Dr. Shakir Saleem, PhD - Chitkara University - Assistant Professor

Dr. Shakir Saleem


Chitkara University

Assistant Professor

Rajpura, Patiala, PB | India

Main Specialties: Allergy & Immunology, Cardiovascular Disease, Endocrinology Diabetes & Metabolism, Epidemiology, Gastroenterology, Hematology, Hematology & Oncology, Hepatology, Pharmacology, Statistics

Additional Specialties: Hepatocellular carcinoma,

ORCID logohttps://orcid.org/0000-0003-2340-7885

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Dr. Shakir Saleem, PhD - Chitkara University - Assistant Professor

Dr. Shakir Saleem



Dr. Shakir Saleem is currently serving as an Assistant Professor in Chitkara College of Pharmacy, Chitkara University, Punjab, India. He received his PhD in Pharmacology and his research work was based on Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
He has keen interest in Clinical research and health sciences. He can teach several subjects including, anatomy and physiology, pharmacology, clinical research, biochemistry, epidemiology and biostatistics.
Dr. Shakir has several publications in peer reviewed international journals and has also authored several chapters and books. In his future, Dr. Shakir would like to establish a strong clinical research aimed at improving therapeutics and at ruling out the probable errors while medicating patients.

Primary Affiliation: Chitkara University - Rajpura, Patiala, PB , India


Additional Specialties:

Research Interests:

View Dr. Shakir Saleem’s Resume / CV


Mar 2019
Glocal University
PhD in Pharmacology
Jun 2014
Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences
Master in Pharmacy
Jun 2012
Jamia Hamdard
Bachelor of Pharmacy


Jun 2019
Assistant Professor @ Chitkara College of Pharmacy
Teaching and Research
Chitkara University
Nov 2014
Pharmaceutical research Analyst @ Le Pro Pharmacompass OPC Pvt Ltd
Pharma Intelligence




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Thiamin Regresses the Anticancer Efficacy of Methotrexate in the Amelioration of Diethyl Nitrosamine-Induced Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Wistar Strain Rats.

Nutr Cancer 2020 15;72(1):170-181. Epub 2019 May 15.

Department of Pharmacology, Siddhartha Institute of Pharmacy, Dehradun, India.

Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver cancer and occurs frequently in patients with liver cirrhosis. HCC is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality around the globe.

Aim: This study assessed the effects of thiamin in the anticancer activity of methotrexate (MTX) in diethyl nitrosamine (DEN) induced hepatocellular Carcinoma in Wistar strain male rats.

Method: Fifty rats were randomly segregated in five groups with 10 rats in each group. HCC was induced by single intraperitoneal (i.p) dose of DEN (200?mg/kg) and HCC promoter phenobarbital was used in the basal diet (0.05%) for 5 days per week until the termination of the study in all the rats except for the normal control (NC) group. Disease control (DC) was given no treatment, while DM (DEN?+?MTX) and DT (DEN?+?thiamin) groups were given MTX (5?mg/kg, i.p per week for 16?weeks) and thiamin (25?mg/kg, orally, daily for 16?weeks), respectively. DMT (DEN?+?MTX?+?thiamin) group was given the combined dose of MTX and thiamin. Histopathological study was carried out to confirm the liver function tests such as ?-feto protein (AFP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), total bilirubin (TB), and total protein (TP) along with antioxidants vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), lipid per-oxidation (LPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase (CAT).

Results: Results showed that liver biomarkers and antioxidants parameters were still abnormal in the DC group while DM group showed significant restoration, but DT group showed less significant normalization. DMT showed mild recovery of these parameters.

Conclusion: The mechanism of action of MTX and thiamin is antiparallel to each other and hence their concomitant administration may lead to inefficient anticancer activity of MTX.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01635581.2019.1614199DOI Listing
May 2019
14 Reads
2.322 Impact Factor

Oxyphenbutazone promotes cytotoxicity in rats and Hep3B cellsvia suppression of PGE and deactivation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.

Mol Cell Biochem 2018 Jul 4;444(1-2):187-196. Epub 2017 Dec 4.

