Publications by authors named "Shan Luo"

119 Publications

Co-occurrence subgroups of child sexual abuse, health risk behaviors and their associations among secondary school students in China.

BMC Public Health 2021 Jun 14;21(1):1139. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

School of Public Health, Fudan University, 779 Laohumin Road, Shanghai, 200237, China.

Background: Little is known on the co-occurrence and heterogeneity of child sexual abuse (CSA) or health risk behavior (HRB) prevalence nor the associations among the victims.

Objectives: To detect the prevalence and subgroups of adolescents reporting CSAs or HRBs, and to examine the association between the subgroups.

Methods: Participants were secondary school students in a national survey in China (N = 8746). Self-reported CSA and HRB experiences were collected through a computer assisted questionnaire. Prevalence and confidence intervals were calculated. Multigroup latent class analysis (LCA) was used to examine latent subgroups of CSA and HRB. Dual latent class regression analysis was used to examine the association between CSA and HRB classes.

Results: A total of 8746 students participated in our study. The prevalence of having ever experienced any of the reported seven CSA items was 12.9%. The preferred LCA model consisted of a three-class CSA latent variable, i.e. "Low CSAs"(95.7% of the total respondents), "Verbal or exhibitionism CSAs"(3.3%), and "high multiple CSAs" (1.1%); and a three-class HRB latent variable, i.e. "Low HRBs"(70.5%), "externalizing HRBs" (20.7%), and "internalizing HRBs" (8.7%). Students in the "Verbal or exhibitionism CSAs" or "high multiple CSAs" classes had higher probabilities of being in "externalizing HRBs" or "internalizing HRBs" classes. The probabilities were higher in "high multiple CSAs" class(male externalizing OR 4.05, 95%CI 1.71-9.57; internalizing OR 11.77, 95%CI 4.76-29.13; female externalizing OR 4.97, 95%CI 1.99-12.44; internalizing OR 9.87, 95%CI 3.71-26.25) than those in "Verbal or exhibitionism CSA"(male externalizing OR 2.51, 95%CI 1.50-4.20; internalizing OR 3.08, 95%CI 1.48-6.40; female externalizing OR 2.53, 95%CI 1.63-3.95; internalizing OR 6.05, 95%CI 3.73-9.80).

Conclusions: Prevalence of CSA items varies. Non-contact CSAs are the most common forms of child sexual abuse among Chinese school students. There are different latent class co-occurrence patterns of CSA items or HRB items among the respondents. CSA experiences are in association with HRB experiences and the associations between latent classes are dose-responded. Multi-victimization has more significantly negative effects. The results could help identify high-risk subgroups and promote more nuanced interventions addressing adverse experiences and risk behaviors among at-risk adolescents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-021-11199-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8201738PMC
June 2021

miRNA-483-5p Targets HDCA4 to Regulate Renal Tubular Damage in Diabetic Nephropathy.

Horm Metab Res 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Science and Technology, Heilongjiang University of Chinese Medicine, Heilongjiang, China.

This study was designed to evaluate the diagnostic value of miR-483-5p in diabetic nephropathy (DN), and its effect and mechanism on apoptosis and inflammation of human proximal renal tubular cells (HK2) induced by high glucose (HG). Thirty healthy controls, 30 types 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients, and 28 DN patients were enrolled. miR-483-5p mRNA levels in serum were analyzed by RT-qPCR assays. The receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) was used to analyze the diagnostic value of miR-483-5p in DN. HK2 cells were induced by HG to establish an in vitro study model. CCK-8 and flow cytometry was used to detect cell viability, apoptosis, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Inflammation levels were measured by ELISA. Luciferase reporter assay was used to detect target genes of miR-483-5p. miR-483-5p was decreased in DN patients. The decreased level of miR-483-5p was positively correlated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and negatively correlated with proteinuria. miR-483-5p can significantly distinguish DN patients from healthy controls and T2DM and has a high diagnostic value. miR-483-5p decreased in HK2 cells induced by HG, and overexpression of miR-483-5p reversed HG-induced decreased cell activity, increased apoptosis, ROS production, and inflammation. Histone deacetylase 4 (HDCA4) was markedly increased in DN patients and HG-induced HK2 cells. miR-483-5p directly targeted HDCA4, and increasing miR-483-5p inhibited HDCA4 increased in HG-induced HK2. In conclusion, the results indicate that reduction of miR-483-5p has a high diagnostic value in DN, and overexpression of miR-483-5p has a certain protective effect on HK2 cells induced by HG by targeting HDCA4.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1480-7519DOI Listing
June 2021

Developmental Changes in Food Perception and Preference.

Front Psychol 2021 18;12:654200. Epub 2021 May 18.

Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, United States.

Food choices are a key determinant of dietary intake, with brain regions, such as the mesolimbic and prefrontal cortex maturing at differential rates into adulthood. More needs to be understood about developmental changes in healthy and unhealthy food perceptions and preference. We investigated how food perceptions and preference vary as a function of age and how food attributes (taste and health) impact age-related changes. One hundred thirty-nine participants (8-23 years, 60 females) completed computerized tasks to rate high-calorie and low-calorie food cues for taste, health, and liking (preference), followed by 100 binary food choices based on each participant's ratings. Dietary self-control was considered successful when the healthier (vs. tastier) food was chosen. Self-control success ratio was the proportion of success trials over total number of choices. Beta-weights for health (β-health) and taste (β-taste) were calculated as each attribute's influence on food preference. Adiposity measurements included BMI z-score and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR). High-calorie foods were rated more tasty and less healthy with increasing age. Older participants liked high-calorie foods more (vs. younger participants), and β-taste was associated with age. Significant age-by-WHtR interactions were observed for health and taste ratings of high-calorie foods, β-taste, and marginally for preference of high-calorie foods. Stratifying by WHtR (high, low), we found age-related increases in taste and preference ratings of high-calorie foods in the high WHtR group alone. In contrast, age-related decreases in health ratings of high-calorie foods were significant in the low WHtR group alone. Age and β-taste were significantly associated in the high WHtR group and only marginally significant with low WHtR. Although participants rated low-calorie foods as less tasty and less healthy with increasing age, there was no association between age and preference for low-calorie foods. Participants made faster food choices with increasing age regardless of WHtR, with a significant age-by-WHtR interaction on reaction time (RT). There were no age-related effects in self-control success ratio and β-health. These results suggest that individual differences in age and central adiposity play an important role in preference for high-calorie foods, and a higher importance of food tastiness in food choice may contribute to greater preference for high-calorie foods with increasing age.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.654200DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8168465PMC
May 2021

Editorial: ViTac: Integrating Vision and Touch for Multimodal and Cross-Modal Perception.

