Moreover, mTBI patients demonstrated full recovery of FC and partial recovery of DTI metrics in the chronic stage. Additionally, enhanced FC between IFOF WM-FN and anterior cerebellar GM-FN was correlated with impaired information processing speed. Our findings provide novel evidence for functional and structural alteration of WM-FNs in mTBI patients. Importantly, the convergent damage of the IFOF network might imply its crucial role in our understanding of the pathophysiology mechanism of mTBI patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/neu.2021.0017DOI Listing
April 2021

Peculiarities of promiscuous L-threonine transaldolases for enantioselective synthesis of β-hydroxy-α-amino acids.

Authors:
Shan Wang Hai Deng

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2021 May 26;105(9):3507-3520. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Chemistry, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, Scotland, AB24 3UE, UK.

The introduction of β-hydroxy-α-amino acids (βHAAs) into organic molecules has received considerable attention as these molecules have often found widespread applications in bioorganic chemistry, medicinal chemistry and biomaterial science. Despite innovation of asymmetric synthesis of βHAAs, stereoselective synthesis to control the two chiral centres at C and C positions is still challenging, with poor atomic economy and multi protection and deprotection steps. These syntheses are often operated under harsh conditions. Therefore, a biotransformation approach using biocatalysts is needed to selectively introduce these two chiral centres into structurally diverse molecules. Yet, there are few ways that enable one-step synthesis of βHAAs. One is to extend the substrate scope of the existing enzyme inventory. Threonine aldolases have been explored to produce βHAAs. However, the enzymes have poor controlled installation at C position, often resulting in a mixture of diastereoisomers which are difficult to be separated. In this respect, L-threonine transaldolases (LTTAs) offer an excellent potential as the enzymes often provide controlled stereochemistry at C and C positions. Another is to mine LTTA homologues and engineer the enzymes using directed evolution with the aim of finding engineered biocatalysts to accept broad substrates with enhanced conversion and stereoselectivity. Here, we review the development of LTTAs that incorporate various aldehyde acceptors to generate structurally diverse βHAAs and highlight areas for future developments. KEY POINTS: • The general mechanism of the transaldolation reaction catalysed by LTTAs • Recent advances in LTTAs from different biosynthetic pathways • Applications of LTTAs as biocatalysts for production of βHAAs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00253-021-11288-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8072733PMC
May 2021

Self-Adhesive, Stretchable, Biocompatible, and Conductive Nonvolatile Eutectogels as Wearable Conformal Strain and Pressure Sensors and Biopotential Electrodes for Precise Health Monitoring.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 May 26;13(17):20735-20745. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117574.

Conductive stretchable hydrogels and ionogels consisting of ionic liquids can have interesting application as wearable strain and pressure sensors and bioelectrodes due to their soft nature and high conductivity. However, hydrogels have a severe stability problem because of water evaporation, whereas ionogels are not biocompatible or even toxic. Here, we demonstrate self-adhesive, stretchable, nonvolatile, and biocompatible eutectogels that can always form conformal contact to skin even during body movement along with their application as wearable strain and pressure sensors and biopotential electrodes for precise health monitoring. The eutectogels consist of a deep eutectic solvent that has high conductivity, waterborne polyurethane that is an elastomer, and tannic acid that is an adhesive. They can have an elongation at a break of 178%, ionic conductivity of 0.22 mS/cm, and adhesion force of 12.5 N/m to skin. They can be used as conformal strain sensors to accurately monitor joint movement and breath. They can be even used as pressure sensors with a piezoresistive sensitivity of 284.4 kPa to precisely detect subtle physical movements like arterial pulses, which can provide vital cardiovascular information. Moreover, the eutectogels can be used as nonvolatile conformal electrodes to monitor epidermal physiological signals, such as electrocardiogram (ECG) and electromyogram (EMG).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c04671DOI Listing
May 2021

Targeting IL-17alpha to promote anti-PD-1 therapy effect by screening the tumor immune microenvironment in a mouse oral carcinogenesis model.

Cancer Biomark 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Laboratory of Sono- and Photo-Theranostic Technologies, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, Heilongjiang, China.

Background: Resistance to PD-1 blocking agents is not uncommon, limiting their wide clinical success. Certain tumor-infiltrating immune cells (e.g., TILs/CTLs) have emerged as biomarkers of response, and absence of such immune cells contributes to resistance.

Objective: We deconvoluted the dynamic immune microenvironment in a mouse model of oral carcinogenesis for augmenting the resistance to PD-1 blocking agents by combination.

Methods: Bioinformatics methods and routine biological experiments were adopted such as morphological analysis and ELISA in the 4NQO-treated mice model.

Results: Our findings revealed that dysplastic tongue tissues from 4NQO-treated mice were characterized by an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. Tongue tissues from mice treated with 4NQO for 12 weeks had higher levels of Th2 cells and Tregs compared to tissues taken from control mice or mice treated with 4NQO for 28 weeks; these results suggested a potential therapeutic benefit of anti-PD-1 in the oral cancer. The IL-17 pathway was significantly upregulated during progression from normal mucosa to hyperplasia and tumor formation in mice. Inhibition of IL-17α combined with PD-1 blockade delayed the development of 4NQO-induced precancerous and cancerous lesions and prolonged the survival of 4NQO-treated mice.