Glocal School of Pharmacy, Glocal University, Saharanpur, Uttar Pradesh, 247121, India.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth leading cause of death and is generally typified by elevated liver enzyme biomarkers, antioxidants, and chronic inflammation of hepatocytes. Although currently available drugs have shown remarkable alleviation of the cancerous condition, but at the same time they present a more severe challenge of toxic effects due to chemotherapy. Therefore, in order to bring more patient-compliant therapy, we aimed to refurbish the use of a COX inhibitor, oxyphenbutazone (OPB), with low dose of methotrexate (MTX) to treat diethyl nitrosamine (DENA)-induced HCC in Wistar rats and in Hep3B cells. Hep3B cells were subjected to assays like in vitro cytotoxicity, DNA synthesis, and caspase activity. The combination index was also evaluated, succeeding the cytotoxicity assay, to analyze the possible synergism. For in vivo study, Wistar strain male rats were given single intraperitoneal dose of DENA (200 mg/kg) and were supplied with sodium phenobarbital (0.1% in tap water) for promoting tumorigenesis throughout the study. MTX (2.5 and 5.0 mg/kg/week, ip) and OPB (70 mg/kg/week, po in two divided doses) were administered to the treatment groups from 3rd week till the termination of study. Several biochemical parameters including biomarkers of liver function, antioxidant enzymes, and histopathological examination of liver cells were tested. Significant synergism was witnessed in the cytotoxicity assay when Hep3B cells received varied dose combination treatment of MTX (0.25, 0.5, or 1.0 µmol/L) and OPB (2.5, 5.0, or 7.5 µmol/L). MTX (0.5 and 1.0 µmol/L) in combination with OPB (5.0 or 7.5 µmol/L) inhibited the cell proliferation as BrdU incorporation was quite low in DNA synthesis analysis, as well as caspase-9/-3 cascade was activated which led to apoptosis of cancer cells. Co-treatment with MTX and OPB exerted potential anticancer activity in rats than either of the drugs alone. Administration of combination therapy harmonized the DENA-induced elevation of serum biochemical parameters, including but not limited to, ?-fetoprotein (AFP), alanine- and aspartate-aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and lipid per oxidation (LPO). All these results were optimally substantiated by histopathological examination. As evident COX-2 catalyzes the synthesis of PGE, needed in the activation of Wnt/?-catenin pathway, which in turn is responsible for activating the transcriptional proteins required for higher degree of cell division and thence growth. Therefore, inhibition of COX-2 by our novel combination infers that even low doses of MTX can elucidate noticeable anticancer activity when paired with OPB.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11010-017-3243-2DOI Listing
July 2018
3 Reads
2.884 Impact Factor

Protective effect of oleane-12-en-3β-ol-28-oic acid 3β-D-glucopyranoside in ethanol induced gastric ulcer by enhancing the prostaglandin E2 level.

J Ethnopharmacol 2018 Jan 21;211:394-399. Epub 2017 Sep 21.

Department of Biochemistry, College of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Lantana camara is a popular invasive weed utilized in the management of ulcer in different part of world. Study of specific compound present in this plant responsible for their antulcer activity is main topic of concern. Current study designed for evaluation of the antiulcer activity of oleane-12-en-3?-ol-28-oic acid 3?-D-glucopyranoside (OAG) from Lantana camara L.

Materials And Methods: Antiulcer activity was carried out on NSAID's (Aspirin) and ethanol induced ulcer model. The efficacy of the OAG on ulcer index, percentage protection and gastric acid secretion were evaluated.

Results: Ulcer protection percentage (38.37%) was significant (P < 0.001) higher in the groups treated with the higher OAG dose (50mg/kg), it also recover the mucosa with no redness, no inflammation, mild dilation of blood vessels. OAG significantly (P < 0.01 and P < 0.001) reduce acidity, free acidity and gastric acid volume. It also significantly (P < 0.01) increases the pH of stomach.

Conclusion: On the basis of results, it can be concluded that OAG shows significant gastroprotective activity by gastric acid secretion inhibition and afford protection against gastric mucosal damage. Further increase of prostaglandin E2 level establishes the mechanism of antiulcer activity of OAG.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2017.09.012DOI Listing
January 2018
21 Reads
3.115 Impact Factor

Evaluation of diphenhydramine in talc induced type 2 diabetes mellitus in Wistar rats.

Biomed Pharmacother 2018 Jan 6;97:652-655. Epub 2017 Nov 6.

