Publications by authors named "Shahzad Hussain"

80 Publications

Synthesis and characterization of AgO, CoFeO, GO, and their ternary composite for antibacterial activity.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2022 Aug 13. Epub 2022 Aug 13.

Department of Chemistry, COMSATS University Islamabad, Islamabad Campus, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Currently, nanomaterials with exceptional antibacterial activity have become an emerging domain in research. The optimization of nanomaterials against infection causing agents is the next step in dealing with the present-day problem of antibiotics. In this research work, AgO, CoFeO, and AgO/CoFeO/rGO are prepared by chemical methods. AgO was prepared by co-precipitation method, while solvothermal technique was utilized for the synthesis of CoFeO. The ternary nanocomposite was synthesized by a simple in situ reduction using a two-step approach. The structural and morphological properties were studied by UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). From the X-ray diffraction analysis, the crystallite size is found to be 14 nm, 5 nm, and 6 nm for AgO, CoFeO, and AgO/CoFeO/rGO respectively. The synthesized nanomaterials were investigated for antibacterial activities against gram-positive strain Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and gram-negative strain Escherichia coli (E. coli) using Agar well diffusion method. AgO and CoFeO showed zones of inhibition (ZOI) of 13 mm and 11 mm against gram positive bacteria while 12 mm against gram negative bacteria respectively, while ternary nanocomposite showed 14 mm and 13 mm of ZOI. The antibacterial activity of nanomaterials showed a gradual increment with an increase in the concentration of the materials. AgO, CoFeO, and AgO/CoFeO/rGO showed minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 4.5, 6.5, and 4.5 μg/mL for S. aureus and 6.5, 7.2, and 4.8 μg/mL for E. coli respectively. Minimum bactericidal concentrations were found to be same as the MIC values. Additionally, a time-kill curve analysis was performed and for ternary nanocomposite; the killing response was most effective as the complete killing was achieved at 3 h of incubation at 3-MIC (9.75 μg/mL). These results demonstrate that all the nanomaterials, as a kind of antibacterial material, have a great potential for a wide range of biomedical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-022-22516-9DOI Listing
August 2022

Disposable Paper-Based Biosensors: Optimizing the Electrochemical Properties of Laser-Induced Graphene.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2022 Jul 29;14(27):31109-31120. Epub 2022 Jun 29.

School of Engineering, Ulster University, Newtownabbey, Belfast BT37 0QB, Northern Ireland, U.K.

Laser-induced graphene (LIG) on paper substrates is a desirable material for single-use point-of-care sensing with its high-quality electrical properties, low fabrication cost, and ease of disposal. While a prior study has shown how the repeated lasing of substrates enables the synthesis of high-quality porous graphitic films, however, the process-property correlation of lasing process on the surface microstructure and electrochemical behavior, including charge-transfer kinetics, is missing. The current study presents a systematic in-depth study on LIG synthesis to elucidate the complex relationship between the surface microstructure and the resulting electroanalytical properties. The observed improvements were then applied to develop high-quality LIG-based electrochemical biosensors for uric acid detection. We show that the optimal paper LIG produced via a dual pass (defocused followed by focused lasing) produces high-quality graphene in terms of crystallinity, content, and electrochemical surface area. The highest quality LIG electrodes achieved a high rate constant of 1.5 × 10 cm s and a significant reduction in charge-transfer resistance (818 Ω compared with 1320 Ω for a commercial glassy carbon electrode). By employing square wave anodic stripping voltammetry and chronoamperometry on a disposable two-electrode paper LIG-based device, the improved charge-transfer kinetics led to enhanced performance for sensing of uric acid with a sensitivity of 24.35 ± 1.55 μA μM and a limit of detection of 41 nM. This study shows how high-quality, sensitive LIG electrodes can be integrated into electrochemical paper analytical devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.2c06350DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9284512PMC
July 2022

A Case Series of E-cigarette or Vaping-Associated Lung Injury With a Review of Pathological and Radiological Findings.

Cureus 2022 May 8;14(5):e24822. Epub 2022 May 8.

Internal Medicine and Critical Care, Carilion Clinic, Roanoke, USA.