Conclusions: Our data suggested a strong rationale of IL-17α blockade as a potential approach to augment the tumor-eliminating effects of anti-PD-1 therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/CBM-203092DOI Listing
April 2021

Non-muscle myosin heavy chain 9 maintains intestinal homeostasis by preventing epithelium necroptosis and colitis adenoma formation.

Stem Cell Reports 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

The State Key Laboratory of Membrane Biology, Tsinghua-Peking Center for Life Sciences, School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China; Max-Planck Center for Tissue Stem Cell Research and Regenerative Medicine, Guangzhou Regenerative Medicine and Health Guangdong Laboratory, Guangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Non-muscle myosin IIA plays an important role in cell adhesion, cell migration, and tissue architecture. We previously showed that low activity of the heavy chain of non-muscle myosin II Myh9 is beneficial to LGR5 intestinal stem cell maintenance. However, the function of Myh9 in adult mouse intestinal epithelium is largely unclear. In this study, we used the inducible Villin-creERT2 knockout approach to delete Myh9 in adult mouse intestinal epithelium and observed that homozygous deletion of Myh9 causes colitis-like morphologic changes in intestine, leads to a high sensitivity to dextran sulfate sodium and promotes colitis-related adenoma formation in the colon. Myh9 deletion disturbs cell junctions and impairs intestinal lumen barrier integrity, promoting the necroptosis of epithelial cells. Consistently, these changes can be partially rescued by Ripk3 knockout. Our results indicate that Myh9 is required for the maintenance of intestinal epithelium integrity and the prevention of cell necroptosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.stemcr.2021.03.027DOI Listing
April 2021

EphA2 Is a Clinically Relevant Target for Breast Cancer Bone Metastatic Disease.

JBMR Plus 2021 Apr 9;5(4):e10465. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center Vanderbilt University School of Medicine Nashville TN USA.

EphA2 receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) is highly expressed in breast tumor cells across multiple molecular subtypes and correlates with poor patient prognosis. In this study, the potential role of EphA2 in this clinically relevant phenomenon is investigated as metastasis of breast cancer to bone is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients. It was found that the EphA2 function in breast cancer cells promotes osteoclast activation and the development of osteolytic bone disease. Blocking EphA2 function molecularly and pharmacologically in breast tumors reduced the number and size of bone lesions and the degree of osteolytic disease in intratibial and intracardiac mouse models, which correlated with a significant decrease in the number of osteoclasts at the tumor-bone interface. EphA2 loss of function in tumor cells impaired osteoclast progenitor differentiation in coculture, which is mediated, at least in part, by reduced expression of IL-6. transcript levels are enriched in human breast cancer bone metastatic lesions relative to visceral metastatic sites; EphA2 protein expression was detected in breast tumor cells in bone metastases in patient samples, supporting the clinical relevance of the study's findings. These data provide a strong rationale for the development and application of molecularly targeted therapies against EphA2 for the treatment of breast cancer bone metastatic disease. © 2021 The Authors. published by Wiley Periodicals LLC. on behalf of American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbm4.10465DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8046157PMC
April 2021

Effects of FER1L4-miR-106a-5p/miR-372-5p-E2F1 regulatory axis on drug resistance in liver cancer chemotherapy.

Mol Ther Nucleic Acids 2021 Jun 10;24:449-461. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Ultrasound in Cardiac Electrophysiology and Biomechanics Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China and Chinese Academy of Sciences Sichuan Translational Medicine Research Hospital, Chengdu 610072, P.R. China.

Liver cancer presents a challenge in today's healthcare system. This study aimed at investigating the effects of Fer-1 like family member 4 (FER1L4) on chemotherapy resistance and liver cancer development by using clinically collected liver cancer tissues and commercially purchased human liver cancer cisplatin-resistant cell line HUH-7/DDP. Bioinformatics analysis, dual luciferase reporter gene assay, and RNA pull-down were applied to predict and verify the possible binding relationships. The expressions of FER1L4, E2F transcription factor 1 (E2F1), microRNA-106a-5p (miR-106a-5p), or miR-372-5p were altered in the cells, followed by flow cytometry, Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8), and Transwell assays to evaluate apoptotic, proliferative, and invasive abilities and nude mice xenografts to observe tumor growth . FER1L4 was highly expressed and miR-106-5p and miR-372-5p were poorly expressed in tumor cells and tissues. FER1L4 knockdown or the overexpression of miR-106-5p and miR-372-5p inhibited the cancerous cell proliferation and invasion while promoting apoptosis. FERIL4 silencing increased the miR-106-5p/miR-372-5p expression to inhibit the E2F1-activated nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) pathway. Besides, overexpressing FER1L4 led to an increased tumor growth in nude mice, which was reversed by the NF-κB inhibitor pyrollidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC). In conclusion, the results indicated that FER1L4 could inhibit the expression of miR-106a-5p/miR-372-5p, to activate E2F1-mediated NF-κB pathway, leading to drug resistance in liver cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.omtn.2021.02.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8040129PMC
June 2021

Dermatoscopy and Reflective Confocal Microscopy for Facial Seborrheic Keratosis, Verruca Plana, and Nevus Pigmentosus.

