Publications by authors named "Shamarina Shohaimi"

30 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Perturbations in Amino Acid Metabolism in Reserpine-Treated Zebrafish Brain Detected by H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance-Based Metabolomics.

Zebrafish 2021 Feb 3;18(1):42-54. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Laboratory of Natural Medicines and Products (NaturMeds), Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia.

Depression is a complex and disabling psychiatric disorder, which is expected to be a leading cause for disability by 2030. According to World Health Organization, about 350 million people are suffering with mental health disorders around the globe, especially depression. However, the mechanisms involved in stress-induced depression have not been fully elucidated. In this study, a stress-like state was pharmacologically induced in zebrafish using reserpine, a drug widely used to mediate depression in experimental animal models. Zebrafish received single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of 20, 40, and 80 mg/kg body weight reserpine doses and were subjected to open-field test at 2, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h after the treatment. Along with observed changes in behavior and measurement of cortisol levels, the fish were further examined for perturbations in their brain metabolites by H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics. We found a significant increase in freezing duration, whereas total distance travelled was decreased 24 h after single intraperitoneal injection of reserpine. Cortisol level was also found to be higher after 48 h of reserpine treatment. The H NMR data showed that the levels of metabolites such as glutamate, glutamine, histamine, valine, leucine and histidine, lactate, l-fucose, betaine and γ-amino butyric acid (GABA), β-hydroxyisovalerate, and glutathione were significantly decreased in the reserpine-treated group. This study provided some insights into the molecular nature of stress that could contribute toward a better understanding of depression disorder.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/zeb.2020.1895DOI Listing
February 2021

Economic contribution and attitude towards alien freshwater ornamental fishes of pet store owners in Klang Valley, Malaysia.

PeerJ 2021 13;9:e10643. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Malaysia is one of the top ten countries in the world that produce freshwater ornamental fishes. This industry can offer better livelihood opportunities to many poor households. However, most of the produced ornamental fishes are alien to Malaysia. In this study, we explore the contribution of alien freshwater fishes to the income of ornamental fish store owners and their attitude towards alien freshwater fishes within Klang Valley, Malaysia. Using a structured questionnaire, we surveyed 70 pet stores out of which 54 (81.42%) store owners responded. Most of the pet store owners were male (72%), Chinese (83%), and the highest educational level was at the secondary level (79%). Most of the pet store owners reported a monthly income of RM 2001-RM 5000 (78%) and were married (73%). Using Chi-square (χ) test, significant relationships ( < 0.05) existed between the attitude of store owners towards alien ornamental fish species versus educational level (χ = 16.424, = 0.007) and contribution of alien ornamental fishes to the pet store owners' income (χ = 27.266, = 0.003). Fish sales as the main income source also related significantly with the impact of fish selling business on income level (χ = 10.448, = 0.007). This study showed that the ornamental fish sales contributed over half of the income (51-100%) from the businesses of store owners. Almost half of the respondents (42%) reported that alien ornamental fish was the highest contributor to their income from the ornamental fish sale. While the mismanagement of alien ornamental fishes could give various negative ecological impacts, the socio-economic benefits of these fishes cannot be denied.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.10643DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7811282PMC
January 2021

The prevalence of stress, anxiety and depression within front-line healthcare workers caring for COVID-19 patients: a systematic review and meta-regression.

Hum Resour Health 2020 12 17;18(1):100. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

Sleep Disorders Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Background: Stress, anxiety, and depression are some of the most important research and practice challenges for psychologists, psychiatrists, and behavioral scientists. Due to the importance of issue and the lack of general statistics on these disorders among the Hospital staff treating the COVID-19 patients, this study aims to systematically review and determine the prevalence of stress, anxiety and depression within front-line healthcare workers caring for COVID-19 patients.

Methods: In this research work, the systematic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression approaches are used to approximate the prevalence of stress, anxiety and depression within front-line healthcare workers caring for COVID-19 patients. The keywords of prevalence, anxiety, stress, depression, psychopathy, mental illness, mental disorder, doctor, physician, nurse, hospital staff, 2019-nCoV, COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2 and Coronaviruses were used for searching the SID, MagIran, IranMedex, IranDoc, ScienceDirect, Embase, Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science (ISI) and Google Scholar databases. The search process was conducted in December 2019 to June 2020. In order to amalgamate and analyze the reported results within the collected studies, the random effects model is used. The heterogeneity of the studies is assessed using the I index. Lastly, the data analysis is performed within the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software.

Results: Of the 29 studies with a total sample size of 22,380, 21 papers have reported the prevalence of depression, 23 have reported the prevalence of anxiety, and 9 studies have reported the prevalence of stress. The prevalence of depression is 24.3% (18% CI 18.2-31.6%), the prevalence of anxiety is 25.8% (95% CI 20.5-31.9%), and the prevalence of stress is 45% (95% CI 24.3-67.5%) among the hospitals' Hospital staff caring for the COVID-19 patients. According to the results of meta-regression analysis, with increasing the sample size, the prevalence of depression and anxiety decreased, and this was statistically significant (P < 0.05), however, the prevalence of stress increased with increasing the sample size, yet this was not statistically significant (P = 0.829).

Conclusion: The results of this study clearly demonstrate that the prevalence of stress, anxiety and depression within front-line healthcare workers caring for COVID-19 patients is high. Therefore, the health policy-makers should take measures to control and prevent mental disorders in the Hospital staff.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12960-020-00544-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7745176PMC
December 2020

Stochastic SIS Modelling: Coinfection of Two Pathogens in Two-Host Communities.

Entropy (Basel) 2019 Dec 31;22(1). Epub 2019 Dec 31.

Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, 6715847141 Kermanshah, Iran.