There has been a recent outbreak of e-cigarette or vaping-associated lung injury (EVALI) but the exact pathophysiology remains unknown. Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and vitamin E derivates are the major components in vaping-generated aerosols that are associated with EVALI. So far, there is no standard treatment for EVALI. Most cases are treated with antibiotics and steroids. Counseling for smoking cessation is an integral part of care for EVALI patients. Referral to addiction medicine may be beneficial. Considering the nonspecific presenting symptoms and the growing popularity of vaping devices, providers need to consider EVALI in the differential diagnosis of bilateral patchy ground-glass opacities with respiratory, constitutional, or gastrointestinal symptoms in patients using e-cigarettes. Here, we present four EVALI cases and review the pertinent imaging and pathological findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.24822DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9172897PMC
May 2022

Effect of Ziziphus and Cordia Gums on Dough Properties and Baking Performance of Cookies.

Molecules 2022 May 10;27(10). Epub 2022 May 10.

Department of Food Science and Nutrition, King Saud University, Riyadh 1145, Saudi Arabia.

The influence of 2% and 5% Cordia (CG) and Ziziphus (ZG) gums on dough characteristics and cookie quality was investigated. Micro-DoughLab, a texture analyzer (TA), a rapid viscoanalyzer (RVA), and solvent retention capacity were used to examine the effect of CG and ZG gums on dough physicochemical parameters (SRC) and cookie quality. The diameter, thickness, spread, and sensory evaluation of cookies were evaluated. With the addition of CG and ZG, dough softness, mixing time, and mixing tolerance index (MTI) increased, whereas stability and water absorption decreased. TA data showed that adding gums resulted in softer and less sticky doughs than the control, whereas RVA data showed that adding CG resulted in a significant increase in peak viscosity, but no change in flour gel setback. In comparison to the control and CG samples, the ZG samples exhibited the most dough extensibility. The thickness and diameter of the cookies increased but the spread decreased, due to the added gums. The gum-containing cookies had a lower overall acceptability by panelists than the control, although only by a small margin. Gum-containing cookies, on the other hand, can deliver up to 5% soluble fiber.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules27103066DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9146660PMC
May 2022

Exploring the Role of Acacia () and Cactus () Gums on the Dough Performance and Quality Attributes of Breads and Cakes.

Foods 2022 Apr 21;11(9). Epub 2022 Apr 21.

Department of Food Science and Nutrition, King Saud University, Riyadh 1145, Saudi Arabia.

Two hydrocolloids, acacia gum and cactus gum, were tested in the current study to see if they could improve the quality of the dough or have an effect on the shelf life of pan bread and sponge cake. Both gums considerably ( < 0.05) enhanced the dough development time, softness, and mixing tolerance index while decreasing the water absorption. Although the dough was more stable with the addition of acacia gum than with cactus gum, the control sample had the highest peak, final, breakdown, and setback viscosities. Acacia gum, on the other hand, resulted in a higher wheat-flour-slurry pasting temperature (84.07 °C) than cactus gum (68.53 °C). The inclusion of both gums, particularly 3%, reduces the gel's textural hardness, gumminess, chewiness, springiness, and adhesiveness. Lightness (L*) and yellowness (b*) were both increased by the addition of acacia gum to bread and cake, whereas the addition of cactus gum increased both color parameters for cakes. The use of acacia gum increased the bread and cake's volume. Cactus gum, on the other hand, caused a decrease in bread hardness after 24 h and 96 h. The cake containing acacia gum, on the other hand, was the least stiff after both storage times. Similarly, sensory attributes such as the crumb color and overall acceptability of the bread and cake were improved by 3% with acacia gum. For these and other reasons, the addition of cactus and acacia gums to bread and cake increased their organoleptic qualities, controlled staining, and made them softer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods11091208DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9105275PMC
April 2022

Acetylated corn starch as a fat replacer: Effect on physiochemical, textural, and sensory attributes of beef patties during frozen storage.

Food Chem 2022 Sep 15;388:132988. Epub 2022 Apr 15.

Department of Food Science and Nutrition, College of Food and Agricultural Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh 1145, Saudi Arabia.