J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2021 Apr;30(4):450-454

Department of Dermatology, Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical University, Xuzhou, China.

Objective: To describe the features of facial seborrheic keratosis, verruca plana, and nevus pigmentosus by dermatoscopy and reflective confocal microscope (RCM).

Study Design: Cross-sectional observational study.

Place And Duration Of Study: Dermatology Department of The Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical University from January 2017 to January 2019.

Methodology: Patients of either gender and age, clinically diagnosed as seborrheic keratosis, verruca plana, and nevus pigmentosus without any prior treatment, were enrolled. Patients with extremities and trunk involvement were excluded. One typical skin lesion was chosen from each patient and subjected to dermatoscopy and RCM separately; imaging features were recorded and analysed.

Results: A total of 402 patients (183 men and 219 women) between 6 and 88 years of age (mean age 41.8 years) were inducted. The duration of disease was between one week and 10 years. Seborrheic keratosis on dermatoscopy presented as acne-like openings (122/172; 70.93%, milia-like cysts (113/172; 65.70%), hairpin-like vessels (108/172; 62.79%, brain-like structures (103/172; 59.88%, worm-like pharyngeal margins (17/172; 9.88%), and fingerprint-like structures (8/172; 4.65%). On RCM, it showed epidermal cerebral gyrus structure (165/172; 95.93%), superficial vasodilatation and hyperemia (81/172; 47.09%), and keratinous cysts (73/172; 42.44%). Verruca plana on dermatoscopy showed a number of punctate hemorrhages scattered against a light-red background (108/114; 94.74%); on RCM it showed rose-like concentric structures (89/114; 78.07%). The features of nevus pigmentosus observed by dermatoscopy were homogeneous mode (23/52; 44.23%), light brown color (30/52; 57.69%) for intradermal nevus; mesh mode (18/41; 43.90%, dark brown color, little black dots and spherical structure (both 18/41; 43.90%) were visible for junctional nevus; globular mode, reticular and cobblestone structures (both 11/23; 47.83%) for compound nevus. On RCM, there were a few nevus cells visible within the dermal papilla (52/52; 100%) for intradermal nevus; bright pebble-like structures accumulated in the basal layer, nested round and elliptical nevus cells (40/41; 97.56%) for junctional nevus; nevus cells in the epidermis and dermis (21/23; 91.30%) for compound nevus.

Conclusion: Used in combination with clinical manifestations, the application of dermatoscopy and RCM may help distinguish seborrheic keratosis, verruca plana, and nevus pigmentosus on the basis of their respective dermatoscopic and RCM features. Key Words: Dermatoscopy, Reflective confocal microscope, Seborrheic keratosis, Verruca plana, Nevus pigmentosus, Brain-like structures, Rose-like structure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.29271/jcpsp.2021.04.450DOI Listing
April 2021

Accelerated brain aging in mild traumatic brain injury: Longitudinal pattern recognition with white matter integrity.

J Neurotrauma 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

The Key Laboratory of Biomedical Information Engineering, Ministry of Education, Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Life Science and Technology, Xi'an Jiaotong University, No.28 Xianning West Road, Xi'an, China, 710049;

Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) initiating long-term effects on white matter integrity resembles brain-aging changes, implying an aging process accelerated by mTBI. This longitudinal study aims to investigate the mTBI-induced acceleration of the brain-aging process by developing a neuroimaging model to predict brain age. The brain-age prediction model was defined using relevance vector regression based on fractional anisotropy from diffusion-tensor imaging of 523 healthy individuals. The model was used to estimate the brain-predicted age difference (brain-PAD) between the chronological and estimated brain age in 116 acute mTBI patients and 63 healthy controls. Fifty patients were followed 6~12 months to evaluate the longitudinal changes in brain-PAD. We investigated whether brain-PAD was greater in patients with elderly age, post-concussion complaints, and apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 genotype, and whether it had the potential to predict neuropsychological outcomes. The brain-age prediction model predicted brain age accurately ( = 0.96). The brains of mTBI in the acute phase were estimated to be "older", with greater brain-PAD (2.59 ± 5.97 years) than the healthy controls (0.12 ± 3.19 years) ( < 0.05), and remained stable 6-12 month post-injury (2.50 ± 4.54 years). Patients with older age or post-concussion complaints, rather than APOE ε4 genotype, had greater brain-PADs ( < 0.001, = 0.024). Additionally, brain-PAD in the acute phase predicted information processing speed at the 6~12 month follow-up ( = -0.36, = 0.01). In conclusion, mTBI accelerates the brain-aging process, and brain-PAD may be capable of evaluating aging-associated issues post-injury, like increased risks of neurodegeneration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/neu.2020.7551DOI Listing
April 2021

Mebhydrolin ameliorates glucose homeostasis in type 2 diabetic mice by functioning as a selective FXR antagonist.