A pathogen can infect multiple hosts. For example, zoonotic diseases like rabies often colonize both humans and animals. Meanwhile, a single host can sometimes be infected with many pathogens, such as malaria and meningitis. Therefore, we studied two susceptible classes S 1 ( t ) and S 2 ( t ) , each of which can be infected when interacting with two different infectious groups I 1 ( t ) and I 2 ( t ) . The stochastic models were formulated through the continuous time Markov chain (CTMC) along with their deterministic analogues. The statistics for the developed model were studied using the multi-type branching process. Since each epidemic class was assumed to transmit only its own type of pathogen, two reproduction numbers were obtained, in addition to the probability-generating functions of offspring. Thus, these, together with the mean number of infections, were used to estimate the probability of extinction. The initial population of infectious classes can influence their probability of extinction. Understanding the disease extinctions and outbreaks could result in rapid intervention by the management for effective control measures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/e22010054DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7516484PMC
December 2019

The effect of methadone on depression among addicts: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Health Qual Life Outcomes 2020 Nov 23;18(1):373. Epub 2020 Nov 23.

Department of Food Science and Technology, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad (FUM), Mashhad, Iran.

Background: Opioids addiction and misuse are among the major problems in the world today. There have been several preliminary studies examining the effect of methadone on depression among addicts, however, these studies have reported inconsistent and even contradictory results. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine the effect of methadone on depression in addicts in Iran and around the world, using a meta-analysis approach.

Methods: This study was a systematic review and meta-analysis including articles published in the SID, MagIran, IranMedex, IranDoc, Cochrane, Embase, ScienceDirect, Scopus, PubMed and Web of Science databases were searched systematically to find articles published from 2006 to March 2019. Heterogeneity index was determined using the Cochran's test (Qc) and I. Considering heterogeneity of studies, the random effects model was used to estimate the standardized difference of mean score for depression. Subsequently, the level of depression reduction in Iran and worldwide in the intervention group before and after the testwas measured.

Results: A total of 19 articles met the inclusion criteria, and were therefore selected for this systematic review and meta-analysis. The sample size of the intervention group in the selected studies was 1948. According to the meta-analysis results, the mean depression score in the intervention group was 26.4 ± 5.6 and 18.4 ± 2.6 before and after intervention respectively, indicating the reducing effect of methadone on depression, and this difference was statistically significant (P < 0.01).

Conclusion: The results of the present study show that methadone significantly reduces depression in addicts. Therefore, regular methadone use can be part of a drug treatment plan.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12955-020-01599-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7681984PMC
November 2020

The Effect of Lavender ( L.) on Reducing Labor Pain: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2020 11;2020:4384350. Epub 2020 Nov 11.

Department of Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Background: Labor pain is one of the most severe pains, which most of women experience. By using novel supportive methods, the labor pain can be reduced, which makes this event pleasant and delightful. Several original studies have been conducted in regard to the effect of lavender on reducing labor pain, whose results are controversial. One of the applications of meta-analysis studies is to respond to these hypotheses and remove controversies; therefore, this study aimed to determine the effect of lavender on labor pain in Iran by using meta-analysis.

Methods: In this study, to find published articles electronically from 2006 to 2019, the published articles in national and international databases of SID, MagIran, IranMedex, IranDoc, Google Scholar, Cochrane Library, Embase, ScienceDirect, Scopus, PubMed, and Web of Science (ISI) were used. Heterogenic index between studies was determined by Cochrane test (Q)c and . Due to heterogeneity, the random effects model was used to estimate standardize difference of the mean score of lavender test in order to assess the labor pain between intervention and control group.

Results: In this meta-analysis and systematic review, finally 13 eligible articles met the inclusion criteria of the study. The sample size from original studies enrolled in the meta-analysis entered in the intervention group was 794 individuals and in the control group was 795 individuals. Mean score for pain in the control group was 7.2 ± 0.42 and in the intervention group was 5.4 ± 0.58 and this difference was statistically significant ( ≤ 0.001).

Conclusion: The results of this study showed that lavender can reduce labor pain, which can be considered by health policy makers and gynecologists.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/4384350DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7673944PMC
November 2020

The effect of exercise on anxiety in the elderly worldwide: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Health Qual Life Outcomes 2020 Nov 11;18(1):363. Epub 2020 Nov 11.

Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Background: Physical activity and exercise are among the most important, simplest, and cheapest approaches to anxiety treatment, especially for the elderly. Their positive effects on improvement of mental disorders in the elderly have attracted a considerable level of attention. Therefore, the present study was conducted to determine the effect of sport on reducing anxiety in the elderly using meta-analysis.

Methods: In this study, national and international databases of SID, MagIran, IranMedex, IranDoc, Cochrane, Embase, ScienceDirect, Scopus, PubMed, and Web of Science were searched to find studies published electronically from 1999 to 2019. Heterogeneity between the collected studies was determined using the Cochran's test (Q) and I. Due to presence of heterogeneity, the random effects model was used to estimate the standardized mean difference of sport test scores obtained from the measurement of anxiety reduction among the elderly, between the intervention group before and after the test.

Results: In this meta-analysis and systematic review, 19 papers finally met the inclusion criteria. The overall sample size of all collected studies for the meta-analysis was 841 s. Mean anxiety score before and after intervention were 38.7 ± 5.6 33.7 ± 3.4 respectively, denoting a decrease in anxiety score after intervention.

Conclusion: Results of this study indicates that Sport significantly reduces Anxiety in the Elderly. Therefore, a regular exercise program can be considered as a part of the elderly care program.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12955-020-01609-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7656765PMC
November 2020

Evaluation of treatment of previous cesarean scar pregnancy with methotrexate: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Reprod Biol Endocrinol 2020 Nov 9;18(1):108. Epub 2020 Nov 9.

Department of Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Background: Previous caesarean scar pregnancy is one type of ectopic pregnancy in myometrium and fibrous tissue of previous caesarean scar. One of the therapeutic methods of this type of ectopic pregnancy is treatment with methotrexate. Given various findings on the treatment of caesarean scar pregnancy with methotrexate and lack of global report in this regard, we aimed to achieve a global report on the treatment of CSP with methotrexate through related literature review and analysis of the results of the studies, to enable more precise planning to reduce complications of CSP.