Acetylated corn starch was used as a fat replacer in beef patties and its effect on the physicochemical, textural, and sensory attributes of the patties was assessed during frozen storage (-20 °C) for 60 days. The results showed that acetylated corn starch enhanced the redness, moisture retention, thickness, and sensory attributes of the patties (P ≤ 0.05). It also reduced the firmness, cooking loss, diameter reduction rate, and dimensional shrinkage of the patties (P ≤ 0.05). The patties contain 15% acetylated corn starch showed a microstructure similar to that contain 15% animal fat as examined by scanning electron microscopy. Patties containing acetylated corn starch showed high scores of physicochemical properties and sensory attributes, which revealed the beneficial use of this modified starch in meat industry. In conclusion, acetylated corn starch improved the physicochemical properties and sensory attributes of beef patties and can thus be used as fat replacer in meat products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2022.132988DOI Listing
September 2022

Effect of Cactus () and Acacia () Gums on the Pasting, Thermal, Textural, and Rheological Properties of Corn, Sweet Potato, and Turkish Bean Starches.

Molecules 2022 Jan 21;27(3). Epub 2022 Jan 21.

Department of Food Science and Nutrition, College of Food and Agricultural Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh 1145, Saudi Arabia.

This study was planned to explore the locally available natural sources of gum hydrocolloids as a natural modifier of different starch properties. Corn (CS), sweet potato (SPS), and Turkish bean (TBS) starches were mixed with locally extracted native or acetylated cactus (CG) and acacia (AG) gums at 2 and 5% replacement levels. The binary mixtures (starch-gums) were prepared in water, freeze dried, ground to powder, and stored airtight. A rapid viscoanalyzer (RVA), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), texture analyzer, and dynamic rheometer were used to explore their pasting, thermal, textural, and rheological properties. The presence of acetylated AG or CG increased the final viscosity (FV) in all three starches when compared to starch pastes containing native gums. Plain SPS dispersion had a higher pasting temperature (PT) than CS and TBS. The addition of AG or CG increased the PT of CS, SPS, and TBS. The thermograms revealed the overall enthalpy change of the starch and gum blends: TBS > SPS > CS. The peak temperature () of starches increased with increasing gum concentration from 2 to 5% for both AG and CG native and modified gums. When compared to the control gels, the addition of 2% CG, either native or modified, reduced the syneresis of starch gels. However, further addition (5% CG) increased the gels' syneresis. Furthermore, the syneresis for the first cycle on the fourth day was higher than the second cycle on the eighth day for all starches. The addition of native and acetylated CG reduced the hardness of starch gels at all concentrations tested. All of the starch dispersions had higher G' than G″ values, indicating that they were more elastic and less viscous with or without the gums. The apparent viscosity of all starch gels decreased as shear was increased, with profiles indicating time-dependent thixotropic behavior. All of the starch gels, with or without gums, showed a non-Newtonian shear thinning trend in the shear stress vs. shear rate graphs. The addition of acetylated CG gum to CS resulted in a higher activation energy () than the native counterparts and the control. More specifically, starch gels with a higher gum concentration (5%) provided greater than their native counterparts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules27030701DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8838407PMC
January 2022

Functionality of Cordia and Ziziphus Gums with Respect to the Dough Properties and Baking Performance of Stored Pan Bread and Sponge Cakes.

Foods 2022 Feb 3;11(3). Epub 2022 Feb 3.

Department of Food Science and Nutrition, King Saud University, Riyadh 1145, Saudi Arabia.

The functionality of hydrocolloids of different origins, gum Cordia (GC), and gum ziziphus (GZ) on pan bread and sponge cake quality and their potential use in retarding the staling process have been studied. The effects of the gums were determined by assessing the pasting qualities of wheat flour slurry, dough properties, and the finished product. After 24 and 96 h of storage, investigations were conducted on the finished product. Micro-doughLab was used to assess dough mixing qualities, and a texture profile analysis (TPA) test was used to assess the texture. A hedonic sensory test of texture, scent, taste, color, and general approval was also conducted. The type of gum used had a significant impact on the physical properties of the bread and cake and their evolution through time. Reduced amylose retrogradation was demonstrated by the lower peak viscosity and substantially lower setback of wheat flour gels, which corresponded to lower gel hardness. Gums were superior at increasing the bread loaf volume, especially GZ, although gums had the opposite effect on cake volume. After both storage periods, the hardness of the bread and cake was much lower than that of the control. Except when 2% GC was used, adding GC and GZ gums to bread and cake invariably increased the overall acceptability of the product. In terms of shelf-life, GZ was able to retain all texture parameters, volume, and general acceptability close to the control after storage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods11030460DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8834351PMC
February 2022

Dysbiosis in salivary bacterial diversity of postpartum females and its association with oral health problems and APOs.