Metabolism 2021 Apr 5;119:154771. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

School of Medicine& Holistic Integrative Medicine, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210023, China. Electronic address:

Introduction: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic disease with hallmarks of hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. Long-term hyperglycemia damages the functions of multiple tissues and organs leading to a series of complications and disability or even death. Nuclear receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) antagonism has been recently discovered to exhibit beneficial effect on glucose metabolism in T2DM mice, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we performed the study on the discovery of new FXR antagonist and investigated the mechanism underlying the amelioration of FXR antagonism on glucose homeostasis in T2DM mice by using the determined FXR antagonist as a probe.

Methods: FXR antagonist Mebhydrolin was discovered by screening against the lab in-house FDA approved drug library through surface plasmon resonance (SPR), microscale thermophoresis (MST), AlphaScreen, mammalian one-hybrid and transactivation assays. Activity of Mebhydrolin in improving glucose homeostasis was evaluated in db/db and HFD/STZ-induced T2DM mice, and the mechanisms governing the regulation of Mebhydrolin were investigated by assays of immunostaining, Western blot, ELISA, RT-PCR against liver tissues of both T2DM mice and the T2DM mice with liver-specific FXR knockdown injected via adeno-associated-virus AAV-FXR-RNAi and mouse primary hepatocytes. Finally, molecular docking and molecular dynamics (MD) technology-based study was performed to investigate the structural basis for the antagonistic regulation of Mebhydrolin against FXR at an atomic level.

Findings: Mebhydrolin ameliorated blood glucose homeostasis in T2DM mice by both suppressing hepatic gluconeogenesis via FXR/miR-22-3p/PI3K/AKT/FoxO1 pathway and promoting glycogen synthesis through FXR/miR-22-3p/PI3K/AKT/GSK3β pathway. Structurally, residues L291, M332 and Y373 of FXR were required for Mebhydrolin binding to FXR-LBD, and Mebhydrolin induced H2 and H6 shifting of FXR potently affecting the regulation of the downstream target genes.

Conclusions: Our work has revealed a novel mode for the regulation of FXR against glucose metabolism in T2DM mice and highlighted the potential of Mebhydrolin in the treatment of T2DM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.metabol.2021.154771DOI Listing
April 2021

Hepatoprotective effects of chamazulene against alcohol-induced liver damage by alleviation of oxidative stress in rat models.

Open Life Sci 2020 20;15(1):251-258. Epub 2020 Apr 20.

Department of Echocardiography & Noninvasive Cardiology Laboratory, Sichuan Academy of Medical Sciences, Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital, Chengdu, Sichuan, 610047, China.

Liver injury and disease caused by alcohol is a common complication to human health worldwide. Chamazulene is a natural proazulene with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. This study aims to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of chamazulene against ethanol-induced liver injury in rat models. Adult Wistar rats were orally treated with 50% v/v ethanol (8-12 mL/kg body weight [b.w.]) for 6 weeks to induce alcoholic liver injury. Chamazulene was administered orally to rats 1 h prior to ethanol administration at the doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg b.w. for 6 weeks. Silymarin, a commercial drug for hepatoprotection, was orally administered (50 mg/kg b.w.) for the positive control group. Chamazulene significantly reduced ( < 0.05) the levels of serum alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and malondialdehyde, whereas the levels of antioxidant enzymes (glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase) and reduced glutathione were significantly restored ( < 0.05) in contrast to the ethanol model group. The levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6) were suppressed by chamazulene ( < 0.05) with relevance to ethanol-induced liver injury. Histopathological alterations were convincing in the chamazulene-treated groups, which showed protective effects against alcoholic liver injury. Chamazulene has a significant hepatoprotective effect against ethanol-induced liver injury through alleviation of oxidative stress and prevention of inflammation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/biol-2020-0026DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7874619PMC
April 2020

Autophagy-Mediated Activation of Mucosal-Associated Invariant T Cells Driven by Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived IL-15.

Stem Cell Reports 2021 Apr 1;16(4):926-939. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Orthopedics, The Eighth Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Shenzhen 518033, P.R. China; Department of Orthopedics, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510120, P.R. China. Electronic address:

Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are innate-like unconventional T cells that are abundant in humans and have attracted increasing attention in recent years. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are crucial regulators of immune cells. However, whether MAIT cells are regulated by MSCs is unclear. Here, we explored the effect of MSCs on MAIT cells and revealed the underlying mechanism. We found that MSCs did not influence the proliferation of MAIT cells but strikingly induced an activated phenotype with an increased expression of CD69, TNF-α, IFN-γ, and granzyme B. Moreover, MSCs activated MAIT cells in a TCR-MR1-independent mechanism through MSC-secreted IL-15. We revealed that MSC-derived IL-15 activated MAIT cells by enhancing autophagy activity, which was abolished by the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine. Based on our findings, MAIT cells are activated by MSCs through IL-15-induced autophagy, which may help elucidate the mechanisms underlying some immune responses and diseases and provide guidance for future research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.stemcr.2021.03.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8072065PMC
April 2021

[Research progress of pesticide residues in Chrysanthemum].