Method: This review study extracted information through searching national and international databases of SID،, Embase, ScienceDirect, ، Scopus, ، PubMed, Web of Science (ISI) between 2003 and January 2020. To perform the meta-analysis, random-effects model and heterogeneity of the studies with I index were investigated. Data were sanalysed using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis version 2.

Results: In total, 26 articles with a sample size of 600 individuals were enrolled in the meta-analysis. According to the results of the study, the mean level of β-hCG was 28,744.98 ± 4425.1 mIU/ml before the intervention and was 23,836.78 ± 4533.1 mIU/ml after the intervention. The mean intraoperative blood loss (ml) was 4.8 ± 3.76 ml, mean hospital stay (days) was 11.7 ± 1.2 days, mean time for serum-hCG normalization (days) was 41.6 ± 3.2 days, success was 90.7% (95% CI: 86.7-93.5%), and complication was 9% (95% CI: 6.3-12.8%).

Conclusion: The results of the current study show methotrexate significantly reduces β-hCG levels and can be effective in treating caesarean scar pregnancy and its complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12958-020-00666-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7650162PMC
November 2020

The worldwide prevalence of the Dupuytren disease: a comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis.

J Orthop Surg Res 2020 Oct 28;15(1):495. Epub 2020 Oct 28.

School of Computing, Electronics and Maths, Coventry University, London, UK.

Background: The Dupuytren disease is a benign fibroproliferative disorder that leads to the formation of the collagen knots and fibres in the palmar fascia. The previous studies reveal different levels of Dupuytren's prevalence worldwide; hence, this study uses meta-analysis to approximate the prevalence of Dupuytren globally.

Methods: In this study, systematic review and meta-analysis have been conducted on the previous studies focused on the prevalence of the Dupuytren disease. The search keywords were Prevalence, Prevalent, Epidemiology, Dupuytren Contracture, Dupuytren and Incidence. Subsequently, SID, MagIran, ScienceDirect, Embase, Scopus, PubMed and Web of Science databases and Google Scholar search engine were searched without a lower time limit and until June 2020. In order to analyse reliable studies, the stochastic effects model was used and the I index was applied to test the heterogeneity of the selected studies. Data analysis was performed within the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis Software version 2.0.

Results: By evaluating 85 studies (10 in Asia, 56 in Europe, 2 in Africa and 17 studies in America) with a total sample size of 6628506 individuals, the prevalence of Dupuytren disease in the world is found as 8.2% (95% CI 5.7-11.7%). The highest prevalence rate is reported in Africa with 17.2% (95% CI 13-22.3%). According to the subgroup analysis, in terms of underlying diseases, the highest prevalence was obtained in patients with type 1 diabetes with 34.1% (95% CI 25-44.6%). The results of meta-regression revealed a decreasing trend in the prevalence of Dupuytren disease by increasing the sample size and the research year (P < 0.05).

Conclusion: The results of this study show that the prevalence of Dupuytren disease is particularly higher in alcoholic patients with diabetes. Therefore, the officials of the World Health Organization should design measures for the prevention and treatment of this disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13018-020-01999-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7594412PMC
October 2020

Dental caries in primary and permanent teeth in children's worldwide, 1995 to 2019: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Head Face Med 2020 Oct 6;16(1):22. Epub 2020 Oct 6.

Department of Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Background: Early childhood caries (ECC) is a type of dental caries in the teeth of infants and children that is represented as one of the most prevalent dental problems in this period. Various studies have reported different types of prevalence of dental caries in primary and permanent teeth in children worldwide. However, there has been no comprehensive study to summarize the results of these studies in general, so this study aimed to determine the prevalence of dental caries in primary and permanent teeth in children in different continents of the world during a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Methods: In this review study, articles were extracted by searching in the national and international databases of SID, MagIran, IranMedex, IranDoc, Cochrane, Embase, ScienceDirect, Scopus, PubMed, and Web of Science (ISI) between 1995 and December 2019. Random effects model was used for analysis and heterogeneity of studies was evaluated by using the I index. Data were analyzed by using the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis (Version 2) software.

Findings: In this study, a total of 164 articles (81 articles on the prevalence of dental caries in primary teeth and 83 articles on the prevalence of dental caries in permanent teeth) were entered the meta-analysis. The prevalence of dental caries in primary teeth in children in the world with a sample size of 80,405 was 46.2% (95% CI: 41.6-50.8%), and the prevalence of dental caries in permanent teeth in children in the world with a sample size of 1,454,871 was 53.8% (95% CI: 50-57.5%). Regarding the heterogeneity on the basis of meta-regression analysis, there was a significant difference in the prevalence of dental caries in primary and permanent teeth in children in different continents of the world. With increasing the sample size and the year of study, dental caries in primary teeth increased and in permanent teeth decreased.

Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the prevalence of primary and permanent dental caries in children in the world was found to be high. Therefore, appropriate strategies should be implemented to improve the aforementioned situation and to troubleshoot and monitor at all levels by providing feedback to hospitals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13005-020-00237-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7541284PMC
October 2020

The prevalence of sleep disturbances among physicians and nurses facing the COVID-19 patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Global Health 2020 09 29;16(1):92. Epub 2020 Sep 29.

Department of Food Science & Technology, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad (FUM), Mashhad, Iran.

Background: In all epidemics, healthcare staff are at the centre of risks and damages caused by pathogens. Today, nurses and physicians are faced with unprecedented work pressures in the face of the COVID-19 pandemic, resulting in several psychological disorders such as stress, anxiety and sleep disturbances. The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence of sleep disturbances in hospital nurses and physicians facing the COVID-19 patients.

