Publications by authors named "Shailesh Karre"

13 Publications

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The maize ZmMIEL1 E3 ligase and ZmMYB83 transcription factor proteins interact and regulate the hypersensitive defence response.

Mol Plant Pathol 2021 Jun 6;22(6):694-709. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, NC State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA.

The plant hypersensitive response (HR), a rapid cell death at the point of pathogenesis, is mediated by nucleotide-binding site, leucine-rich repeat (NLR) resistance proteins (R-proteins) that recognize the presence of specific pathogen-derived proteins. Rp1-D21 is an autoactive maize NLR R-protein that triggers HR spontaneously. We previously mapped loci associated with variation in the strength of HR induced by Rp1-D21. Here we identify the E3 ligase ZmMIEL1 as the causal gene at a chromosome 10 modifier locus. Transient ZmMIEL1 expression in Nicotiana benthamiana reduced HR induced by Rp1-D21, while suppression of ZmMIEL1 expression in maize carrying Rp1-D21 increased HR. ZmMIEL1 also suppressed HR induced by another autoactive NLR, the Arabidopsis R-protein RPM1D505V, in N. benthamiana. We demonstrated that ZmMIEL1 is a functional E3 ligase and that the effect of ZmMIEL1 was dependent on the proteasome but also that levels of Rp1-D21 and RPM1D505V were not reduced when coexpressed with ZmMIEL1 in the N. benthamiana system. By comparison to a similar system in Arabidopsis, we identify ZmMYB83 as a potential target of ZmMIEL1. Suppression of ZmMYB83 expression in maize lines carrying Rp1-D21 suppressed HR. Suppression of ZmMIEL1 expression caused an increase in ZmMYB83 transcript and protein levels in N. benthamiana and maize. Using coimmunoprecipitation and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays, we demonstrated that ZmMIEL1 and ZmMYB83 physically interacted. Additionally, ZmMYB83 and ZmMIEL1 regulated the expression of a set of maize very long chain fatty acid (VLCFA) biosynthetic genes that may be involved in regulating HR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mpp.13057DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8126188PMC
June 2021

Analysis of the transcriptomic, metabolomic, and gene regulatory responses to Puccinia sorghi in maize.

Mol Plant Pathol 2021 Apr 28;22(4):465-479. Epub 2021 Feb 28.

Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, NC State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA.

Common rust, caused by Puccinia sorghi, is a widespread and destructive disease of maize. The Rp1-D gene confers resistance to the P. sorghi IN2 isolate, mediating a hypersensitive cell death response (HR). To identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and metabolites associated with the compatible (susceptible) interaction and with Rp1-D-mediated resistance in maize, we performed transcriptomics and targeted metabolome analyses of P. sorghi IN2-infected leaves from the near-isogenic lines H95 and H95:Rp1-D, which differed for the presence of Rp1-D. We observed up-regulation of genes involved in the defence response and secondary metabolism, including the phenylpropanoid, flavonoid, and terpenoid pathways. Metabolome analyses confirmed that intermediates from several transcriptionally up-regulated pathways accumulated during the defence response. We identified a common response in H95:Rp1-D and H95 with an additional H95:Rp1-D-specific resistance response observed at early time points at both transcriptional and metabolic levels. To better understand the mechanisms underlying Rp1-D-mediated resistance, we inferred gene regulatory networks occurring in response to P. sorghi infection. A number of transcription factors including WRKY53, BHLH124, NKD1, BZIP84, and MYB100 were identified as potentially important signalling hubs in the resistance-specific response. Overall, this study provides a novel and multifaceted understanding of the maize susceptible and resistance-specific responses to P. sorghi.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mpp.13040DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7938627PMC
April 2021

Maize Plants Chimeric for an Autoactive Resistance Gene Display a Cell Autonomous Hypersensitive Response but Non-Cell Autonomous Defense Signaling.