Front Robot AI 2021 7;8:697601. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Computer Science and Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/frobt.2021.697601DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8138592PMC
May 2021

Clinical features in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with early clearance and prolonged shedding of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Apr;9(8):665

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Shanghai General Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Background: Since the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the pattern of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA shedding has not been well characterized.

Methods: In our study, 652 patients in Wuhan Designated Hospital were recruited, and their clinical and laboratory findings were extracted and analyzed.

Results: The median duration of SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection was 23 days [interquartile range (IQR), 18 days] from symptom onset. Compared to patients with early viral RNA clearance (<23 days after illness onset), we found that patients with late viral RNA clearance (≥23 days) had a higher proportion of clinical features, as follows: symptoms, including fever, dry cough, and sputum production; comorbidities, including hypertension, chronic kidney disease, uremia, chronic liver disease, anemia, hyperlipidemia, and bilateral lung involvement; complications, such as liver injury; delayed admission to hospital; laboratory parameters at baseline, including higher eosinophils, uric acid, cholesterol, triglycerides, and lower hemoglobin; and less treatment with arbidol, chloroquine, or any antivirals. After generalized linear regression, prolonged SARS-CoV-2 RNA shedding was independently associated with younger age; delayed admission to hospital; symptoms including fever, shivering, and sputum production; comorbidities including hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, anemia, hyperlipidemia, uremia, and lung involvement; and higher alanine aminotransferase (ALT), uric acid, and cholesterol levels at baseline.

Conclusions: In conclusion, the factors mentioned above are associated with the negative conversion of SARS-CoV-2 RNA. A deeper insight into virological dynamics will be helpful for establishing patient discharge and quarantine release criteria.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-21-445DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8106067PMC
April 2021

Neural representations of the amount and the delay time of reward in intertemporal decision making.

Hum Brain Mapp 2021 May 2. Epub 2021 May 2.

Key Research Base of Humanities and Social Sciences of the Ministry of Education, Academy of Psychology and Behavior, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin, China.

Numerous studies have examined the neural substrates of intertemporal decision-making, but few have systematically investigated separate neural representations of the two attributes of future rewards (i.e., the amount of the reward and the delay time). More importantly, no study has used the novel analytical method of representational connectivity analysis (RCA) to map the two dimensions' functional brain networks at the level of multivariate neural representations. This study independently manipulated the amount and delay time of rewards during an intertemporal decision task. Both univariate and multivariate pattern analyses showed that brain activity in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC) and lateral frontal pole cortex (LFPC) was modulated by the amount of rewards, whereas brain activity in the DMPFC and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) was modulated by the length of delay. Moreover, representational similarity analysis (RSA) revealed that even for the regions of the DMPFC that overlapped between the two dimensions, they manifested distinct neural activity patterns. In terms of individual differences, those with large delay discounting rates (k) showed greater DMPFC and LFPC activity as the amount of rewards increased but showed lower DMPFC and DLPFC activity as the delay time increased. Lastly, RCA suggested that the topological metrics (i.e., global and local efficiency) of the functional connectome subserving the delay time dimension inversely predicted individual discounting rate. These findings provide novel insights into neural representations of the two attributes in intertemporal decisions, and offer a new approach to construct task-based functional brain networks whose topological properties are related to impulsivity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hbm.25445DOI Listing
May 2021

Obesity and Dietary Added Sugar Interact to Affect Postprandial GLP-1 and Its Relationship to Striatal Responses to Food Cues and Feeding Behavior.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 31;12:638504. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, United States.

It has been hypothesized that the incretin hormone, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), decreases overeating by influencing mesolimbic brain regions that process food-cues, including the dorsal striatum. We previously showed that habitual added sugar intake was associated with lower glucose-induced circulating GLP-1 and a greater striatal response to high calorie food cues in lean individuals. Less is known about how dietary added sugar and obesity may interact to affect postprandial GLP-1 and its relationship to striatal responses to food cues and feeding behavior. The current study aimed to expand upon previous research by assessing how circulating GLP-1 and striatal food cue reactivity are affected by acute glucose consumption in participants with varied BMIs and amounts of habitual consumption of added sugar. This analysis included 72 participants from the Brain Response to Sugar Study who completed two study visits where they consumed either plain water or 75g glucose dissolved in water (order randomized; both drinks were flavored with non-caloric cherry flavoring) and underwent repeated blood sampling, a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) based food-cue task, and an ad-libitum buffet meal. Correlations between circulating GLP-1 levels, striatal food-cue reactivity, and food intake were assessed, and interactions between obesity and added sugar on GLP-1 and striatal responses were examined. An interaction between BMI and dietary added sugar was associated with reduced post-glucose GLP-1 secretion. Participants who were obese and consumed high levels of added sugar had the smallest increase in plasma GLP-1 levels. Glucose-induced GLP-1 secretion was correlated with lower dorsal striatal reactivity to high-calorie versus low-calorie food-cues, driven by an increase in reactivity to low calorie food-cues. The increase in dorsal striatal reactivity to low calorie food-cues was negatively correlated with sugar consumed at the buffet. These findings suggest that an interaction between obesity and dietary added sugar intake is associated with additive reductions in postprandial GLP-1 secretion. Additionally, the results suggest that changes to dorsal striatal food cue reactivity through a combination of dietary added sugar and obesity may affect food consumption.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2021.638504DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8044510PMC
March 2021

Associations Between Exposure to Gestational Diabetes Mellitus In Utero and Daily Energy Intake, Brain Responses to Food Cues, and Adiposity in Children.

Diabetes Care 2021 May 7;44(5):1185-1193. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Division of Endocrinology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA

Objective: Children exposed to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) or maternal obesity in utero have an increased propensity to develop obesity. Little is known about the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon. We aimed to examine relationships between exposure to GDM or maternal obesity and daily energy intake (EI), brain responses to food cues within reward regions, and adiposity in children.