Method: A systematic review and metanalysis was conducted in accordance with the PRISMA criteria. The PubMed, Scopus, Science direct, Web of science, CINHAL, Medline, and Google Scholar databases were searched with no lower time-limt and until 24 June 2020. The heterogeneity of the studies was measured using I test and the publication bias was assessed by the Egger's test at the significance level of 0.05.

Results: The I test was used to evaluate the heterogeneity of the selected studies, based on the results of I test, the prevalence of sleep disturbances in nurses and physicians is I: 97.4% and I: 97.3% respectively. After following the systematic review processes, 7 cross-sectional studies were selected for meta-analysis. Six studies with the sample size of 3745 nurses were examined in and the prevalence of sleep disturbances was approximated to be 34.8% (95% CI: 24.8-46.4%). The prevalence of sleep disturbances in physicians was also measured in 5 studies with the sample size of 2123 physicians. According to the results, the prevalence of sleep disturbances in physicians caring for the COVID-19 patients was reported to be 41.6% (95% CI: 27.7-57%).

Conclusion: Healthcare workers, as the front line of the fight against COVID-19, are more vulnerable to the harmful effects of this disease than other groups in society. Increasing workplace stress increases sleep disturbances in the medical staff, especially nurses and physicians. In other words, increased stress due to the exposure to COVID-19 increases the prevalence of sleep disturbances in nurses and physicians. Therefore, it is important for health policymakers to provide solutions and interventions to reduce the workplace stress and pressures on medical staff.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12992-020-00620-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7522913PMC
September 2020

The effect of unilateral and bilateral laparoscopic surgery for endometriosis on Anti-Mullerian Hormone (AMH) level after 3 and 6 months: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Health Qual Life Outcomes 2020 Sep 24;18(1):314. Epub 2020 Sep 24.

Department of Business Systems & Operations, University of Northampton, Northampton, UK.

Background: Endometriosis is one of the most common causes of infertility. The causes of the disease and its definitive treatments are still unclear. Moreover, Anti-Mullerian Hormone (AMH) is a glycoprotein dimer that is a member of the transient growth factors family. This research work aimed to identify the effect of unilateral and bilateral laparoscopic surgery for endometriosis on AMH levels after 3 months, and 6 months, using meta-analysis.

Methods: In this study, the articles published in national and international databases of SID, MagIran, IranMedex, IranDoc, Cochrane, Embase, Science Direct, Scopus, PubMed, and Web of Science (ISI) were searched to find electronically published studies between 2010 and 2019. The heterogeneous index between studies was determined using the I index.

Results: In this meta-analysis and systematic review, 19 articles were eligible for inclusion in the study. The standardized mean difference was obtained in examining of unilateral laparoscopic surgery for endometriosis (before intervention 2.8 ± 0.11, and after 3 months 2.05 ± 0.13; and before intervention 3.1 ± 0.46 and after 6 months 2.08 ± 0.31), and in examining bilateral laparoscopic surgery for endometriosis examination (before intervention 2.0 ± 08.08, and after 3 months 1.1 ± 0.1; and before intervention 2.9 ± 0.23 and after 6 months 1.4 ± 0.19).

Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrate that unilateral and bilateral laparoscopic surgery for endometriosis is effective on AMH levels, and the level decreases in both comparisons.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12955-020-01561-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7513290PMC
September 2020

The effect of acceptance and commitment therapy on insomnia and sleep quality: A systematic review.

BMC Neurol 2020 Aug 13;20(1):300. Epub 2020 Aug 13.

Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Background: Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), as a type of behavioral therapy, attempts to respond to changes in people's performance and their relationship to events. ACT can affect sleep quality by providing techniques to enhance the flexibility of patients' thoughts, yet maintaining mindfullness. Therefore, for the first time, a systematic review on the effects of ACT on sleep quality has been conducted.

Methods: This systematic review was performed to determine the effect of ACT on insomnia and sleep quality. To collect articles, the PubMed, Web of Science (WOS), Cochrane library, Embase, Scopus, Science Direct, ProQuest, Mag Iran, Irandoc, and Google Scholar databases were searched, without a lower time-limit, and until April 2020.

Results: Related articles were derived from 9 research repositories, with no lower time-limit and until April 2020. After assessing 1409 collected studies, 278 repetitive studies were excluded. Moreover, following the primary and secondary evaluations of the remaining articles, 1112 other studies were removed, and finally a total of 19 intervention studies were included in the systematic review process. Within the remaining articles, a sample of 1577 people had been assessed for insomnia and sleep quality.

Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that ACT has a significant effect on primary and comorbid insomnia and sleep quality, and therefore, it can be used as an appropriate treatment method to control and improve insomnia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12883-020-01883-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7425538PMC
August 2020

Statistical Modelling of the Effects of Weather Factors on Malaria Occurrence in Abuja, Nigeria.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 05 16;17(10). Epub 2020 May 16.

Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah 6715847141, Iran.

: despite the increase in malaria control and elimination efforts, weather patterns and ecological factors continue to serve as important drivers of malaria transmission dynamics. This study examined the statistical relationship between weather variables and malaria incidence in Abuja, Nigeria. : monthly data on malaria incidence and weather variables were collected in Abuja from the year 2000 to 2013. The analysis of count outcomes was based on generalized linear models, while Pearson correlation analysis was undertaken at the bivariate level. The results showed more malaria incidence in the months with the highest rainfall recorded (June-August). Based on the negative binomial model, every unit increase in humidity corresponds to about 1.010 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.005-1.015) times increase in malaria cases while the odds of having malaria decreases by 5.8% for every extra unit increase in temperature: 0.942 (95% CI, 0.928-0.956). At lag 1 month, there was a significant positive effect of rainfall on malaria incidence while at lag 4, temperature and humidity had significant influences. malaria remains a widespread infectious disease among the local subjects in the study area. Relative humidity was identified as one of the factors that influence a malaria epidemic at lag 0 while the biggest significant influence of temperature was observed at lag 4. Therefore, emphasis should be given to vector control activities and to create public health awareness on the proper usage of intervention measures such as indoor residual sprays to reduce the epidemic especially during peak periods with suitable weather conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17103474DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7277410PMC
May 2020

The impact of physical exercise on the fatigue symptoms in patients with multiple sclerosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

BMC Neurol 2020 Mar 13;20(1):93. Epub 2020 Mar 13.