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2021 Mar;46(6):1339-1344

Institute of Chinese Materia Medica,China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences Beijing 100700,China.

Chrysanthemum is widely used as a type of edible flower and also considered as the important materials of many beverages in China. Due to the occurrence of diseases and pests, and the lack of regulations for species, frequency, dose of pesticides in Chrysanthemum, pesticides have become one of the main pollutants in Chrysanthemum. The pesticide residues in Chrysanthemum were detected frequently and worth noting. This paper focused on the types of pesticides, pesticide residue detection techniques, and risk assessment methods for Chrysanthemums on the basis of relevant literatures. The pesticide residues of traditional Chinese medicine are mainly organochlorines, organophosphorus and pyrethroids, and the detection techniques include gas chromatography(GC), liquid chromatography(LC) or both combined with mass spectrometry(MS). With the increasing use of traditional Chinese medicine, Chrysanthemum is widely circulated in the market. Therefore, it is important to understand the current situation of pesticide residues in different varieties of Chrysanthemum, so as to provide theoretical reference for the control of quality and safety of Chrysanthemum and the formulation of the maximum residue limit.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.20201123.602DOI Listing
March 2021

A chromosome-level genome assembly for the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas.

Gigascience 2021 Mar;10(3)

The Roslin Institute and Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, The University of Edinburgh, Easter Bush Campus, Midlothian EH25 9RG, UK.

Background: The Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) is a bivalve mollusc with vital roles in coastal ecosystems and aquaculture globally. While extensive genomic tools are available for C. gigas, highly contiguous reference genomes are required to support both fundamental and applied research. Herein we report the creation and annotation of a chromosome-level assembly for C. gigas.

Findings: High-coverage long- and short-read sequence data generated on Pacific Biosciences and Illumina platforms were used to generate an initial assembly, which was then scaffolded into 10 pseudo-chromosomes using both Hi-C sequencing and a high-density linkage map. The assembly has a scaffold N50 of 58.4 Mb and a contig N50 of 1.8 Mb, representing a step advance on the previously published C. gigas assembly. Annotation based on Pacific Biosciences Iso-Seq and Illumina RNA-Seq resulted in identification of ∼30,000 putative protein-coding genes. Annotation of putative repeat elements highlighted an enrichment of Helitron rolling-circle transposable elements, suggesting their potential role in shaping the evolution of the C. gigas genome.

Conclusions: This new chromosome-level assembly will be an enabling resource for genetics and genomics studies to support fundamental insight into bivalve biology, as well as for selective breeding of C. gigas in aquaculture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/gigascience/giab020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7992393PMC
March 2021

Overexpression of Annexin A2 promotes proliferation by forming a Glypican 1/c-Myc positive feedback loop: prognostic significance in human glioma.

Cell Death Dis 2021 Mar 12;12(3):261. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, China.

In order to set up a reliable prediction system for the tumor grade and prognosis in glioma patients, we clarify the complicated crosstalk of Annexin A2 (ANXA2) with Glypican 1 (GPC1) and demonstrate whether combined indexes of ANXA2 and GPC1 could improve the prognostic evaluation for glioma patients. We found that ANXA2-induced glioma cell proliferation in a c-Myc-dependent manner. ANXA2 increased the expression of GPC1 via c-Myc and the upregulated GPC1 further promoted the c-Myc level, forming a positive feedback loop, which eventually led to enhanced proliferation of glioma cells. Both mRNA and protein levels of ANXA2 were upregulated in glioma tissues and coincided with the overexpression of GPC1. Besides, we utilized tissue microarrays (TMAs) and immunohistochemistry to demonstrate that glioma patients with both high expression of ANXA2 and GPC1 tended to have higher rate of tumor recurrence and shorter overall survival (OS). In conclusion, the overexpression of ANXA2 promotes proliferation of glioma cells by forming a GPC1/c-Myc positive feedback loop, and ANXA2 together with its downstream target GPC1 could be a potential "combination biomarker" for predicting prognosis of glioma patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41419-021-03547-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7954792PMC
March 2021

The chemical profile of activated secondary metabolites by overexpressing LaeA in Aspergillus niger.

Microbiol Res 2021 Mar 3;248:126735. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

School of Biology and Biological Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou Higher Education Mega Center, Guangzhou, 510006, China; Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Fermentation and Enzyme Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou Higher Education Mega Center, Guangzhou, 510006, China. Electronic address:

Although the mechanisms of regulating secondary metabolism by LaeA remains unclear, the synthesis of many secondary metabolites (SMs) in Aspergilli could be activated by LaeA mutation. In our previous sutdy, RNA-seq data has showed that the transcriptional level of many SM backbone genes could be upregulated by overexpressing LaeA. Herein, we analyzed the chemical profile of activated secondary metabolites in the variant of A. niger FGSC A1279 by overexpressing LaeA (OElaeA). 14 compounds were activated in A. niger FGSC A1279 OElaeA variant in the WATM medium. Chemical workup of organic extracts of the culture broth from the A. niger OElaeA mutant identified three pure compounds, flaviolin, orlandin and kotanin. The structures of these compounds were confirmed by HR-ESIMS, 1D/2D NMR, and computer assisted structure elucidation (CASE). Based on homologous alignment and comparison of literatures, the biosynthetic gene cluster (fla) of flaviolin was identified. The in vivo function of the backbone gene, flaA, encoding a multidomain non-reducing polyketide synthase (SAT-KS-AT-PT-ACP), was verified via gene knockout and chemical analysis. Finally, a biosynthetic model for fungal flaviolin was proposed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micres.2021.126735DOI Listing
March 2021

Serum Neuron-Specific Enolase Levels Associated with Connectivity Alterations in Anterior Default Mode Network after Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

J Neurotrauma 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Medical Imaging, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China.

Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is the most prevalent neurological insult and leads to long-lasting cognitive impairment. Neuroimaging studies have discovered abnormalities in brain network connectivity following mTBI as the underlying neural basis of cognitive deficits. However, the pathophysiologic mechanisms involved in imaging alterations remain elusive. Proteins neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and ubiquitin C terminal hydrolase 1 are reliable markers for neuronal cell-body damage, both of which have been demonstrated to be increased in serum following mTBI. Therefore, we conducted a longitudinal study to examine relationships between abnormal brain network connectivity and serum neuronal biomarkers and their associations with cognitive recovery following mTBI. Sixty patients were followed-up at 1 week and 3 months post-injury and 41 controls were recruited. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to build a functional connectivity matrix within large-scale intrinsic networks, and their topological properties were analyzed using graph theory measures. We found that, compared with controls, mTBI patients showed significant decreases in a number of nodal characteristics in default mode network (DMN), salience network, and executive network ( < 0.05, false discovery rate corrected) at 3 months post-injury. Linear regression analysis found elevated serum NSE in acute phase could predict lower efficiency and degree centrality of anterior DMN at 3 months post-injury. In addition, efficiency and degree centrality of anterior DMN were negatively associated with working memory. Our study showed neuronal injury was associated with alterations in brain network connectivity after mTBI. These findings can facilitate capability to predict the brain functional outcomes and cognitive recovery in mTBI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/neu.2020.7372DOI Listing
May 2021

Identify potential miRNA-mRNA regulatory networks contributing to high-risk neuroblastoma.

Invest New Drugs 2021 Mar 5. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, People's Republic of China.

Neuroblastoma (NB) is a common tumor in children, usually in the retroperitoneum. After various treatments, low- and intermediate-risk patients have achieved good results, but the prognosis of high-risk patients is still very poor. Therefore, it is necessary to find new effective targets for the treatment of high-risk patients. In this study, comprehensive bioinformatics analysis was used to identify the differentially expressed genes (DEG and DEM) between high-risk patients and non-high-risk patients, and it was identified that ADRB2 may affect the survival status of high-risk patients due to miR -30a-5p regulation. The GSE49710, GSE73517, and GSE121513 datasets were downloaded from the Gene Expression Synthesis (GEO) database, and DEG and DEM were selected. Then, Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analyses were applied to the selected DEGs. The STRING database and Cytoscape software were used to construct protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks and perform modular analysis of the DEGs. The TARGET data set containing information on overall survival days were used for the prognostic analysis of central genes. We identified a total of 255 DEGs from GSE49710 and GSE73517, and 193 DEMs from GSE121513. We identified the 5 most important central genes from the PPI network, performed a prognostic analysis in the target data set, and verified their expression using RT-qPCR to select the most important ADRB2 gene to predict miRNA. Integrating the differential miRNA predicted by miRDB and miRSystem and GSE121513 between the targeted miRNA and the prognosis, miR-30a-5p was finally identified as the targeted miRNA of ADRB2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10637-021-01064-yDOI Listing
March 2021

Blood biomarkers of bone metastasis in digestive tract malignant tumors.

Future Oncol 2021 Apr 25;17(12):1507-1518. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Cancer Center, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 100050, China.

To evaluate the role of clinical features and blood markers in patients with malignant digestive tract tumors bone metastasis.  A total of 267 patients were included in this trial. Age, gender, primary tumor site, metastatic sites, T/N stage, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, total cholesterol, triglycerides, alkaline phosphatase, LDH, Ca levels, platelet, neutrophils to absolute value of lymphocytes (NLR), ratio of platelets to absolute values of lymphocytes (PLR) were analyzed. T stage, lymph node metastasis, N stage and liver and lung metastasis were independent risk factors. LDH + alkaline phosphatase + NLR + PLR and LDH + NLR, respectively have higher predictive value for bone metastasis compared with patients with early-stage malignant digestive tract tumor and patients with advanced malignant digestive tract tumor without bone metastasis. Some clinical features or blood markers have the potential to detect bone metastasis early to avoid skeletal complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/fon-2020-0509DOI Listing
April 2021

Brain morphological abnormalities in children with cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 deficiency disorder.