Curr Res Microb Sci 2021 Dec 20;2:100032. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan.

The present study investigates the dysbiosis in salivary bacterial diversity by culture-dependent and independent methods. Culturable aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacterial diversity was studied in saliva collected from 267 postpartum and 54 nonpregnant females by using standard microbiological methods. For unculturable bacterial diversity, DNA from saliva samples of four selected females was sequenced by targeting V4 region of 16S rRNA. In postpartum females, was significantly more prevalent. Its colonization was also seen significant among females having gingivitis ( < 0.01), dental caries ( < 0.01), and in those giving birth to low weight baby. In postpartum group, 65.16% females were culture positive for , 12.73% Gram positive rods, 10.48% , 6.36% , 5.61% species and 2.62% . Isolates showed high biofilm forming ability and antibiotic resistance. Upon analysis of unculturable bacterial diversity, a total of 16 phyla and 156 genera were observed. Alpha diversity was decrease in postpartum female having oral health issues with pre-term low weight birth, compared to females with full term birth. Bray-Curtis dissimilarity was highest between female with dental issues and different pregnancy outcomes. Bacterial diversity and abundance altered among females with different oral health conditions and pregnancy outcomes, and also have pathogenic potential.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.crmicr.2021.100032DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8610344PMC
December 2021

Mixed pretreatment based on pectinase and cellulase accelerates the oil droplet coalescence and oil yield from olive paste.

Food Chem 2022 Feb 25;369:130915. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Department of Food Science and Nutrition, College of Food and Agricultural Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

Commercial enzymatic pretreatment is being classically used for enhancing the oil extraction yield in the olive oil industry in China. Nevertheless, the mechanism is not yet clearly defined. The aim was to study the action of pectinase and cellulase for improving the oil yield from the aspects of oil droplets coalescence and rheological properties changes of olive paste during malaxation process. From confocal laser scanning microscopy imaging, the bound oil droplets were released and gradually coalesced into larger droplets, eventually formed a continuous oil phase with enzymatic pretreatment. Furthermore, the mixed enzymatic pretreatment effectively decreased viscosity of the olive pastes and promoted the depolymerization and solubilization of pectic polymers involved in the cell-cell adhesion, thus further enhanced the oil extraction yield from 7.15 % to 11.68 % (w/w). Finally, the mixed enzymatic pretreatment improved the droplet release and coalescence, reduced the viscosity of olive paste, and increased the oil yield.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.130915DOI Listing
February 2022

On the structure-property relationships of (Al, Ga, In)-doped spinel cobalt ferrite compounds: a combined experimental and DFT study.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2021 Sep 16;23(33):18112-18124. Epub 2021 Aug 16.

Department of Physics, COMSATS University Islamabad, Lahore Campus 54000, Pakistan.