Department of Biostatistics, School of Health, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Background: Despite many benefits of the physical activity on physical and mental health of patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS), the activity level in these patients is still very limited, and they continue to suffer from impairment in functioning ability. The main aim of this study is thus to closely examine exercise's effect on fatigue of patients with MS worldwide, with particular interest on Iran based on a comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis.

Methods: The studies used in this systematic review were selected from the articles published from 1996 to 2019, in national and international databases including SID, Magiran, Iranmedex, Irandoc, Google Scholar, Cochrane, Embase, ScienceDirect, Scopus, PubMed and Web of Science (ISI). These databases were thoroughly searched, and the relevant ones were selected based on some plausible keywords to the aim of this study. Heterogeneity index between studies was determined using Cochran's test and I. Due to heterogeneity in studies, the random effects model was used to estimate standardized mean difference.

Results: From the systematic review, a meta-analysis was performed on 31 articles which were fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The sample including of 714 subjects was selected from the intervention group, and almost the same sample size of 720 individuals were selected in the control group. Based on the results derived from this meta-analysis, the standardized mean difference between the intervention group before and after the intervention was respectively estimated to be 23.8 ± 6.2 and 16.9 ± 3.2, which indicates that the physical exercise reduces fatigue in patients with MS.

Conclusion: The results of this study extracted from a detailed meta-analysis reveal and confirm that physical exercise significantly reduces fatigue in patients with MS. As a results, a regular exercise program is strongly recommended to be part of a rehabilitation program for these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12883-020-01654-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7068865PMC
March 2020

The impact of physical exercise on the fatigue symptoms in patients with multiple sclerosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

BMC Neurol 2020 Mar 13;20(1):93. Epub 2020 Mar 13.

Department of Biostatistics, School of Health, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Background: Despite many benefits of the physical activity on physical and mental health of patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS), the activity level in these patients is still very limited, and they continue to suffer from impairment in functioning ability. The main aim of this study is thus to closely examine exercise's effect on fatigue of patients with MS worldwide, with particular interest on Iran based on a comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis.

Methods: The studies used in this systematic review were selected from the articles published from 1996 to 2019, in national and international databases including SID, Magiran, Iranmedex, Irandoc, Google Scholar, Cochrane, Embase, ScienceDirect, Scopus, PubMed and Web of Science (ISI). These databases were thoroughly searched, and the relevant ones were selected based on some plausible keywords to the aim of this study. Heterogeneity index between studies was determined using Cochran's test and I. Due to heterogeneity in studies, the random effects model was used to estimate standardized mean difference.

Results: From the systematic review, a meta-analysis was performed on 31 articles which were fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The sample including of 714 subjects was selected from the intervention group, and almost the same sample size of 720 individuals were selected in the control group. Based on the results derived from this meta-analysis, the standardized mean difference between the intervention group before and after the intervention was respectively estimated to be 23.8 ± 6.2 and 16.9 ± 3.2, which indicates that the physical exercise reduces fatigue in patients with MS.

Conclusion: The results of this study extracted from a detailed meta-analysis reveal and confirm that physical exercise significantly reduces fatigue in patients with MS. As a results, a regular exercise program is strongly recommended to be part of a rehabilitation program for these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12883-020-01654-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7068865PMC
March 2020

Comparison of Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice among Communities Living in Hotspot and Non-Hotspot Areas of Dengue in Selangor, Malaysia.

Trop Med Infect Dis 2019 Feb 15;4(1). Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Background: Dengue has affected more than one-third of the world population and Malaysia has recorded an increase in the number of dengue cases since 2012. Selangor state recorded the highest number of dengue cases in Malaysia. Most of the dengue infections occur among people living in hotspot areas of dengue. This study aims to compare Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice among communities living in hotspot and non-hotspot dengue areas.

Method: Communities living in 20 hotspot and 20 non-hotspot areas in Selangor were chosen in this study where 406 participants were randomly selected to answer questionnaires distributed at their housing areas. Total marks of each categories were compared using -test.

Result: Results show that there were significant mean differences in marks in Knowledge ( value: 0.003; 15.41 vs. 14.55) and Attitude ( value: < 0.001; 11.41 vs. 10.33), but not Practice ( value 0.101; 10.83 vs. 10.47) categories between communities of non-hotspot and hotspot areas. After considering two confounding variables which are education level and household income, different mean marks are found to be significant in Knowledge when education level acts as a covariate and Attitude when both act as covariates.

Conclusion: Overall results show that people living in non-hotspot areas had better knowledge and attitude than people living in hotspot areas, but no difference was found in practice. This suggests that public health education should be done more frequently with people with a low education background and low household income, especially in hotspot areas to fight dengue outbreak and make dengue cases decrease effectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed4010037DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6473475PMC
February 2019

Hypolipidemic activities of xanthorrhizol purified from centrifugal TLC.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2016 09 27;478(3):1403-8. Epub 2016 Aug 27.