Mol Plant Microbe Interact 2021 Jan 28. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

USDA-ARS, Plant Science Research Unit, Raleigh, North Carolina, United States.

The maize gene Rp1-D21 is a mutant form of the gene Rp1-D that confers resistance to common rust. Rp1-D21 triggers a spontaneous defense response that occurs in the absence of the pathogen and includes a programed cell death called the hypersensitive response (HR). Eleven plants heterozygous for Rp1-D21, in four different genetic backgrounds, were identified that had chimeric leaves with lesioned sectors showing HR abutting green non-lesioned sectors lacking HR. The Rp1-D21 sequence derived from each of the lesioned portions of leaves was unaltered from the expected sequence whereas the Rp1-D21 sequences from nine of the non-lesioned sectors displayed various mutations and we were unable to amplify Rp1-D21 from the other two non-lesioned sectors. In every case, the borders between the sectors were sharp with no transition zone, suggesting that HR and chlorosis associated with Rp1-D21 activity was cell-autonomous. Expression of defense response marker genes was assessed in the lesioned and non-lesioned sectors as well as in near-isogenic plants lacking and carrying Rp1-D21. Defense gene expression was somewhat elevated in non-lesioned sectors abutting sectors carrying Rp1-D21 compared to near-isogenic plants lacking Rp1-D21. This suggests that while the HR itself was cell autonomous, other aspects of the defense response initiated by Rp1-D21 were not.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/MPMI-04-20-0091-RDOI Listing
January 2021

Use of virus-induced gene silencing to characterize genes involved in modulating hypersensitive cell death in maize.

Mol Plant Pathol 2020 12 10;21(12):1662-1676. Epub 2020 Oct 10.

Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, NC State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA.

Plant disease resistance proteins (R-proteins) detect specific pathogen-derived molecules, triggering a defence response often including a rapid localized cell death at the point of pathogen penetration called the hypersensitive response (HR). The maize Rp1-D21 gene encodes a protein that triggers a spontaneous HR causing spots on leaves in the absence of any pathogen. Previously, we used fine mapping and functional analysis in a Nicotiana benthamiana transient expression system to identify and characterize a number of genes associated with variation in Rp1-D21-induced HR. Here we describe a system for characterizing genes mediating HR, using virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) in a maize line carrying Rp1-D21. We assess the roles of 12 candidate genes. Three of these genes, SGT1, RAR1, and HSP90, are required for HR induced by a number of R-proteins across several plant-pathogen systems. We confirmed that maize HSP90 was required for full Rp1-D21-induced HR. However, suppression of SGT1 expression unexpectedly increased the severity of Rp1-D21-induced HR while suppression of RAR1 expression had no measurable effect. We confirmed the effects on HR of two genes we had previously validated in the N. benthamiana system, hydroxycinnamoyltransferase and caffeoyl CoA O-methyltransferase. We further showed the suppression the expression of two previously uncharacterized, candidate genes, IQ calmodulin binding protein (IQM3) and vacuolar protein sorting protein 37, suppressed Rp1-D21-induced HR. This approach is an efficient way to characterize the roles of genes modulating the hypersensitive defence response and other dominant lesion phenotypes in maize.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mpp.12999DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7694674PMC
December 2020

Multiple insertions of COIN, a novel maize Foldback transposable element, in the Conring gene cause a spontaneous progressive cell death phenotype.

Plant J 2020 11 26;104(3):581-595. Epub 2020 Aug 26.

Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, NC State University, Raleigh, NC, USA.