Eur J Paediatr Neurol 2021 Mar 15;31:46-53. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Epilepsy Center, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA.

Background: To quantitatively evaluate the brain MRI morphological abnormalities in patients with cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 deficiency disorder (CDD) on a group level and longitudinally.

Methods: We performed surface-based MRI analysis on high-resolution T1-weighted images on three CDD patients scanned at age of three years, and compared with 12 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. We further examined the longitudinal morphological changes in one patient with a follow-up of 5 years.

Results: CDD patients presented significant reductions in total intracranial volume, total gray matter (GM) volume and subcortical GM volume compared to controls. For subcortical regions, significant GM volume reductions were seen in the brain stem, bilateral thalamus, bilateral hippocampus, bilateral cerebellum and left amygdala. Although GM volume of cortical mantle did not show statistical differences overall, significant reduction was detected in bilateral parietal, left occipital and right temporal lobes. Cortical thickness exhibited significant decreases in bilateral occipital, parietal and temporal lobes, while surface area did not show any significant differences. Longitudinal follow-up in one patient revealed a monotonic downward trend of relative volume in the majority of brain regions. The relative surface area appeared to gain age-related growth, whereas the relative cortical thickness exhibited a striking progressive decline over time.

Conclusions: Quantitative morphology analysis in children with CDD showed global volume loss in the cortex and more notably in the subcortical gray matter, with a progressive trend along with the disease course. Cortical thickness is a more sensitive measure to disclose cortical atrophy and disease progression than surface area.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejpn.2021.02.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8026562PMC
March 2021

Lime-induced phytophotodermatitis occurred in two family members presented as hyperpigmentation.

Authors:
Shan Wang Lin Ma

Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed 2021 Feb 23. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Department of Dermatology, Beijing Children's Hospital, Capital Medical University, National Center for Children's Health, Beijing, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/phpp.12672DOI Listing
February 2021

PEG-CD/AM/liposome @amoxicillin double network hydrogel wound dressing-Multiple barriers for long-term drug release.

J Biomater Appl 2021 Apr 20;35(9):1085-1095. Epub 2021 Feb 20.

School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shihezi University, Shihezi, Xinjiang, China.

Wound infection and poor wound healing are the major challenges of wound treatment. Antibiotic drug treatment is the effective way to inhibit wound infection. It is necessary to achieve sustained release of antibiotics to get a longer treatment for wound infection. The double network hydrogels based on liposome, polyethylene glycol (PEG), - cyclodextrin (-CD) and acrylamide (AM) were developed, in which liposome acts as amoxicillin repository. Because the drug would release from the multiple barriers including two cavities of liposome and -CD, as well as polyethylene glycol -- cyclodextrin/acrylamide (PEG-CD/AM) double network, the PEG-CD/AM/liposome @amoxicillin double network hydrogels could achieve sustained drug release. The drug release assay showed that the dressing could release amoxicillin continuously until 12 days, than that of 8th day for single-network hydrogel releasing. The antibacterial ratio of the hydrogel could reach above 80%. What's more, the hydrogels present adjustable mechanical strength by changing the ratio of the components. The swelling ratio proved that the hydrogel had potential ability to absorb wound exudates. The cytotoxicity test of the hydrogels demonstrated excellent biocompatibility. These results indicated that this study can provide a new thought for antibacterial wound dressing and has a broad application prospect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0885328221991948DOI Listing
April 2021

Decoupling of structural and functional connectivity in hubs and cognitive impairment after mild traumatic brain injury.

Brain Connect 2021 Feb 19. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Xi'an Jiaotong University, 12480, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Xi'an, Shaanxi, China;

Introduction: Mild traumatic brain injury (mild TBI) exhibited abnormal brain network topologies associated with cognitive dysfunction. However, it was still unclear which aspects of network organization were critical underlying the key pathology of mild TBI. Here, a multi-imaging strategy was applied to capture dynamic topological features of both structural and functional connectivity networks (SCN and FCN), to provide more sensitive detection of altered FCN from its anatomical backbone and identify novel biomarkers of mild TBI outcomes.

Methods: 62 mild TBI patients (30 subjects as an original sample with 3-12 months follow-up, 32 subjects as independent replicated sample), and 37 healthy controls were recruited. Both diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and resting-state fMRI were used to create global connectivity matrices in the same individuals. Global and regional network analyses were applied to identify group differences and correlations with clinical assessments.

Results: Most global network properties were conserved in both SCNs and FCNs in subacute mild TBI, whereas SCNs presented decreased global efficiency and characteristic path length at follow-up. Specifically, some hubs in healthy brain networks typically became non-hubs in patients and vice versa, such as the medial prefrontal cortex, superior temporal gyrus, middle frontal gyrus. The relationship between structural and functional connectivity (SC and FC) in patients also showed salient decoupling as a function of time, primarily located in the hubs.

Conclusions: These results suggested mild TBI influences the relationship between SCN and FCN, and the SC-FC coupling strength may be used as a potential biomarker to predict long-term outcomes after injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/brain.2020.0852DOI Listing
February 2021

Molecular characterization of carbapenem-resistant and emergence of tigecycline non-susceptible strains in the Henan province in China: a multicentrer study.