We report a combined experimental and theoretical study of pure and doped cobalt ferrite where 25% of Fe ions were replaced by Al, Ga, and In ions, respectively, i.e., CoFeXO (X = Al, Ga, and In). The ferrite compositions were successfully synthesized using the solid-state reaction method. The X-ray powder diffraction method established that all ferrite samples had a spinel unit cell structure with the Fd3[combining macron]m (No. 227) space group. The lattice constants of ferrites increased from 8.382 Å (for undoped CoFeO) to 8.520 Å (for In-doped cobalt ferrite) in direct relation to the dopant ion size. The magnetic properties were obtained at 4.3 K and 300 K. At 4.3 K, the In-doped CoFeO showed the highest saturation magnetic moment of 4.68 μ f.u., while Al-doped CoFeO showed the smallest value of 2.72 μ f.u.. The Fe distribution among the spinel tetrahedral and octahedral sites was determined from the Mössbauer spectra. From ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy the direct optical bandgaps were determined, which have values between 1.20 eV and 1.28 eV for these ferrites. The ferrite compositions were also studied theoretically using plane-wave density functional theory using the CASTEP code where it was revealed that arrangements of the non-magnetic cations at the tetrahedral and octahedral sites strongly influence the electronic structure, the bandgap value, and the net magnetic moment per formula unit. Light Al ions at the octahedral site give a low value of the net magnetic moment while the heavier Ga and In ions at the tetrahedral sites of the spinel give an enhanced magnetic moment. The magnetic moment values obtained from theoretical calculations match very well with the experimental values. Moreover, the theoretical calculations reveal that there exists a strong p-d hybridization among the oxygen and magnetic ions, which is affected by the non-magnetic dopant ions. The change in hybridization with the non-magnetic ion doping is responsible for the altered magnetic moments of the doped ferrites. Thus, our study provides a comprehensive investigation covering the synthesis and characterization of ferrites along with a good understanding of the phenomenon of how non-magnetic ion doping into spinel ferrites provides a method to tune the electronic and magnetic properties of the spinel ferrite.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1cp02625aDOI Listing
September 2021

Food packaging's materials: A food safety perspective.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2021 Aug 24;28(8):4490-4499. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Department of Food Science and Nutrition, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2460, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

Food packaging serves purposes of food product safety and easy handling and transport by preventing chemical contamination and enhancing shelf life, which provides convenience for consumers. Various types of materials, including plastics, glass, metals, and papers and their composites, have been used for food packaging. However, owing to consumers' increased health awareness, the significance of transferring harmful materials from packaging materials into foods is of greater concern. This review highlights the interactions of food with packaging materials and elaborates the mechanism, types, and contributing factors of migration of chemical substances from the packaging to foods. Also, various types of chemical migrants from different packaging materials with their possible impacts on food safety and human health are discussed. We conclude with a future outlook based on legislative considerations and ongoing technical contributions to optimization of food-package interactions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2021.04.047DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8325021PMC
August 2021

The Current Situation Regarding Long-Acting Insulin Analogues Including Biosimilars Among African, Asian, European, and South American Countries; Findings and Implications for the Future.

Front Public Health 2021 24;9:671961. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Pharmacy Department, Eswatini Medical Christian University, Mbabane, Eswatini.

Diabetes mellitus rates continue to rise, which coupled with increasing costs of associated complications has appreciably increased global expenditure in recent years. The risk of complications are enhanced by poor glycaemic control including hypoglycaemia. Long-acting insulin analogues were developed to reduce hypoglycaemia and improve adherence. Their considerably higher costs though have impacted their funding and use. Biosimilars can help reduce medicine costs. However, their introduction has been affected by a number of factors. These include the originator company dropping its price as well as promoting patented higher strength 300 IU/ml insulin glargine. There can also be concerns with different devices between the manufacturers. To assess current utilisation rates for insulins, especially long-acting insulin analogues, and the rationale for patterns seen, across multiple countries to inform strategies to enhance future utilisation of long-acting insulin analogue biosimilars to benefit all key stakeholders. Multiple approaches including assessing the utilisation, expenditure and prices of insulins, including biosimilar insulin glargine, across multiple continents and countries. There was considerable variation in the use of long-acting insulin analogues as a percentage of all insulins prescribed and dispensed across countries and continents. This ranged from limited use of long-acting insulin analogues among African countries compared to routine funding and use across Europe in view of their perceived benefits. Increasing use was also seen among Asian countries including Bangladesh and India for similar reasons. However, concerns with costs and value limited their use across Africa, Brazil and Pakistan. There was though limited use of biosimilar insulin glargine 100 IU/ml compared with other recent biosimilars especially among European countries and Korea. This was principally driven by small price differences in reality between the originator and biosimilars coupled with increasing use of the patented 300 IU/ml formulation. A number of activities were identified to enhance future biosimilar use. These included only reimbursing biosimilar long-acting insulin analogues, introducing prescribing targets and increasing competition among manufacturers including stimulating local production. There are concerns with the availability and use of insulin glargine biosimilars despite lower costs. This can be addressed by multiple activities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2021.671961DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8264781PMC
August 2021

Current utilization patterns for long-acting insulin analogues including biosimilars among selected Asian countries and the implications for the future.