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, King Abdul Azeez University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Electronic address:

Evaluation of diphenhydramine in talc induced type 2 diabetes mellitus was done in Wistar rats. Oral administration of Talc (10mg/kg)carried out for 21days increased the levels of serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum creatinine, blood glucose, urea, uric acid and triglycerides (TGs), but when the animals were treated with diphenhydramine (DPH), the levels of the aforementioned biochemical parameters decreased significantly (p<0.0001). The level of serum cholesterol and high density lipoprotein (HDL) was found to be reduced in Diabetes Mellitus (DM) control and when it was treated with DPH control animals, these makers increased significantly. The study done on DM and Diphenhydramine suggests that Talc increases the blood glucose level at a dose of 10mg/kg (0.14gm) and Diphenhydramine (1mg/kg)reduces the increased blood glucose level. These finding simply that diphenhydramine may be useful in the management of talc induced diabetes.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2017.10.085DOI Listing
January 2018
31 Reads
3.743 Impact Factor

Anticancer potential of rhamnocitrin 4'-β-D-galactopyranoside against N-diethylnitrosamine-induced hepatocellular carcinoma in rats.

Mol Cell Biochem 2013 Dec 12;384(1-2):147-53. Epub 2013 Sep 12.

Department of Pharmacology, Luqman College of Pharmacy, Gulbarga, 585204, India.

The hepatoprotective activity of flavonoid rhamnocitrin 4'-?-D-galactopyranoside (RGP) obtained from leaves of Astragalus hamosus L. against N-diethylnitrosamine (DENA)-induced hepatic cancer in Wistar albino rats was evaluated. Hepatic cancer in rats was induced by single-dose intraperitoneal administration of DENA (200 mg/kg). Induction of hepatic cancer was confirmed after 7 days of DENA administration by measurement of elevated level of serum ?-feto protein (AFP). Administration of DENA in a single dose lofted the levels of serum biochemical parameters like alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin, total protein and AFP. Antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and lipid per oxidation (LPO) were annealed significantly by administration of RGP in a dose-dependant manner. The histopathological examination of rat liver section was found to reinforce the biochemical observations significantly. It was observed that a substantial and dose-dependent reversal of DENA-diminished activity of antioxidant enzymes like SOD, CAT, GPx, GST and the reduced DENA-elevated level of LPO with a marked change. Any elevation in the levels of serum markers along with suppression of free radical formation by scavenging the hydroxyl radicals is significantly prevented by RGP. It also modulates the levels of LPO and perceptibly increases the endogenous antioxidant enzymes level in DENA-induced hepatocellular carcinogenesis. The findings suggest that RGP prevents hepatocellular carcinoma by suppressing the marked increase in the levels of serum marker enzymes, and suppresses the free radical by scavenging hydroxyl radicals.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11010-013-1792-6DOI Listing
December 2013
13 Reads
2.884 Impact Factor

Sedative, antiepileptic and antipsychotic effects of Viscum album L. (Loranthaceae) in mice and rats.

J Ethnopharmacol 2012 Jun 18;141(3):810-6. Epub 2012 Mar 18.

Siddhartha Institute of Pharmacy, Near IT Park, Dehradun, India.

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Viscum album L. is claimed in traditional medical practice, to be useful in the treatment of epilepsy and insomnia in Himachal Pradesh, India.

Materials And Methods: The effect of Viscum album L. on epilepsy, psychosis and sedative activity was evaluated in mice and rats using standard procedure.

Results: The aqueous leaf extract of Viscum album L. prolonged the pentobarbital induced sleeping time and reduced the locomotor activity in actophotometer. This suggests that reduced locomotor activity facilitate GABAergic transmission. In addition the extract reduced MES, INH and PTZ-induced convulsions which suggest that there may be possibility of blocking Na(+) channels, opening of Cl(-) channels or enhancing the GABAergic system. The extract decreased the apomorphine-induced stereotyped behavior and potentiates the HAL-induced cataleptic score which suggests the extract possess antidopaminergic activity.

Conclusion: The results obtained in present study suggested that title plant exhibited sedative, antiepileptic and antipsychotic activity in mice and rats.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2012.03.013DOI Listing
June 2012
23 Reads
3.115 Impact Factor

Anti-diabetic potential of ursolic acid stearoyl glucoside: a new triterpenic gycosidic ester from Lantana camara.

Fitoterapia 2012 Jan 24;83(1):142-6. Epub 2011 Oct 24.

Siddhartha Institute of Pharmacy, Uttarakhand, India.

A new stearoyl glucoside of ursolic acid, urs-12-en-3?-ol-28-oic acid 3?-D-glucopyranosyl-4'-octadecanoate and other compounds were isolated from the leaves of Lantana camara L. The structure of this new glycoside was elucidated and established by standard spectroscopic methods. In streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats it showed significant reduction in blood glucose level.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fitote.2011.10.004DOI Listing
January 2012
30 Reads
2.642 Impact Factor