Similar progressive leaf lesion phenotypes, named conring for "concentric ring," were identified in 10 independently derived maize lines. Complementation and mapping experiments indicated that the phenotype had the same genetic basis in each line - a single recessive gene located in a 1.1-Mb region on chromosome 2. Among the 15 predicted genes in this interval, Zm00001d003866 (subsequently renamed Conring or Cnr) had insertions of four related 138 bp transposable element (TE) sequences at precisely the same site in exon 4 in nine of the 10 cnr alleles. The 10th cnr allele had a distinct insertion of 226 bp of in exon 3. Genetic evidence suggested that the 10 cnr alleles were independently derived, and arose during the derivation of each line. The four TEs, named COINa (for COnring INsertion) through COINd, have not been previously characterized and consist entirely of imperfect 69-bp terminal inverted repeats characteristic of the Foldback class of TEs. They belong to three clades of a family of maize TEs comprising hundreds of sequences in the genome of the B73 maize line. COIN elements preferentially insert at TNA sequences with a preference for C and G nucleotides in the immediately flanking 5' and 3' regions, respectively. They produce a three-base target site duplication and do not have homology to other characterized TEs. We propose that Cnr is an unstable gene that is mutated insertionally at high frequency, most commonly due to COIN element insertions at a specific site in the gene.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tpj.14945DOI Listing
November 2020

A maize polygalacturonase functions as a suppressor of programmed cell death in plants.

BMC Plant Biol 2019 Jul 15;19(1):310. Epub 2019 Jul 15.

Dept. of Entomology and Plant Pathology, NC State University, Raleigh, NC, 27695-7616, USA.

Background: The hypersensitive defense response (HR) in plants is a fast, localized necrotic response around the point of pathogen ingress. HR is usually triggered by a pathogen recognition event mediated by a nucleotide-binding site, leucine-rich repeat (NLR) protein. The autoactive maize NLR gene Rp1-D21 confers a spontaneous HR response in the absence of pathogen recognition. Previous work identified a set of loci associated with variation in the strength of Rp1-D21-induced HR. A polygalacturonase gene homolog, here termed ZmPGH1, was identified as a possible causal gene at one of these loci on chromosome 7.

Results: Expression of ZmPGH1 inhibited the HR-inducing activity of both Rp1-D21 and that of another autoactive NLR, RPM1(D505V), in a Nicotiana benthamiana transient expression assay system. Overexpression of ZmPGH1 in a transposon insertion line of maize was associated with suppression of chemically-induced programmed cell death and with suppression of HR induced by Rp1-D21 in maize plants grown in the field.

Conclusions: ZmPGH1 functions as a suppressor of programmed cell death induced by at least two autoactive NLR proteins and by two chemical inducers. These findings deepen our understanding of the control of the HR in plants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12870-019-1897-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6628502PMC
July 2019

HvWRKY23 regulates flavonoid glycoside and hydroxycinnamic acid amide biosynthetic genes in barley to combat Fusarium head blight.

Plant Mol Biol 2019 Aug 16;100(6):591-605. Epub 2019 May 16.

Plant Science Department, McGill University, Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue, QC, H9X3V9, Canada.

Crop plant resistance against pathogens is governed by dynamic molecular and biochemical responses driven by complex transcriptional networks. However, the underlying mechanisms are largely unclear. Here we report an interesting role of HvWRKY23 transcription factor (TF) in modulating defense response against Fusarium head blight (FHB) in barley. The combined approach of gene silencing, metabolomics, real time expression analysis and ab initio bioinformatics tools led to the identification of the HvWRKY23 role in FHB resistance. The knock-down of HvWRKY23 gene in the FHB resistant barley genotype CI9831, followed by inoculation with Fusarium graminearum, led to the down regulation of key flavonoid and hydroxycinnamic acid amide biosynthetic genes resulting in reduced accumulation of resistant related (RR) secondary metabolites such as pelargonidin 3-rutinoside, peonidin 3-rhamnoside-5-glucoside, kaempferol 3-O-arabinoside and other flavonoid glycosides. Reduced abundances of RR metabolites in TF silenced plants were also associated with an increased proportion of spikelets diseased and amount of fungal biomass in spikelets, depicting the role of HvWRKY23 in disease resistance. The luciferase reporter assay demonstrated binding of HvWRKY23 protein to promoters of key flavonoid and hydroxycinnamic acid amides (HCAA) biosynthetic genes, such as HvPAL2, HvCHS1, HvHCT, HvLAC15 and HvUDPGT. The accumulation of high abundances of HCAAs and flavonoid glycosides reinforce cell walls to contain the pathogen to initial infection area. This gene in commercial cultivars can be edited, if non-functional, to enhance resistance against FHB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11103-019-00882-2DOI Listing
August 2019