Curr Med Res Opin 2021 09 14;37(9):1529-1545. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

National Institute of Health, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Introduction: Prevalence rates for diabetes mellitus continue to rise, which, coupled with increasing costs of complications, has appreciably increased expenditure in recent years. Poor glycaemic control including hypoglycaemia enhances complication rates and associated morbidity, mortality and costs. Consequently, this needs to be addressed. Whilst the majority of patients with diabetes have type-2 diabetes, a considerable number of patients with diabetes require insulin to help control their diabetes. Long-acting insulin analogues were developed to reduce hypoglycaemia associated with insulin and help improve adherence, which can be a concern. However, their considerably higher costs have impacted on their funding and use, especially in countries with affordability issues. Biosimilars can help reduce the costs of long-acting insulin analogues thereby increasing available choices. However, the availability and use of long-acting insulin analogues can be affected by limited price reductions versus originators and limited demand-side initiatives to encourage their use. Consequently, we wanted to assess current utilisation rates for long-acting insulin analogues, especially biosimilars, and the rationale for patterns seen, across multiple Asian countries ranging from Japan (high-income) to Pakistan (lower-income) to inform future strategies.

Methodology: Multiple approaches including assessing utilization and prices of insulins including biosimilars among six Asian countries and comparing the findings especially with other middle-income countries.

Results: Typically, there was increasing use of long-acting insulin analogues among the selected Asian countries. This was especially the case enhanced by biosimilars in Bangladesh, India, and Malaysia reflecting their perceived benefits. However, there was limited use in Pakistan due to issues of affordability similar to a number of African countries. The high use of biosimilars in Bangladesh, India and Malaysia was helped by issues of affordability and local production. The limited use of biosimilars in Japan and Korea reflects limited price reductions and demand-side initiatives similar to a number of European countries.

Conclusions: Increasing use of long-acting insulin analogues across countries is welcomed, adding to the range of insulins available, which increasingly includes biosimilars. A number of activities are needed to enhance the use of long-acting insulin analogue biosimilars in Japan, Korea and Pakistan.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03007995.2021.1946024DOI Listing
September 2021

Biochemical and nutritional profile of maize bran-enriched flour in relation to its end-use quality.

Food Sci Nutr 2021 Jun 4;9(6):3336-3345. Epub 2021 May 4.

University of the Gambia Serrekunda Gambia.

The core objective of current research was determined to nutritional and bioactive profile of maize bran (MB)-enriched flour in relation to its end-use product quality. Furthermore, rheological properties of MB-enriched flour at different levels (5%, 10%, and 15%) were explicated through farinograph and mixograph. Moreover, bread was prepared with the addition of MB-enriched flour and was characterized for nutritional and textural properties. Results showed that MB-enriched flour having high water absorption and water retaining potential up to 4%-7% as compared to wheat flour (WF). Moreover, dough height gradually decreased with the addition of MB due to water-binding ability of bran which causes a decrease in gas retention during fermentation. This resulted in bread volume decrease (4%-7%) as compared to WF. Furthermore, the moisture content and hardness increased with the addition of MB. The water activity of bread slightly increased with the addition of maize bran after 4-day storage. Conclusively, MB-enriched flour improved nutritional, textural, and sensorial properties of final product.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.2323DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8194740PMC
June 2021

Co-encapsulation of L-ascorbic acid and quercetin by gelatin/sodium carboxymethyl cellulose coacervates using different interlayer oils.

Food Res Int 2021 07 12;145:110411. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Food Science, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA. Electronic address:

A two-step emulsification prior to complex coacervation was employed to develop a co-encapsulation technology of hydrophilic and hydrophobic components for nutrition enhancement. Processing parameters of mononuclear ellipse-like microcapsules using gelatin and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose as wall materials were evaluated. The particle size and morphology of microcapsules and the encapsulation efficiency of L-ascorbic acid were significantly affected by the water-oil phase ratio and total biopolymer concentration. The L-ascorbic acid and quercetin co-encapsulated microcapsules with an average size of 65.26 µm showed good physical and chemical stability. The encapsulation efficiencies of L-ascorbic acid and quercetin were 69.91% and 88.21%, respectively. To predict the potential of functional lipids as hydrophobic carriers, microcapsules using soybean oil, olive oil, fish oil, and conjugated linoleic acid as interlayer oils were developed. The encapsulation efficiencies of hydrophobic compounds carried by different oils were similarly high (88.21-93.08%), whereas, hydrophilic ones carried by conjugated linoleic acid had the lowest encapsulation efficiency (32.54%). The interface tension results indicated that the interfacial stability was impaired by a competitive relation between conjugated linoleic acid and hydrophobic emulsifier at the interface, due to their structural similarity. These results provided the guidance for improving the quality of interlayer oils from microcapsules.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2021.110411DOI Listing
July 2021

Quality Characteristics of Beef Patties Prepared with Octenyl-Succinylated (Osan) Starch.

Foods 2021 May 21;10(6). Epub 2021 May 21.

Department of Food Science and Nutrition, King Saud University, Riyadh 1145, Saudi Arabia.

Octenyl-succinylated corn starch (Osan) was used to improve the physicochemical properties of ground beef patties. The study involved incorporation of 5 and 15% Osan and storage for 30 or 60 days at -20 °C. The tested parameters included cooking loss, microstructure image, firmness, color, and sensory evaluation of the prepared patties. Along with Osan, native corn starch was used as control and considered the patties with added animal fat. The data showed that Osan reduced the cooking loss and dimensional shrinkage significantly ( < 0.05), whereas the moisture retention, firmness and color of beef patties were improved. The sensory evaluation indicated enhanced tenderness and juiciness without significant alteration of flavor, color, and overall acceptability of the cooked patties. Microstructure images of cooked patties indicated uniform/cohesive structures with small pore size of patties shaped with Osan. Obviously, good storability of the uncooked patties was reflected on the physiochemical, textural, color, and sensory evaluation of the cooked patties, which points to the benefit of using Osan in frozen patties and signifies possible use in the meat industry. The overall sensory acceptability scores were given to cooked patties containing Osan starch as well as the native starch, whereas 15% animal fat was favored too.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10061157DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8223992PMC
May 2021

Proline-glucose Amadori compounds: Aqueous preparation, characterization and saltiness enhancement.

Food Res Int 2021 06 22;144:110319. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Food Science, Rutgers University, 65 Dudley Road, New Brunswick 08901, NJ, USA. Electronic address:

Amadori rearrangement product (ARP) derived from proline and glucose was prepared in aqueous medium, and purified by ion exchange chromatography and identified by mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry. The ARP was confirmed as 1-deoxy-1-L-proline-D-fructose (CHON, 277 Da) with four main isomers. A preliminary vacuum dehydration coupled with subsequent spray drying was used to improve the yield of ARP conversion from 3.63% to 69.15%. Furthermore, the taste characteristics of spray dried ARP products were analyzed by electronic tongue and sensory evaluation. The results indicated that when the dosage of ARP products was above 0.4%, a 20% salt reduction could be achieved without reduction in the salty taste as well as having a significant enhancement in the umami attribute. The products at low- and medium- extents of reaction could stimulate more secretion of aldosterone in oral cavity and then improve its sensitivity to the salt, while the product at high- extent of reaction inhibits aldosterone secretion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2021.110319DOI Listing
June 2021

Prospective Randomized Controlled Pilot Study of High-Intensity Lightbox Phototherapy to Prevent ICU-Acquired Delirium Incidence.

Cureus 2021 Apr 1;13(4):e14246. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine Section, Department of Medicine, Virginia Tech Carilion School of Medicine, Roanoke, USA.