Research Design And Methods: Participants were 159 children ages 7-11 years. Repeated 24-h recalls were conducted to assess mean daily EI. A subset of children ( = 102) completed a food cue task in the MRI scanner. A priori regions of interest included the orbital frontal cortex (OFC), insula, amygdala, ventral striatum, and dorsal striatum. Adiposity measurements, BMI -scores, percent body fat, waist-to-height ratio (WtHR), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were assessed.

Results: Exposure to GDM was associated with greater daily EI, and children exposed to GDM diagnosed before 26 weeks gestation had greater OFC food cue reactivity. Children exposed to GDM also had larger WHR. Results remained significant after adjusting for child's age and sex, maternal education and race/ethnicity, maternal prepregnancy BMI, and child's physical activity levels. Furthermore, children who consumed more daily calories had greater WHR, and the relationship between GDM exposure and WHR was attenuated after adjustment for daily EI. Prepregnancy BMI was not significantly related to daily EI or food cue reactivity in reward regions. However, prepregnancy BMI was significantly related to all adiposity measurements; results remained significant for BMI -scores, WtHR, and WHR after controlling for child's age and sex, maternal education and race/ethnicity, maternal GDM exposure, and child's physical activity levels.

Conclusions: Exposure to GDM in utero, in particular before 26 weeks gestation, is associated with increased EI, enhanced OFC food cue reactivity, and increased WHR. Future study with longitudinal follow-up is merited to assess potential pathways of daily EI and food cue reactivity in reward regions on the associations between GDM exposure and childhood adiposity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dc20-3006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8132328PMC
May 2021

Selective morphological and volumetric alterations in the hippocampus of children exposed in utero to gestational diabetes mellitus.

Hum Brain Mapp 2021 Jun 25;42(8):2583-2592. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, USA.

Prior epidemiological studies have found that in utero exposure to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with increased risk for neurodevelopmental disorders. However, brain alterations associated with GDM are not known. The hippocampus is pivotal for cognition and emotional regulation. Therefore, we assessed relationships between in utero exposure to GDM and hippocampal morphology and subfield structure during childhood. One hundred seventeen children aged 7-11 years (57% girls, 57% exposed to GDM), born at Kaiser Permanente Southern California, participated in the BrainChild Study. Maternal GDM status was determined from electronic medical records. Children underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging. Freesurfer 6.0 was used to measure hippocampal and individual hippocampal subfield gray matter volume (mm ). Morphological analyses on the hippocampal surface were carried out using shape analysis. GDM-exposed children exhibited reduced radial thickness in a small, spatially-restricted portion of the left inferior body of the hippocampus that corresponds to the CA1 subfield. There was a significant interaction between GDM-exposure and sex on the right hippocampal CA1 subfield. GDM-exposed boys had reduced right CA1 volume compared to unexposed boys, but this association was no longer significant after controlling for age. No significant group differences were observed in girls. Our results suggest that GDM-exposure impacts shape of the left hippocampal CA1 subfield in both boys and girls and may reduce volume of right hippocampal CA1 only in boys. These in-depth findings illuminate the unique properties of the hippocampus impacted by prenatal GDM-exposure and could have important implications for hippocampal-related functions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hbm.25390DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8090774PMC
June 2021

The role of maternal BMI on brain food cue reactivity in children: a preliminary study.

Brain Imaging Behav 2021 Mar 18. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, 90089, USA.

Children of overweight and obese parents have an increased risk of obesity. Little is known the neural mechanisms underlying this relationship, specifically the brain systems implicated in self-regulation of food intake. The primary goal here is to examine relationships between maternal body mass index (BMI) and brain responses to food cues in children. Seventy-six children (8.62 ± 1.02 years; 28 M,48F) were included in this study. Height and weight were assessed for children and their biological parents. Maternal height and weight before pregnancy were extracted from the Electronic Medical Records (EMR). BMI (kg/m) or BMIz (age- and sex-specific BMI) were calculated. Children underwent a magnetic resonance imaging session where they viewed food and non-food images before and after glucose ingestion. The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) food cue reactivity was the measurement of interest for region-of-interest (ROI) analyses. Whole-brain exploratory analysis was performed as well. Non-parametric methods were used for data analysis. ROI and whole brain analyses showed that maternal current BMI was inversely associated with child's ACC and dlPFC food cue reactivity after glucose ingestion, adjusting for age and sex. No significant relationships were found between paternal BMI and child's food cue reactivity. Child BMIz was negatively associated with the ACC food cue reactivity after glucose ingestion. Our results supported the role of maternal adiposity on child's responses to appetitive food cues in brain self-regulation circuitry, which may influence eating behavior and obesity risk in children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11682-021-00466-zDOI Listing
March 2021

Child physical activity as a modifier of the relationship between prenatal exposure to maternal overweight/obesity and neurocognitive outcomes in offspring.

Int J Obes (Lond) 2021 Jun 17;45(6):1310-1320. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, 90089, USA.

Background/objectives: With rising obesity rates among pregnant women, more children are exposed in utero to maternal obesity. In prior epidemiological studies, exposure to maternal obesity was associated with lower intelligence quotient (IQ) scores and worse cognitive abilities in offspring. Further studies have shown that offspring exposed to maternal obesity, exhibit differences in the white matter microstructure properties, fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD). In contrast, physical activity was shown to improve cognition and white matter microstructure during childhood. We examined if child physical activity levels modify the relationship between prenatal exposure to maternal obesity with IQ and white matter microstructure in offspring.

Subjects/methods: One hundred children (59% girls) age 7-11 years underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging and IQ testing. Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI was abstracted from electronic medical records. White matter was assessed using diffusion tensor imaging with the measures, global FA, MD. The 3-day physical activity recall was used to measure moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and vigorous physical activity (VPA). Linear regression was used to test for interactions between prenatal exposure to maternal overweight/obesity and child PA levels on child IQ and global FA/MD.

Results: The relationship between prenatal exposure to maternal overweight/obesity and child IQ and global FA varied by child VPA levels. Children exposed to mothers with overweight/obesity who engaged in more VPA had higher IQ scores and global FA compared to exposed children who engaged in less VPA. Associations were independent of child age, sex, BMI Z-score and socioeconomic status. Children born to normal-weight mothers did not differ in either IQ or global FA by time in VPA.

Conclusions: Our findings support findings in rodent models and suggest that VPA during childhood modifies the relationship between prenatal exposure to maternal obesity and child IQ and white matter microstructure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41366-021-00794-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8164988PMC
June 2021

Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors as an add-on therapy to insulin for type 1 diabetes mellitus: Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Acta Diabetol 2021 Jul 2;58(7):869-880. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Department of Endocrinology, Taihe Hospital, Hubei University of Medical, Shiyan, 442000, China.