Metabolomics-assisted biotechnological interventions for developing plant-based functional foods and nutraceuticals.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2018 Jul 21;58(11):1791-1807. Epub 2017 Jul 21.

f Department of Soil Sciences , Punjab Agricultural University , Ludhiana , India.

Today, the dramatic changes in types of food consumed have led to an increased burden of chronic diseases. Therefore, the emphasis of food research is not only to ensure quality food that can supply adequate nutrients to prevent nutrition related diseases, but also to ensure overall physical and mental-health. This has led to the concept of functional foods and nutraceuticals (FFNs), which can be ideally produced and delivered through plants. Metabolomics can help in getting the most relevant functional information, and thus has been considered the greatest -OMICS technology to date. However, metabolomics has not been exploited to the best potential in plant sciences. The technology can be leveraged to identify the health promoting compounds and metabolites that can be used for the development of FFNs. This article reviews (i) plant-based FFNs-related metabolites and their health benefits; (ii) use of different analytic platforms for targeted and non-targeted metabolite profiling along with experimental considerations; (iii) exploitation of metabolomics to develop FFNs in plants using various biotechnological tools; and (iv) potential use of metabolomics in plant breeding. We have also provided some insights into integration of metabolomics with latest genome editing tools for metabolic pathway regulation in plants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2017.1285752DOI Listing
July 2018

Metabolo-transcriptome profiling of barley reveals induction of chitin elicitor receptor kinase gene (HvCERK1) conferring resistance against Fusarium graminearum.

Plant Mol Biol 2017 Feb 14;93(3):247-267. Epub 2016 Nov 14.

Department of Plant Science, McGill University, Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue, QC, H9X 3V9, Canada.

Key Message: We report plausible disease resistance mechanisms induced by barley resistant genotype CI89831 against Fusarium head blight (FHB) based on metabolo-transcriptomics approach. We identified HvCERK1 as a candidate gene for FHB resistance, which is functional in resistant genotype CI9831 but non-functional in susceptible cultivars H106-371 and Zhedar-2. For the first time, we were able to show a hierarchy of regulatory genes that regulated downstream biosynthetic genes that eventually produced resistance related metabolites that reinforce the cell walls to contain the pathogen progress in plant. The HvCERK1 can be used for replacing in susceptible commercial cultivars, if non-functional, based on genome editing. Fusarium head blight (FHB) management is a great challenge in barley and wheat production worldwide. Though barley genome sequence and advanced omics technologies are available, till date none of the resistance mechanisms has been clearly deciphered. Hence, this study was aimed at identifying candidate gene(s) and elucidating resistance mechanisms induced by barley resistant genotype CI9831 based on integrated metabolomics and transcriptomics approach. Following Fusarium graminearum infection, we identified accumulation of specific set of induced secondary metabolites, belonging to phenylpropanoid, hydroxycinnamic acid (HCAA) and jasmonic acid pathways, and their biosynthetic genes. In association with these, receptor kinases such as chitin elicitor receptor kinase (HvCERK1) and protein kinases such as MAP kinase 3 (HvMPK3) and MAPK substrate 1 (HvMKS1), and transcription factors such as HvERF1/5, HvNAC42, HvWRKY23 and HvWRKY70 were also found upregulated with high fold change. Polymorphism studies across three barley genotypes confirmed the presence of mutations in HvCERK1 gene in two susceptible genotypes, isolating this gene as a potential candidate for FHB resistance. Further, the silencing of functional HvCERK1 gene in the resistant genotype CI9831, followed by gene expression and metabolite analysis revealed its role as an elicitor recognition receptor that triggered downstream regulatory genes, which in turn, regulated downstream metabolic pathway genes to biosynthesize resistance related (RR) metabolites to contain the pathogen to spikelet infection. A putative model on metabolic pathway regulation is proposed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11103-016-0559-3DOI Listing
February 2017

Identification and characterization of a fusarium head blight resistance gene TaACT in wheat QTL-2DL.