J Med Microbiol 2021 Mar 15;70(3). Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Department of Clinical Microbiology, Henan Provincial People's Hospital, People's Hospital of Zhengzhou University, People's Hospital of Henan University, Zhengzhou, Henan, 450003, PR China.

Carbapenem-resistant (CRE) have been responsible for nosocomial outbreaks worldwide and have become endemic in several countries. To better understand the epidemiological trends and characteristics of CRE in the Henan province. We assessed the molecular epidemiological characteristics of 305 CRE strains isolated from patients in 19 secondary or tertiary hospitals in ten areas of the Henan province in China. A total of 305 CRE isolates were subjected to multiple tests, including antimicrobial susceptibility testing, PCR for carbapenemase genes , , , , -. Tigecycline-resistant genes , , , A, , X, M, L were analysed in five tigecycline non-susceptible carbapenem-resistant isolates (TNSCRKP). Additionally, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was performed for carbapenem-resistant (CRKP). The most common CRE species were (234, 77 %), (36, 12 %) and (13, 4 %). All strains exhibited multi-drug resistance. Overall, 97 % (295/305) and 97 % (297/305) of the isolates were susceptible to polymyxin B and tigecycline, respectively. A total of 89 % (271/305) of the CRE isolates were carbapenemase gene-positive, including 70 % , 13 % , 6 % , and 1 % combined / genes. carbapenemase (KPC) was the predominant carbapenemase in (87 %), whereas NDM and IMP were frequent in (53 %) and (69 %), respectively. Mutations in the , and genes were detected in five TNSCRKP. Moreover, 15 unique sequence types were detected, with ST11 (74 %), ST15 (9 %) and ST2237 (5 %) being dominant among strains. A high proportion of CRE strains were carbapenemase-positive, and five carbapenem-resistant isolates were tigecycline non-susceptible, indicating a need for the ongoing surveillance of CRE and effective measures for the prevention of CRE infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/jmm.0.001325DOI Listing
March 2021

Hydrogen production from water electrolysis: role of catalysts.

Nano Converg 2021 Feb 11;8(1). Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Department of Chemistry, State University of New York at Binghamton, Binghamton, NY, 13902, USA.

As a promising substitute for fossil fuels, hydrogen has emerged as a clean and renewable energy. A key challenge is the efficient production of hydrogen to meet the commercial-scale demand of hydrogen. Water splitting electrolysis is a promising pathway to achieve the efficient hydrogen production in terms of energy conversion and storage in which catalysis or electrocatalysis plays a critical role. The development of active, stable, and low-cost catalysts or electrocatalysts is an essential prerequisite for achieving the desired electrocatalytic hydrogen production from water splitting for practical use, which constitutes the central focus of this review. It will start with an introduction of the water splitting performance evaluation of various electrocatalysts in terms of activity, stability, and efficiency. This will be followed by outlining current knowledge on the two half-cell reactions, hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER), in terms of reaction mechanisms in alkaline and acidic media. Recent advances in the design and preparation of nanostructured noble-metal and non-noble metal-based electrocatalysts will be discussed. New strategies and insights in exploring the synergistic structure, morphology, composition, and active sites of the nanostructured electrocatalysts for increasing the electrocatalytic activity and stability in HER and OER will be highlighted. Finally, future challenges and perspectives in the design of active and robust electrocatalysts for HER and OER towards efficient production of hydrogen from water splitting electrolysis will also be outlined.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40580-021-00254-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7878665PMC
February 2021

Growth and reproduction effects and transgenerational effects of nonylphenol in Moina mongolica Daday (Crustacea: Cladocera).

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Feb 8. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

College of Fisheries and Life Science, Key Laboratory of Hydrobiology in Liaoning Province, Dalian Ocean University, Dalian, 116023, Liaoning, China.

An experimental ecology method was used to study the acute toxicity of nonylphenol (NP) and the effects of NP on growth, reproduction, and population growth in Moina mongolica. The effects were studied in a parent generation exposed to NP and three generations of offspring (F1, F2, and F3) not exposed to NP. The acute 24- and 48-h median lethal concentrations (LC) of M. mongolica were 0.066 and 0.046 mg L, respectively, indicating that NP is very toxic to M. mongolica. In chronic exposure experiments using parent M. mongolica, NP clearly inhibited the lifespan, reproductive volume, total molting time, end-body length, and population growth parameters. In the recovery generations in a clean environment, three generations still suffered from toxic effects, with toxic amplification in generation F1. Generations F2 and F3 clearly followed a recovery trend in the groups in which the parents were exposed to 0.001-0.007 mg L NP but recovered slowly in the groups in which the parents were exposed to 0.009 and 0.011 mg L NP. The results indicated that NP has overt reproductive toxic and transgenerational effects on M. mongolica. Further studies of the damage caused to the aquatic environment by hormone-like chemicals such as NP should therefore be performed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-12592-8DOI Listing
February 2021