Aims: The aim was to systematically review the efficacy and safety of sodium-glucose cotransporter inhibitor (SGLT2i) as an adjunct to insulin at different follow-up durations in randomized, double-blind clinical trials in patients with type 1 diabetes.

Methods: We conducted a search on Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Library for relevant studies published before May 2020. According to the duration of follow-up, the subgroup analysis included four periods: 1-4, 12-18, 24-26, and 52 weeks. In the five trials included both 24-26 and 52 weeks of follow-up, we compared the efficacy by the placebo-subtracted difference and changes in SGLT2i groups.

Results: Fifteen trials including 7109 participants were analyzed. The combination of SGLT2i and insulin improved hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), daily insulin dose, body weight, and blood pressure, which varied greatly by different follow-ups. Compared with %HbA1c at 24-26 weeks, placebo-subtracted differences and changes in the SGLT2i groups slightly increased. SGLT2i plus insulin treatment showed no difference in the occurrence of urinary tract infections (UTIs), hypoglycemia, or severe hypoglycemia but increased the risk of genital tract infections (GTIs) in a duration-dependent manner. SGLT2i treatment was associated with a significantly higher rate of ketone-related SAEs and diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) at 52 weeks.

Conclusion: SGLT2i as an add-on therapy to insulin improved glycemic control and body weight and decreased the required dose of insulin without increasing the risk of hypoglycemia. However, after 6 months the benefits of SGLT2is on glycemic control may weaken and the risks of GTIs and DKA increased.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00592-021-01686-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8187227PMC
July 2021

A systematic review of neural correlates of dysregulated eating associated with obesity risk in youth.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2021 May 12;124:245-266. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, United States.

Dysregulated eating among children and adolescents is associated with a wide range of negative mental and physical health outcomes, including obesity. However, less is known regarding underlying neural mechanisms underlying such behaviors. Therefore, the present manuscript systematically reviewed neuroimaging research examining dysregulated eating behavior linked to excess weight in children and adolescents. A systematic literature search identified 23 eligible studies, the majority of which were cross-sectional functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies and excluded participants with psychiatric disorders. Dysregulated eating was captured by measures of eating styles and eating self-regulation, eating disorder behaviors, food addiction, objective measures of non-homeostatic eating and caloric restriction. While preliminary, findings suggested eating dysregulation was related to aberrant functioning within the frontostriatal and frontoparietal regions involved in self-regulatory processes, as well as regions involved in satiety signaling and interoception. This heterogeneous body of research is continually growing and may have potential to inform future prevention and intervention approaches. Results also identified several important limitations to consider and highlight key areas for future research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2021.02.013DOI Listing
May 2021

Blocks World of Touch: Exploiting the Advantages of All-Around Finger Sensing in Robot Grasping.

Front Robot AI 2020 19;7:541661. Epub 2020 Nov 19.

smARTLab, Department of Computer Science, niversity of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom.

Tactile sensing is an essential capability for a robot to perform manipulation tasks in cluttered environments. While larger areas can be assessed instantly with cameras, Lidars, and other remote sensors, tactile sensors can reduce their measurement uncertainties and gain information of the physical interactions between the objects and the robot end-effector that is not accessible via remote sensors. In this paper, we introduce the novel tactile sensor that has the shape of a finger and can sense contacts on any location of its surface. This contrasts to other camera-based tactile sensors that either only have a flat sensing surface, or a compliant tip of a limited sensing area, and our proposed GelTip sensor is able to detect contacts from all the directions, like a human finger. The sensor uses a camera located at its base to track the deformations of the opaque elastomer that covers its hollow, rigid, and transparent body. Because of this design, a gripper equipped with GelTip sensors is capable of simultaneously monitoring contacts happening inside and outside its grasp closure. Our extensive experiments show that the GelTip sensor can effectively localize these contacts at different locations of the finger body, with a small localization error of approximately 5 mm on average, and under 1 mm in the best cases. Furthermore, our experiments in a Blocks World environment demonstrate the advantages, and possibly a necessity, of leveraging all-around touch sensing in manipulation tasks. In particular, the experiments show that the contacts at different moments of the reach-to-grasp movements can be sensed using our novel GelTip sensor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/frobt.2020.541661DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7805632PMC
November 2020

Evidence of a Role for the Hippocampus in Food-Cue Processing and the Association with Body Weight and Dietary Added Sugar.

Obesity (Silver Spring) 2021 02;29(2):370-378

Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, USA.

Objective: The current analysis used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to explore a model of energy regulation postulating that the hippocampus integrates interoceptive signals and environmental stimuli to suppress responding to food cues. It was hypothesized that hippocampal activity would increase in response to food cues under postnutritive relative to fasted conditions, given the role of the hippocampus in integrating postnutritive signals with food cues, and that obesity, added sugar intake, or a combination of these factors would alter this response.

Methods: Data were analyzed on 65 participants (29 males). Participants consumed drinks containing 75 g of glucose or water and underwent an fMRI-based food-cue task. Blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI was used to examine hippocampal responses to food and nonfood cues.

Results: In lean participants, the hippocampal BOLD signal was higher following glucose compared with water, but participants with obesity showed the opposite pattern. BMI interacted with added sugar intake such that BMI was more negatively correlated with hippocampal food-cue reactivity after glucose ingestion in individuals who consumed high levels of added sugar. Hippocampal BOLD was negatively correlated with prospective food intake.

Conclusions: The findings are consistent with the view that energy regulation involves hippocampal processes in humans and that added sugar and excess weight may impair this function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/oby.23085DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7842690PMC
February 2021

Evaluation of His-Metal Assemblies as a Drug Delivery Vehicle in the Treatment of Anterior Segment Disease Using a Corneal Inflammation Model.

ACS Biomater Sci Eng 2020 07 11;6(7):4012-4023. Epub 2020 Jun 11.

School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Eye Hospital, School of Biomedical Engineering, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang Province 325035, P. R. China.