ZACH Biotech Depot Sdn. Bhd., 43300 Cheras, Selangor, Malaysia. Electronic address:

Hyperlipidemia is defined as the presence of either hypertriglyceridemia or hypercholesterolemia, which could cause atherosclerosis. Although hyperlipidemia can be treated by hypolipidemic drugs, they are limited due to lack of effectiveness and safety. Previous studies demonstrated that xanthorrhizol (XNT) isolated from Curcuma xanthorrhizza Roxb. reduced the levels of free fatty acid and triglyceride in vivo. However, its ability to inhibit cholesterol uptake in HT29 colon cells and adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells are yet to be reported. In this study, XNT purified from centrifugal TLC demonstrated 98.3% purity, indicating it could be an alternative purification method. The IC50 values of XNT were 30.81 ± 0.78 μg/mL in HT29 cells and 35.07 ± 0.24 μg/mL in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, respectively. Cholesterol uptake inhibition study using HT29 colon cells showed that XNT (15 μg/mL) significantly inhibited the fluorescent cholesterol analogue NBD uptake by up to 27 ± 3.1% relative to control. On the other hand, higher concentration of XNT (50 μg/mL) significantly suppressed the growth of 3T3-L1 adipocytes (5.9 ± 0.58%) compared to 3T3-L1 preadipocytes (81.31 ± 0.55%). XNT was found to impede adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 adipocytes in a dose-dependent manner from 3.125 to 12.5 μg/mL, where 12.5 μg/mL significantly suppressed 36.13 ± 2.1% of lipid accumulation. We postulate that inhibition of cholesterol uptake, adipogenesis, preadipocyte and adipocyte number may be utilized as treatment modalities to reduce the prevalence of lipidemia. To conclude, XNT could be a potential hypolipidemic agent to improve cardiovascular health in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2016.08.136DOI Listing
September 2016

Calreticulin mediates an invasive breast cancer phenotype through the transcriptional dysregulation of p53 and MAPK pathways.

Cancer Cell Int 2016 13;16:56. Epub 2016 Jul 13.

Medical Genetics Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan Malaysia ; UPM-MAKNA Cancer Research Laboratory, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor Malaysia.

Background: The introduction of effective novel biomarkers of invasion and metastasis is integral for the advancement of breast cancer management. The present study focused on the identification and evaluation of calreticulin (CRT) as a potential biomarker for breast cancer invasion.

Methods: Two-dimensional gel protein electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF were utilized in the analysis of fresh-frozen invasive intra-ductal carcinoma specimens. Calreticulin-associated expression was analyzed using immunohistochemistry of FFPE non-malignant/malignant breast specimens. A CRT-knockdown model of MCF7 cell line was developed using siRNA and the CRT genotype/phenotype correlations based on migration and trans-well invasion assays were determined. Finally, microarray-based global gene expression profiling was conducted to elucidate the possible calreticulin pro-invasive regulatory pathways.

Results: Two-dimensional gel protein electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF analysis showed upregulation of calreticulin expression in tumor tissues as compared to the normal adjacent tissues. Meta-analysis of the immunohistochemical results confirmed significantly higher expression of calreticulin (p < 0.05) in the stromal compartments of malignant tissues as compared to non-malignant tissues. Migration and transwell invasion assays showed significant loss in the migratory and invasive potential of CRT-knockdown cells (p < 0.05). Global gene expression profiling successfully identified various putative gene networks such as p53 and MAPK pathways that are involved in calreticulin breast cancer signaling.

Conclusion: Besides confirming calreticulin overexpression in invasive breast cancer tissues, this study reveals a calreticulin-dependent pro-invasive potential and suggests possible contributing pathways. Defining the mechanistic role of invasion and characterizing the possible calreticulin-dependent molecular targets will be the focus of future work.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12935-016-0329-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4944499PMC
July 2016

Xanthorrhizol: a review of its pharmacological activities and anticancer properties.

Cancer Cell Int 2015 21;15:100. Epub 2015 Oct 21.

ZACH Biotech Depot Sdn. Bhd., 43300 Cheras, Selangor Malaysia.

Xanthorrhizol (XNT) is a bisabolane-type sesquiterpenoid compound extracted from Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. It has been well established to possess a variety of biological activities such as anticancer, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antihyperglycemic, antihypertensive, antiplatelet, nephroprotective, hepatoprotective, estrogenic and anti-estrogenic effects. Since many synthetic drugs possess toxic side effects and are unable to support the increasing prevalence of disease, there is significant interest in developing natural product as new therapeutics. XNT is a very potent natural bioactive compound that could fulfil the current need for new drug discovery. Despite its importance, a comprehensive review of XNT's pharmacological activities has not been published in the scientific literature to date. Here, the present review aims to summarize the available information in this area, focus on its anticancer properties and indicate the current status of the research. This helps to facilitate the understanding of XNT's pharmacological role in drug discovery, thus suggesting areas where further research is required.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12935-015-0255-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4618344PMC
October 2015

Confirmatory factor analysis of the Malay version comprehensive feeding practices questionnaire tested among mothers of primary school children in Malaysia.

ScientificWorldJournal 2014 4;2014:676174. Epub 2014 Nov 4.

Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Medicine & Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia.

Comprehensive feeding practices questionnaire (CFPQ) is an instrument specifically developed to evaluate parental feeding practices. It has been confirmed among children in America and applied to populations in France, Norway, and New Zealand. In order to extend the application of CFPQ, we conducted a factor structure validation of the translated version of CFPQ (CFPQ-M) using confirmatory factor analysis among mothers of primary school children (N = 397) in Malaysia. Several items were modified for cultural adaptation. Of 49 items, 39 items with loading factors >0.40 were retained in the final model. The confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the final model (twelve-factor model with 39 items and 2 error covariances) displayed the best fit for our sample (Chi-square = 1147; df = 634; P < 0.05; CFI = 0.900; RMSEA = 0.045; SRMR = 0.0058). The instrument with some modifications was confirmed among mothers of school children in Malaysia. The present study extends the usability of the CFPQ and enables researchers and parents to better understand the relationships between parental feeding practices and related problems such as childhood obesity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/676174DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4236896PMC
October 2015

A novel hybrid classification model of genetic algorithms, modified k-Nearest Neighbor and developed backpropagation neural network.