Plant Biotechnol J 2017 04 4;15(4):447-457. Epub 2016 Nov 4.

Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Morden Research and Development Centre, Morden, MB, Canada.

Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistance in wheat is considered to be polygenic in nature. Cell wall fortification is one of the best resistance mechanisms in wheat against Fusarium graminearum which causes FHB. Metabolomics approach in our study led to the identification of a wide array of resistance-related (RR) metabolites, among which hydroxycinnamic acid amides (HCAAs), such as coumaroylagmatine and coumaroylputrescine, were the highest fold change RR metabolites in the rachis of a resistant near-isogenic line (NIL-R) upon F. graminearum infection. Placement of these metabolites in the secondary metabolic pathway led to the identification of a gene encoding agmatine coumaroyl transferase, herein referred to as TaACT, as a candidate gene. Based on wheat survey sequence, TaACT was located within a FHB quantitative trait loci on chromosome 2DL (FHB QTL-2DL) between the flanking markers WMC245 and GWM608. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that TaACT shared closest phylogenetic relationship with an ACT ortholog in barley. Sequence analysis of TaACT in resistant and susceptible NILs, with contrasting levels of resistance to FHB, led to the identification of several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and two inversions that may be important for gene function. Further, a role for TaACT in FHB resistance was functionally validated by virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) in wheat NIL-R and based on complementation studies in Arabidopsis with act mutant background. The disease severity, fungal biomass and RR metabolite analysis confirmed TaACT as an important gene in wheat FHB QTL-2DL, conferring resistance to F. graminearum.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pbi.12641DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5362683PMC
April 2017

Integrated Metabolo-Transcriptomics Reveals Fusarium Head Blight Candidate Resistance Genes in Wheat QTL-Fhb2.

PLoS One 2016 27;11(5):e0155851. Epub 2016 May 27.

Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 195 Dafoe Road, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3T 2M9, Canada.

Background: Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by Fusarium graminearum not only causes severe losses in yield, but also reduces quality of wheat grain by accumulating mycotoxins. Breeding for host plant resistance is considered as the best strategy to manage FHB. Resistance in wheat to FHB is quantitative in nature, involving cumulative effects of many genes governing resistance. The poor understanding of genetics and lack of precise phenotyping has hindered the development of FHB resistant cultivars. Though more than 100 QTLs imparting FHB resistance have been reported, none discovered the specific genes localized within the QTL region, nor the underlying mechanisms of resistance.

Findings: In our study recombinant inbred lines (RILs) carrying resistant (R-RIL) and susceptible (S-RIL) alleles of QTL-Fhb2 were subjected to metabolome and transcriptome profiling to discover the candidate genes. Metabolome profiling detected a higher abundance of metabolites belonging to phenylpropanoid, lignin, glycerophospholipid, flavonoid, fatty acid, and terpenoid biosynthetic pathways in R-RIL than in S-RIL. Transcriptome analysis revealed up-regulation of several receptor kinases, transcription factors, signaling, mycotoxin detoxification and resistance related genes. The dissection of QTL-Fhb2 using flanking marker sequences, integrating metabolomic and transcriptomic datasets, identified 4-Coumarate: CoA ligase (4CL), callose synthase (CS), basic Helix Loop Helix (bHLH041) transcription factor, glutathione S-transferase (GST), ABC transporter-4 (ABC4) and cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) as putative resistance genes localized within the QTL-Fhb2 region.