Keratitis is a common ophthalmological disease and also a common cause of blindness (second only to cataracts). This disease is routinely treated by topical administration of dexamethasone sodium phosphate (Dexp). However, due to the presence of anatomical and physiological barriers, frequent administration is needed, often resulting in poor patient compliance and diverse side effects. In this work, Dexp was encapsulated into a His-metal assembly (HmA) to generate [email protected], which was utilized in the ocular delivery of Dexp. The physicochemical properties of HmA and [email protected] particles were characterized in detail using various techniques such as dynamic light scattering (DLS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and UV-vis spectroscopy. Compared to commercial Eudragi and reported PLGA nanoparticles, HmA showed higher encapsulation efficiency (EE%) and higher loading capacity (LC wt %) of Dexp. [email protected] displayed pH-dependent release; after 33 days at pH 5.8, 6.5, and 7.2, 100%, 65%, and 42% of Dexp, respectively, had been released. In addition, HmA and [email protected] showed low cytotoxicity to macrophages and to all common ocular cell types tested. The effect of [email protected] on corneal inflammation was evaluated using and models. Our results demonstrate that [email protected] is much superior to free Dexp in both and models. These positive results suggest that HmA may represent a promising candidate nanocarrier for the treatment of various diseases of the anterior segment of the eye.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsbiomaterials.0c00218DOI Listing
July 2020

Prefrontal Cortex and Amygdala Subregion Morphology Are Associated With Obesity and Dietary Self-control in Children and Adolescents.

Front Hum Neurosci 2020 3;14:563415. Epub 2020 Dec 3.

Department of Pediatrics, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, United States.

A prefrontal control system that is less mature than the limbic reward system in adolescence is thought to impede self-regulatory abilities, which could contribute to poor dietary choices and obesity. We, therefore, aimed to examine whether structural morphology of the prefrontal cortex (PFC; involved in cognitive control) and the amygdala (a key brain region for reward-related processing) are associated with dietary decisions and obesity in children and adolescents. Seventy-one individuals between the ages of 8-22 years (17.35 ± 4.76 years, 51% female, 56% were overweight or obese) participated in this study; each participant completed a computer-based food choice task and a T1- and T2-weighted structural brain scans. Two indices of obesity were assessed, including age- and sex-specific body mass index (BMIz) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR). The behavioral task included rating 60 food stimuli for tastiness, healthiness, and liking. Based on each participant's self-ratings, 100 binary food choices were then made utilizing a computer mouse. Dietary "self-control" was calculated as the proportion of trials where the individual chose the healthier food item (vs. the tastier food item) over the total number of trials. Cortical thickness and amygdala subnuclei volumes were quantified using FreeSurfer 6.0 and CIT168 atlas, respectively. We found that WHtR was negatively associated with the thickness of bilateral superior frontal, left superior temporal, right insula, and right inferior temporal regions ( < 0.05, corrected for multiple comparisons). We also found WHtR to be positively associated with the volume of the central nucleus (CEN) region of the amygdala ( = 0.006), after adjusting for the hemisphere, age, sex, and intracranial volumes. A similar data pattern was observed when BMIz was used. Moreover, we found that across all participants, thinner right superior frontal cortex and larger left CEN volumes predicted lower dietary self-control. These results suggest that differential development of the PFC and amygdala relate to obesity and dietary self-control. Further longitudinal studies are merited to determine causal relationships among altered PFC to amygdala neural circuitry, dietary self-control, and obesity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2020.563415DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7744283PMC
December 2020

Appetite-Regulating Hormones Are Reduced After Oral Sucrose vs Glucose: Influence of Obesity, Insulin Resistance, and Sex.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2021 Mar;106(3):654-664

Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, USA.

Context: Fructose compared to glucose has adverse effects on metabolic function, but endocrine responses to oral sucrose vs glucose is not well understood.

Objective: We investigated how oral sucrose vs glucose affected appetite-regulating hormones, and how biological factors (body mass index [BMI], insulin sensitivity, sex) influence endocrine responses to these 2 types of sugar.

Design: Sixty-nine adults (29 men; 23.22 ± 3.74 years; BMI 27.03 ± 4.96 kg/m2) completed the study. On 2 occasions, participants consumed 300-mL drinks containing 75 g of glucose or sucrose. Blood was sampled at baseline, 10, 35, and 120 minutes post drink for plasma glucose, insulin, glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1)(7-36), peptide YY (PYY)total, and acyl-ghrelin measures. Hormone levels were compared between conditions using a linear mixed model. Interaction models were performed, and results were stratified to assess how biological factors influence endocrine responses.

Results: Sucrose vs glucose ingestion provoked a less robust rise in glucose (P < .001), insulin (P < .001), GLP-1 (P < .001), and PYY (P = .02), whereas acyl-ghrelin suppression was similar between the sugars. We found BMI status by sugar interactions for glucose (P = .01) and PYY (P = .03); obese individuals had smaller increases in glucose and PYY levels after consuming sucrose vs glucose. There were interactions between insulin sensitivity and sugar for glucose (P = .003) and insulin (P = .04), and a sex by sugar interaction for GLP-1 (P = .01); men demonstrated smaller increases in GLP-1 in response to oral sucrose vs glucose.

Conclusion: Sucrose is less efficient at signaling postprandial satiation than glucose, and biological factors influence differential hormone responses to sucrose vs glucose consumption.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/clinem/dgaa865DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7947782PMC
March 2021

Growth hormone activates PI3K/Akt signaling and inhibits ROS accumulation and apoptosis in granulosa cells of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.

Reprod Biol Endocrinol 2020 Dec 7;18(1):121. Epub 2020 Dec 7.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, West China Second University Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, People's Republic of China.

Background: It is reported that growth hormone (GH) can alleviate oxidative stress (OS) induced apoptosis in some types of cells by activating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. This study investigated the role and underlying mechanism of GH in OS and apoptosis in granulosa cells (GCs) of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

Methods: Primary GCs were collected from patients with and without PCOS (controls, n = 32) during oocyte retrieval. The patients with PCOS were randomly assigned to take GH treatment (PCOS-GH, n = 30) or without GH treatment (PCOS-C, n = 31). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) level was determined by spectrophotometry and fluorescence microscopy. GC apoptosis and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were detected by Annexin V-FITC/PI double-staining and JC-1 staining, respectively (flow cytometry). The expression of apoptosis-related genes and proteins involved in PI3K/Akt signaling was determined by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, while active caspase-9 and caspase-3 levels of GCs were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

Results: Our study found that in GCs of the PCOS-GH group, the ROS levels and apoptotic rates were significantly decreased, whereas MMP was significantly increased when compared to those in the PCOS-C group (P < 0.05). The mRNA levels of FOXO1, Bax, caspase-9, and caspase-3 were significantly decreased, whereas Bcl-2 was increased in GCs of the PCOS-GH group than those in the PCOS-C group (P < 0.05). The protein levels of FOXO1, Bax, cleaved caspase-9/caspase-9 and cleaved caspase-3/caspase-3 were decreased, whereas p-PI3K/PI3K, p-Akt/Akt, p-FOXO1 and Bcl-2 were increased in GCs of the PCOS-GH group, compared with those in the PCOS-C group (P < 0.05).