PLoS One 2014 24;9(11):e112987. Epub 2014 Nov 24.

Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, University Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Among numerous artificial intelligence approaches, k-Nearest Neighbor algorithms, genetic algorithms, and artificial neural networks are considered as the most common and effective methods in classification problems in numerous studies. In the present study, the results of the implementation of a novel hybrid feature selection-classification model using the above mentioned methods are presented. The purpose is benefitting from the synergies obtained from combining these technologies for the development of classification models. Such a combination creates an opportunity to invest in the strength of each algorithm, and is an approach to make up for their deficiencies. To develop proposed model, with the aim of obtaining the best array of features, first, feature ranking techniques such as the Fisher's discriminant ratio and class separability criteria were used to prioritize features. Second, the obtained results that included arrays of the top-ranked features were used as the initial population of a genetic algorithm to produce optimum arrays of features. Third, using a modified k-Nearest Neighbor method as well as an improved method of backpropagation neural networks, the classification process was advanced based on optimum arrays of the features selected by genetic algorithms. The performance of the proposed model was compared with thirteen well-known classification models based on seven datasets. Furthermore, the statistical analysis was performed using the Friedman test followed by post-hoc tests. The experimental findings indicated that the novel proposed hybrid model resulted in significantly better classification performance compared with all 13 classification methods. Finally, the performance results of the proposed model was benchmarked against the best ones reported as the state-of-the-art classifiers in terms of classification accuracy for the same data sets. The substantial findings of the comprehensive comparative study revealed that performance of the proposed model in terms of classification accuracy is desirable, promising, and competitive to the existing state-of-the-art classification models.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0112987PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4242540PMC
July 2015

Distribution of lipid parameters according to different socio-economic indicators- the EPIC-Norfolk prospective population study.

BMC Public Health 2014 Aug 28;14:782. Epub 2014 Aug 28.

Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor 43400, Malaysia.

Background: Data on the relationship between plasma levels of cholesterol and triglycerides and social class have been inconsistent. Most previous studies have used one classification of social class.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional population based study with data on occupational social class, educational level obtained using a detailed health and lifestyle questionnaire. A total of 10,147 men and 12,304 women aged 45-80 years living in Norfolk, United Kingdom, were recruited using general practice age-sex registers as part of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC-Norfolk). Plasma levels of cholesterol and triglycerides were measured in baseline samples. Social class was classified according to three classifications: occupation, educational level, and area deprivation score according to Townsend deprivation index. Differences in lipid levels by socio-economic status indices were quantified by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and multiple linear regression after adjusting for body mass index and alcohol consumption.

Results: Total cholesterol levels were associated with occupational level among men, and with educational level among women. Triglyceride levels were associated with educational level and occupational level among women, but the latter association was lost after adjustment for age and body mass index. HDL-cholesterol levels were associated with both educational level and educational level among men and women. The relationships with educational level were substantially attenuated by adjustment for age, body mass index and alcohol use, whereas the association with educational class was retained upon adjustment. LDL-cholesterol levels were not associated with social class indices among men, but a positive association was observed with educational class among women. This association was not affected by adjustment for age, body mass index and alcohol use.

Conclusions: The findings of this study suggest that there are sex differences in the association between socio-economic status and serum lipid levels. The variations in lipid profile with socio-economic status may be largely attributed to potentially modifiable factors such as obesity, physical activity and dietary intake.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-14-782DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4155077PMC
August 2014

Dimensional model for estimating factors influencing childhood obesity: path analysis based modeling.

ScientificWorldJournal 2014 7;2014:512148. Epub 2014 Jul 7.

The Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

The main objective of this study is to identify and develop a comprehensive model which estimates and evaluates the overall relations among the factors that lead to weight gain in children by using structural equation modeling. The proposed models in this study explore the connection among the socioeconomic status of the family, parental feeding practice, and physical activity. Six structural models were tested to identify the direct and indirect relationship between the socioeconomic status and parental feeding practice general level of physical activity, and weight status of children. Finally, a comprehensive model was devised to show how these factors relate to each other as well as to the body mass index (BMI) of the children simultaneously. Concerning the methodology of the current study, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was applied to reveal the hidden (secondary) effect of socioeconomic factors on feeding practice and ultimately on the weight status of the children and also to determine the degree of model fit. The comprehensive structural model tested in this study suggested that there are significant direct and indirect relationships among variables of interest. Moreover, the results suggest that parental feeding practice and physical activity are mediators in the structural model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/512148DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4109107PMC
April 2015

Application of pattern recognition tools for classifying acute coronary syndrome: an integrated medical modeling.

Theor Biol Med Model 2013 Sep 18;10:57. Epub 2013 Sep 18.

Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Objective: The classification of Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS), using artificial intelligence (AI), has recently drawn the attention of the medical researchers. Using this approach, patients with myocardial infarction can be differentiated from those with unstable angina. The present study aims to develop an integrated model, based on the feature selection and classification, for the automatic classification of ACS.

Methods: A dataset containing medical records of 809 patients suspected to suffer from ACS was used. For each subject, 266 clinical factors were collected. At first, a feature selection was performed based on interviews with 20 cardiologists; thereby 40 seminal features for classifying ACS were selected. Next, a feature selection algorithm was also applied to detect a subset of the features with the best classification accuracy. As a result, the feature numbers considerably reduced to only seven. Lastly, based on the seven selected features, eight various common pattern recognition tools for classification of ACS were used.

Results: The performance of the aforementioned classifiers was compared based on their accuracy computed from their confusion matrices. Among these methods, the multi-layer perceptron showed the best performance with the 83.2% accuracy.

Conclusion: The results reveal that an integrated AI-based feature selection and classification approach is an effective method for the early and accurate classification of ACS and ultimately a timely diagnosis and treatment of this disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1742-4682-10-57DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3848855PMC
September 2013

Assessing the children's views on foods and consumption of selected food groups: outcome from focus group approach.