Conclusion: Some of the identified genes within the QTL region are associated with structural resistance through cell wall reinforcement, reducing the spread of pathogen through rachis within a spike and few other genes that detoxify DON, the virulence factor, thus eventually reducing disease severity. In conclusion, we report that the wheat resistance QTL-Fhb2 is associated with high rachis resistance through additive resistance effects of genes, based on cell wall enforcement and detoxification of DON. Following further functional characterization and validation, these resistance genes can be used to replace the genes in susceptible commercial cultivars, if nonfunctional, based on genome editing to improve FHB resistance.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0155851PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4883744PMC
July 2017

WAX INDUCER1 (HvWIN1) transcription factor regulates free fatty acid biosynthetic genes to reinforce cuticle to resist Fusarium head blight in barley spikelets.

J Exp Bot 2016 07 18;67(14):4127-39. Epub 2016 May 18.

Eastern Cereal and Oilseed Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 960 Carling Ave., Ottawa, ON K1A0C6, Canada.

Fusarium head blight (FHB), caused by Fusarium graminearum, is one of the most devastating diseases of wheat and barley. Resistance to FHB is highly complex and quantitative in nature, and is most often classified as resistance to spikelet infection and resistance to spread of pathogen through the rachis. In the present study, a resistant (CI9831) and a susceptible (H106-371) two-row barley genotypes, with contrasting levels of spikelet resistance to FHB, pathogen or mock-inoculated, were profiled for metabolites based on liquid chromatography and high resolution mass spectrometry. The key resistance-related (RR) metabolites belonging to fatty acids, phenylpropanoids, flavonoids and terpenoid biosynthetic pathways were identified. The free fatty acids (FFAs) linoleic and palmitic acids were among the highest fold change RR induced (RRI) metabolites. These FFAs are deposited as cutin monomers and oligomers to reinforce the cuticle, which acts as a barrier to pathogen entry. Quantitative real-time PCR studies revealed higher expressions of KAS2, CYP86A2, CYP89A2, LACS2 and WAX INDUCER1 (HvWIN1) transcription factor in the pathogen-inoculated resistant genotype than in the susceptible genotype. Knockdown of HvWIN1 by virus-induced genes silencing (VIGS) in resistant genotype upon pathogen inoculation increased the disease severity and fungal biomass, and decreased the abundance of FFAs like linoleic and palmitic acids. Notably, the expression of CYP86A2, CYP89A2 and LAC2 genes was also suppressed, proving the link of HvWIN1 in regulating these genes in cuticle biosynthesis as a defense response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jxb/erw187DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5301922PMC
July 2016

Functional molecular markers for crop improvement.

Crit Rev Biotechnol 2016 Oct 14;36(5):917-30. Epub 2015 Jul 14.

a Plant Science Department , McGill University , Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue , Quebec , Canada, H9X3V9.

A tremendous decline in cultivable land and resources and a huge increase in food demand calls for immediate attention to crop improvement. Though molecular plant breeding serves as a viable solution and is considered as "foundation for twenty-first century crop improvement", a major stumbling block for crop improvement is the availability of a limited functional gene pool for cereal crops. Advancement in the next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies integrated with tools like metabolomics, proteomics and association mapping studies have facilitated the identification of candidate genes, their allelic variants and opened new avenues to accelerate crop improvement through development and use of functional molecular markers (FMMs). The FMMs are developed from the sequence polymorphisms present within functional gene(s) which are associated with phenotypic trait variations. Since FMMs obviate the problems associated with random DNA markers, these are considered as "the holy grail" of plant breeders who employ targeted marker assisted selections (MAS) for crop improvement. This review article attempts to consider the current resources and novel methods such as metabolomics, proteomics and association studies for the identification of candidate genes and their validation through virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) for the development of FMMs. A number of examples where the FMMs have been developed and used for the improvement of cereal crops for agronomic, food quality, disease resistance and abiotic stress tolerance traits have been considered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/07388551.2015.1062743DOI Listing
October 2016