Conclusion: OS induced apoptosis and downregulated the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in patients with PCOS. GH could alleviate apoptosis and activate the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

Clinical Trial Registration Number: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry. ChiCTR1800019437 . Prospectively registered on October 20, 2018.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12958-020-00677-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7720521PMC
December 2020

[Effects of Atorvastatin Calcium on the Survival of Ultra-long Dorsal Random Skin Flaps in Rats].

Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2020 Nov;51(6):803-808

Department of Plastic Surgery, Sichuan Academy of Medical Sciences & Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital, Chengdu 610072, China.

Objective: To investigate the effects of atorvastatin calcium (ATR) on the survival of ultra-long dorsal random skin flaps in rats.

Methods: Thirty SD rats were divided into five groups ( =6) according to the random number table: normal saline control group (CON group), ATR 10 mg/kg group (P10 group), ATR 20 mg/kg group (P20 group), ATR 30 mg/kg group (P30 group), and ATR 40 mg/kg group (P40 group). After pretreatment with ATR or 0.9% saline for 3 days, an ultra-long dorsal random skin flaps with size of 8 cm×2 cm was made on the back of each rat and replanted in situ. After the operation, the ATR or saline treatment lasted for 3 d. Seven days after operation, the appearance of skin flaps was observed with naked eyes, the survival rate of skin flaps was calculated. The pathological changes in the surviving areas of skin flaps were observed by HE staining, the number of microvessels in skin flaps was observed by immunohistochemistry staining, the mRNA expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor ( ) and basic fibroblast growth factor ( ) were tested by quantitative real-time PCR, and the contents of superoxide dismutase, nitrogen monoxide and malonaldehyde were tested by enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA).

Results: On the 7 day after operation, the skin flap of the CON group showed a large area of necrosis, and the necrotic part formed crusts. Crusts were hard and inelastic, and a large amount of tissue fluid exudated. The fascial layer showed dark purple. No exudation of tissue fluid was observed in the flaps of P10, P20, P30 and P40 groups. The scab shell fell off naturally and the fur grew normally. HE staining of CON group showed that a large number of inflammatory cell infiltration, epidermal loss and necrosis in skin flaps, but the pathological changes in skin flaps were significantly improved after treatment with ATR. Compared with the CON group, the survival rate of skin flaps, the number of microvessels in skin flaps and the levels of mRNA, mRNA, SOD, NO in skin flaps also increased with the dose of ATR, which reached a peak at 30 mg/kg ATR ( <0.05). However, the level of MDA in skin flaps decreased with the dose of ATR, which reached the lowest at 30 mg/kg ATR ( <0.05).

Conclusion: ATR can enhance the survival of ultra-long dorsal random skin flaps in rats, which may be related to promoting microangiogenesis and inhibiting inflammatory and oxidative stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12182/20201160204DOI Listing
November 2020

New Insights Into Causal Pathways Between the Pediatric Age-Related Physical Activity Decline and Loss of Control Eating: A Narrative Review and Proposed Conceptual Model.

Front Psychol 2020 14;11:578690. Epub 2020 Oct 14.

Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, United States.

Research consistently suggests that loss of control (LOC) eating in children and adolescents is a key factor contributing to pediatric obesity and eating disorders. However, causes of pediatric LOC eating are yet unclear, and there is a lack of longitudinal research investigating the developmental processes contributing to LOC eating and related outcomes in youth. Physical activity is an understudied behavior that declines during middle childhood to adolescence and may exert an influence in the development of LOC eating its impact on executive functioning. While physical activity levels and executive functioning have been linked to regulation of eating, no research has examined the mechanistic processes by which these domains may together impact LOC eating during childhood and adolescence. In the current narrative review, a model is proposed that suggests how physical activity and executive functioning influence LOC eating and related outcomes during childhood and adolescence. This model has the potential to influence future theoretical models of pediatric LOC eating and guide future prevention and intervention efforts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.578690DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7591585PMC
October 2020

Articulatory tongue shape analysis of Mandarin alveolar-retroflex contrast.

Authors:
Shan Luo

J Acoust Soc Am 2020 10;148(4):1961

College of International Studies, Yangzhou University, 196 West Huayang Road, Yangzhou, Jiangsu 225127, China.

As existing descriptions are likely too narrow to reflect a broader range of articulatory variability in Mandarin production, this study is undertaken to explore qualitative and quantitative tongue shape analysis in Mandarin sibilants. Tongue movement data are collected from 18 adult Mandarin speakers producing six sibilants in three vowel contexts. Acoustic information is also analyzed to establish the articulatory-acoustic correspondence. In addition to the common retroflex and bunched shapes, the results discovered a humped shape (e.g., a single, posterior lingual constriction) in most of Mandarin retroflex tokens. This shape is one variant of North American English /r/, but yet identified in Mandarin production. The humped shape adds to the literature and expands existing descriptions of Mandarin retroflex tongue configurations. Despite the shape differences, the general many-to-one articulatory-acoustic mappings also holds true for Mandarin retroflexes. However, while curvature analyses based on Cartesian coordinates significantly differentiated contrastive shapes in retroflex production, these analyses were not equally reliable in separating the alveolar-retroflex distinction, likely due to individual differences. The tongue contour changes in the place contrast were instead quantified by calculations with polar coordinates. The preliminary findings on Mandarin retroflexes are discussed in terms of vocal tract morphology, with possible lip protrusion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/10.0002111DOI Listing
October 2020

Growth hormone alleviates oxidative stress and improves oocyte quality in Chinese women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a randomized controlled trial.

Sci Rep 2020 10 30;10(1):18769. Epub 2020 Oct 30.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, West China Second University Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, People's Republic of China.