Nutr Res Pract 2013 Apr 1;7(2):132-8. Epub 2013 Apr 1.

Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

The food choices in childhood have high a probability of being carried through into their adulthood life, which then contributes to the risk of many non-communicable diseases. Therefore, there is a need to gather some information about children's views on foods which may influence their food choices for planning a related dietary intervention or programme. This paper aimed to explore the views of children on foods and the types of foods which are usually consumed by children under four food groups (snacks, fast foods, cereals and cereal products; and milk and dairy products) by using focus group discussions. A total of 33 school children aged 7-9 years old from Selangor and Kuala Lumpur participated in the focus groups. Focus groups were audio-taped, transcribed and analyzed according to the listed themes. The outcomes show that the children usually consumed snacks such as white bread with spread or as a sandwich, local cakes, fruits such as papaya, mango and watermelon, biscuits or cookies, tea, chocolate drink and instant noodles. Their choices of fast foods included pizza, burgers, French fries and fried chicken. For cereal products, they usually consumed rice, bread and ready-to-eat cereals. Finally, their choices of dairy products included milk, cheese and yogurt. The reasons for the food liking were taste, nutritional value and the characteristics of food. The outcome of this study may provide additional information on the food choices among Malaysian children, especially in urban areas with regard to the food groups which have shown to have a relationship with the risk of childhood obesity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4162/nrp.2013.7.2.132DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3627930PMC
April 2013

A climate distribution model of malaria transmission in Sudan.

Geospat Health 2012 Nov;7(1):27-36

Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Putra University, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Malaria remains a major health problem in Sudan. With a population exceeding 39 million, there are around 7.5 million cases and 35,000 deaths every year. The predicted distribution of malaria derived from climate factors such as maximum and minimum temperatures, rainfall and relative humidity was compared with the actual number of malaria cases in Sudan for the period 2004 to 2010. The predictive calculations were done by fuzzy logic suitability (FLS) applied to the numerical distribution of malaria transmission based on the life cycle characteristics of the Anopheles mosquito accounting for the impact of climate factors on malaria transmission. This information is visualized as a series of maps (presented in video format) using a geographical information systems (GIS) approach. The climate factors were found to be suitable for malaria transmission in the period of May to October, whereas the actual case rates of malaria were high from June to November indicating a positive correlation. While comparisons between the prediction model for June and the case rate model for July did not show a high degree of association (18%), the results later in the year were better, reaching the highest level (55%) for October prediction and November case rate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4081/gh.2012.102DOI Listing
November 2012

Risk mapping of dengue in Selangor and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Geospat Health 2012 Nov;7(1):21-5

Department of Environmental Science, Faculty of Environmental Studies, Putra University, Serdang, Malaysia.

Dengue fever is a recurring public health problem afflicting thousands of Malaysians annually. In this paper, the risk map for dengue fever in the peninsular Malaysian states of Selangor and Kuala Lumpur was modelled based on co-kriging and geographical information systems. Using population density and rainfall as the model's only input factors, the area with the highest risk for dengue infection was given as Gombak and Petaling, two districts located on opposite sides of Kuala Lumpur city that was also included in the risk assessment. Comparison of the modelled risk map with the dengue case dataset of 2010, obtained from the Ministry of Health of Malaysia, confirmed that the highest number of cases had been found in an area centred on Kuala Lumpur as predicted our risk profiling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4081/gh.2012.101DOI Listing
November 2012

Validation study of the Mini-Mental State Examination in a Malay-speaking elderly population in Malaysia.

Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2009 25;27(3):247-53. Epub 2009 Feb 25.

Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Center, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Background/aims: In view of the differing sensitivity and specificity of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) in the non-English-speaking populations, we conducted the first validation study of the Malay version (M-MMSE) in Malaysia among 300 subjects (from the community and outpatient clinics).

Methods: Three versions were used: M-MMSE-7 (serial 7), M-MMSE-3 (serial 3) and M-MMSE-S (spell 'dunia' backwards). Dementia was assessed using the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV. The optimal cutoff scores were obtained from the receiver operating characteristics curves.

Results: Seventy-three patients (24.3%) had dementia and 227 (75.7%) were controls. Three hundred patients completed the M-MMSE-7, 160 the M-MMSE-3 and 145 the M-MMSE-S. All 3 versions were valid and reliable in the diagnosis of dementia. The optimal cutoff scores varied with each version and gender. In the control group, significant gender differences were observed in the patients with the lowest educational status. Increasing educational levels significantly improved the M-MMSE performance in both genders.

Conclusion: All 3 versions of the M-MMSE are valid and reliable as a screening tool for dementia in the Malaysian population, but at different cutoff scores. In those with the lowest educational background, gender-adjusted cutoff scores should be applied.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000203888DOI Listing
May 2009

Residential area deprivation predicts fruit and vegetable consumption independently of individual educational level and occupational social class: a cross sectional population study in the Norfolk cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC-Norfolk).

J Epidemiol Community Health 2004 Aug;58(8):686-91

Institute of Public Health, University of Cambridge, UK.

Study Objective: To investigate the independent association between individual and area based socioeconomic measures and fruit and vegetable consumption.

Design: Cross sectional population based study.

Setting And Participants: 22,562 men and women aged 39-79 years living in the general community in Norfolk, United Kingdom, recruited using general practice age-sex registers.

Outcome Measures: Fruit and vegetable intake assessed using a food frequency questionnaire.

Main Results: Being in a manual occupational social class, having no educational qualifications, and living in a deprived area all independently predicted significantly lower consumption of fruit and vegetables. The effect of residential area deprivation was predominantly in those in manual occupational social class and no educational qualifications.

Conclusions: Understanding some of the community level barriers to changing health related behaviours may lead to more effective interventions to improving health in the whole community, particularly those who are most vulnerable.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech.2003.008490DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1732860PMC
August 2004