Oxidative stress (OS) is associated with poor oocyte quality and in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET) outcomes for patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Growth hormone (GH) can function to reduce OS in some types of cells. Therefore, this prospective randomized study investigated whether GH can significantly improve OS and oocyte quality in women with PCOS. This study enrolled 109 and 50 patients with and without PCOS (controls), respectively. The patients with PCOS were randomly assigned to receive treatment with GH (PCOS-T) or not (PCOS-C). The primary outcome included markers of OS in serum and FF, and secondary outcomes were mitochondrial function in granulosa cells (GCs) and IVF-ET outcomes. The PCOS groups showed higher basal serum total oxidant status (TOS) and OS index (OSI) levels. The follicle fluid (FF) TOS and OSI and GC apoptosis rate were significantly higher, whereas the GC mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was significantly lower in the PCOS-C group than in the PCOS-T and non-PCOS control groups (P < 0.05). Significantly more oocytes were fertilised and cleavage stage embryos were produced in the PCOS-T group than in the PCOS-C group (P < 0.05). GH also improved the rates of implantation and clinical pregnancy, but not significantly (P > 0.05). This study showed that GH alleviated the TOS and OSI level in FF and improved GC mitochondrial dysfunction and oocyte quality in patients with PCOS.Clinical Trial Registration Number: This project was prospectively registered on the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry on October 20, 2018. (ChiCTR1800019437) ( https://www.chictr.org.cn/edit.aspx?pid=28663&htm=4 ).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-75107-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7599233PMC
October 2020

Impacts of Acute Sucralose and Glucose on Brain Activity during Food Decisions in Humans.

Nutrients 2020 Oct 27;12(11). Epub 2020 Oct 27.

Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089, USA.

It is not known how acute sucralose and glucose alter signaling within the brain when individuals make decisions about available food. Here we examine this using Food Bid Task in which participants bid on visually depicted food items, while simultaneously undergoing functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Twenty-eight participants completed three sessions after overnight fast, distinguished only by the consumption at the start of the session of 300 mL cherry flavored water with either 75 g glucose, 0.24 g sucralose, or no other ingredient. There was a marginally significant ( = 0.05) effect of condition on bids, with 13.0% lower bids after glucose and 16.6% lower bids after sucralose (both relative to water). Across conditions, greater activity within regions a priori linked to food cue reactivity predicted higher bids, as did greater activity within the medial orbitofrontal cortex and bilateral frontal pole. There was a significant attenuation within the a priori region of interest (ROI) after sucralose compared to water ( < 0.05). Activity after glucose did not differ significantly from either of the other conditions in the ROI, but an attenuation in signal was observed in the parietal cortex, relative to the water condition. Taken together, these data suggest attenuation of central nervous system (CNS) signaling associated with food valuation after glucose and sucralose.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12113283DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7692777PMC
October 2020

Platelet Glycoprotein Ib α-Chain as a Putative Therapeutic Target for Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis: A Mendelian Randomization Study.

Arthritis Rheumatol 2021 04 21;73(4):693-701. Epub 2021 Feb 21.

University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.

Objective: To ascertain the role of platelet glycoprotein Ib α-chain (GPIbα) plasma protein levels in cardiovascular, autoimmune, and autoinflammatory diseases and whether its effects are mediated by platelet count.

Methods: We performed a two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) study, using both a cis-acting protein quantitative trait locus (cis-pQTL) and trans-pQTL near the GP1BA and BRAP genes as instruments. To assess if platelet count mediated the effect, we then performed a two-step MR study. Putative associations (GPIbα/platelet count/disease) detected by MR analyses were subsequently assessed using multiple-trait colocalization analyses.

Results: After correction for multiple testing (Bonferroni-corrected threshold P ≤ 2 × 10 ), GPIbα, instrumented by either cis-pQTL or trans-pQTL, was causally implicated with an increased risk of oligoarticular and rheumatoid factor (RF)-negative polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). These effects of GPIbα appeared to be mediated by platelet count and were supported by strong evidence of colocalization (probability of all 3 traits sharing a common causal variant ≥0.80). GPIbα instrumented by cis-pQTL did not appear to affect cardiovascular risk, although the GPIbα trans-pQTL was associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases and autoimmune diseases but a decreased risk of autoinflammatory diseases, suggesting that this trans-acting instrument operates through other pathways.

Conclusion: The role of platelets in thrombosis is well-established; however, our findings provide some novel genetic evidence that platelets may be causally implicated in the development of oligoarticular and RF-negative polyarticular JIA, and indicate that GPIbα may serve as a putative therapeutic target for these JIA subtypes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/art.41561DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8048917PMC
April 2021

Wearing a N95 mask increases rescuer's fatigue and decreases chest compression quality in simulated cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

Am J Emerg Med 2021 Jun 27;44:434-438. Epub 2020 May 27.

Emergency Center, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, 169 Donghu Road, Wuhan, Hubei, 430071, China; Hubei Clinical Research Center for Emergency and Resuscitation, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, 169 Donghu Road, Wuhan, Hubei 430071, China. Electronic address:

Objectives: N95 mask is essential for healthcare workers dealing with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, N95 mask causes discomfort breathing with marked reduction in air exchange. This study was designed to investigate whether the use of N95 mask affects rescuer's fatigue and chest compression quality during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR).

Methods: After a brief review of CPR, each participant performed a 2-minute continuous chest compression on a manikin wearing N95 (N95 group, n = 40) or surgical mask (SM group, n = 40). Compression rate and depth, the proportions of correct compression rate, depth, complete chest recoil and hand position were documented. Participants' fatigue was assessed using Borg score.

Results: Significantly lower mean chest compression rate and depth were both achieved in the N95 group than in the SM group (p < 0.05, respectively). In addition, the proportion of correct compression rate (61 ± 19 vs. 75 ± 195, p = 0.0067), depth (67 ± 16 vs. 90 ± 14, p < 0.0001) and complete recoil (91 ± 16 vs. 98 ± 5%, p = 0.0248) were significantly decreased in the N95 group as compared to the SM group. At the end of compression, the Borg score in the N95 group was significantly higher than that in the SM group (p = 0.027).

Conclusion: Wearing a N95 mask increases rescuer's fatigue and decreases chest compression quality during CPR. Therefore, the exchange of rescuers during CPR should be more frequent than that recommended in current guidelines when N95 masks are applied.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajem.2020.05.065DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7255202PMC
June 2021

Maternal exposure to Wenchuan earthquake and prolonged risk of offspring birth outcomes: a natural experiment study.

BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2020 Sep 22;20(1):552. Epub 2020 Sep 22.

Obstetric and Gynecology Department, Xinhua Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 200092, China.

Background: The prolonged effects of disasters on reproductive outcomes among the survivors are less studied, and the findings are inconsistent. We examined the associations of maternal exposure to the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake years before conception with adverse birth outcomes.

Methods: We included 73,493 women who delivered in 96 hospitals in 24 provinces and autonomous regions from the 2015/16 China Labor and Delivery Survey. We weighted the multivariable logistic models based on the combination of coarsened exact matching (CEM) weight and survey weight, and performed sex-stratified analysis to test whether associations of maternal earthquake exposure with adverse birth outcomes (Stillbirth, preterm birth [PTB], low birthweight [LBW], and small for gestational age [SGA]) varied by sex.

Results: The bivariate models showed that the weighted incidence of each adverse birth outcome was higher in exposed group than unexposed group: stillbirth (2.00% vs. 1.33%), PTB (14.14% vs. 7.32%), LBW (10.82% vs. 5.76%), and SGA (11.32% vs. 9.52%). The multivariable models showed maternal earthquake exposure was only associated significantly with a higher risk of PTB in offspring among all births (adjusted risk ratio [aRR](95%CI):1.25(1.06-1.48), P = 0.010). The sex-stratified analysis showed the association was significant among male births (aRR (95%CI): 1.40(1.12-1.75),P = 0.002),but unsignificant among female births. The sensitivity analysis reported similar findings.

Conclusions: The 2008 Wenchuan earthquake exposure has a long-term effect on PTB. Maternal acute exposure to disasters could be a major monitor for long-term reproductive outcomes. More attention should be paid to the underlining reasons for disaster-related adverse birth outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12884-020-03206-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7510090PMC
September 2020

Phenome-wide Mendelian randomization mapping the influence of the plasma proteome on complex diseases.

Nat Genet 2020 10 7;52(10):1122-1131. Epub 2020 Sep 7.

MRC Integrative Epidemiology Unit (IEU), Bristol Medical School, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.

The human proteome is a major source of therapeutic targets. Recent genetic association analyses of the plasma proteome enable systematic evaluation of the causal consequences of variation in plasma protein levels. Here we estimated the effects of 1,002 proteins on 225 phenotypes using two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) and colocalization. Of 413 associations supported by evidence from MR, 130 (31.5%) were not supported by results of colocalization analyses, suggesting that genetic confounding due to linkage disequilibrium is widespread in naïve phenome-wide association studies of proteins. Combining MR and colocalization evidence in cis-only analyses, we identified 111 putatively causal effects between 65 proteins and 52 disease-related phenotypes ( https://www.epigraphdb.org/pqtl/ ). Evaluation of data from historic drug development programs showed that target-indication pairs with MR and colocalization support were more likely to be approved, evidencing the value of this approach in identifying and prioritizing potential therapeutic targets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-020-0682-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7610464PMC
October 2020

Catalytic Steam Reforming of Bio-Oil-Derived Acetic Acid over CeO-ZnO Supported Ni Nanoparticle Catalysts.

ACS Omega 2020 Aug 31;5(31):19727-19736. Epub 2020 Jul 31.

School of Agricultural Engineering and Food Science, Shandong Research Center of Engineering & Technology for Clean Energy, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo 255000, China.

The steam reforming of bio-oil-derived acetic acid over the developed Ni/CeO-ZnO nanoparticle catalysts for hydrogen production was studied. The correlations of CeO to ZnO mass ratio (CZMR) and nickel loading with the properties and performances of Ni/CeO-ZnO catalysts were explored. The H, CO, and potential H yields followed a Gaussian normal distribution with increasing the CZMR. An exponential function equation was established to correlate the H, CO, and potential H yields with Ni loading. As the CZMR increased from 0 to 1/3, the H yield increased from 57.8 to 69.4%, with a growth rate of 20.1%. Further, on increasing the CZMR from 1/3 to 3, the H yield decreased by 37.6%. The CO yield showed a similar trend for the H yield on increasing the CZMR, which first increased to a peak value, then started to decrease rapidly and finally stabilized. The yield of H increased significantly from 20.6 to 73.5%, with the increase of nickel loading from 0 to 15%. Further, on increasing the nickel loading from 15 to 25%, the H yield increased by only 5.8%. With the CZMR of 1/3 and the nickel loading of 15%, the selectivities of H and CO were as high as 91.6 and 42.3%, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.0c02487DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7424743PMC
August 2020

Evaluating the impact of AMPK activation, a target of metformin, on risk of cardiovascular diseases and cancer in the UK Biobank: a Mendelian randomisation study.

Diabetologia 2020 11 4;63(11):2349-2358. Epub 2020 Aug 4.

School of Public Health, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, 1/F, Patrick Manson Building (North Wing), 7 Sassoon Road, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR, China.

Aims/hypothesis: Whether metformin reduces cardiovascular or cancer risk is unclear owing to concerns over immortal time bias and confounding in observational studies. This study evaluated the effect of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), the target of metformin, on risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer.

Methods: This is a Mendelian randomisation design, using AMPK, the pharmacological target of metformin, to infer the AMPK pathway-dependent effects of metformin on risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer in participants of white British ancestry in the UK Biobank.

Results: A total of 391,199 participants were included (mean age 56.9 years; 54.1% women), including 26,690 cases of type 2 diabetes, 38,098 cases of coronary artery disease and 80,941 cases of overall cancer. Genetically predicted reduction in HbA (%) instrumented by AMPK variants was associated with a 61% reduction in risk of type 2 diabetes (OR 0.39; 95% CI 0.20, 0.78; p = 7.69 × 10), a 53% decrease in the risk of coronary artery disease (OR 0.47; 95% CI 0.26, 0.84; p = 0.01) and a 44% decrease in the risk of overall cancer (OR 0.56; 95% CI 0.36, 0.85; p = 7.23 × 10). Results were similar using median or quartiles of AMPK score, with dose-response effects (p for trend = 4.18 × 10 for type 2 diabetes, 4.37 × 10 for coronary artery disease and 4.04 × 10 for overall cancer).

Conclusions/interpretation: This study provides some genetic evidence that AMPK activation by metformin may protect against cardiovascular disease and cancer, which needs to be confirmed by randomised controlled trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00125-020-05243-zDOI Listing
November 2020