Background This study aimed to evaluate the role of disturbed circadian rhythm in potentiating intensive care unit (ICU)-acquired delirium.Previous studies have demonstrated bright light therapy (BLT) as an effective modality to improve sleeping patterns and cognitive function in non-critically ill patients. However, its benefit in the ICU has not been clearly established. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the application of daily high-intensity phototherapy at the bedside to deter ICU delirium incidence and duration. Methodology This was a single center, prospective study conducted in ICUs at the Carilion Roanoke Memorial Hospital in Roanoke, VA. Adults patients admitted to the ICU from July 9, 2018 to March 20, 2020 were included in the study. The patients were subjected to 30-minute BLT session (10,000 lux) at the bedside starting at 0700 while in the ICU. Patients were randomized into either the control group (standard hospital lighting) or phototherapy group. Data were analyzed using Wilcoxon rank sum test for continuous variables, Pearson chi-square test for categorical variables, and logistic regression for multivariable analysis that examined significant risk factors for ICU delirium. Results Delirium incidence between BLT (18%) and control (17.5%) groups was non-significant. Total number of delirium-free, coma-free days, as determined by Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU, demonstrated no differences between groups with a median of 28 days (p = 0.516). In multivariable analysis, patients with a Sequential Organ Failure Assessment Score >3 also showed no significant change in ICU delirium incidence when provided bedside BLT compared to those with standard hospital lighting (odds ratio: 0.08; 95% confidence interval: 0.002-1.40; p = 0.867). Conclusions In this randomized control pilot study, daily morning 10,000 lux BLT of 30-minute duration alone was not associated with a significant decrease in ICU-acquired delirium incidence or duration compared to standard hospital lighting. Future studies should consider a nuanced approach to better elucidate the role of disturbed circadian rhythm in influencing ICU-acquired delirium by not only undertaking BLT during the day but also minimizing nighttime light exposure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.14246DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8093111PMC
April 2021

Effect of Methionine on the Thermal Degradation of -(1-Deoxy-d-fructos-1-yl)-methionine Affecting Browning Formation.

J Agric Food Chem 2021 May 23;69(17):5167-5177. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Food Science, Rutgers University, 65 Dudley Road, New Brunswick, New Jersey 08901, United States.

The effect of additional dl-methionine (Met) on the thermal degradation of a methionine-glucose-derived Amadori rearrangement product (MG-ARP) was investigated under different reaction conditions. The resulting color formation and changes in the concentrations of MG-ARP, Met, and α-dicarbonyl compounds were investigated. Additional Met did not affect the degradation rate of MG-ARP but got involved in subsequent reactions and resulted in a decrease in the contents of C-α-dicarbonyl compounds. During MG-ARP degradation, the formation of glyoxal (GO) and methylglyoxal (MGO) was facilitated by additional Met, through retro-aldolization reaction of C-α-dicarbonyl compounds. This effect of Met addition was dependent on the reaction temperature, and the consistent conclusion could be made in a buffer system. The improvement of GO and MGO formation as color precursors caused by the additional Met contributed to the acceleration of browning formation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.1c02023DOI Listing
May 2021

Antihyaluronidase and Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) Activities of Medicinal Plants to Combat Venom-Induced Toxicities.

Biomed Res Int 2021 16;2021:6618349. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Department of Pharmacy, COMSATS University Islamabad, Abbottabad Campus, 22060 KPK, Pakistan.

Snakebite is one of the most neglected diseases of developing countries. Deaths due to snakebite envenoming are quite high in Pakistan, and many deaths are caused by envenomation. Traditional use of medicinal plants against snakebites is a common practice in Pakistan due to countless benefits. The current study was performed with the objective to evaluate eighteen Pakistani medicinal plants inhibitory potential against hyaluronidase and alkaline phosphatase enzymes of Pakistani venom. Hyaluronidase activity (0.2-1.6 mg/0.1 mL) and alkaline phosphatase activity (0.1-0.8 mg/0.1 mL) were measured in dose-dependent manner. Crude methanolic extracts of medicinal plants were used for in vitro investigation of their inhibitory activity against toxic enzymes. All active plants were fractioned using different solvents and were again analyzed for inhibitory activity of same enzymes. Results indicated all plants were able to neutralize hyaluronidase that (Roxb. ex Flem.) Karst., Wight and Arn, Thumb., and (L.) R.Br. inhibited maximum hyaluronidase activity equivalent to standard reference ( > 0.5). Pakistani medicinal plants are dense with natural neutralizing metabolites and other active phytochemicals which could inhibit hyaluronidase activity of Pakistani venom. Further advanced studies at molecular level could lead us to an alternative for envenoming of Pakistani venom.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/6618349DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7990536PMC
May 2021

A chain mediation model on COVID-19 symptoms and mental health outcomes in Americans, Asians and Europeans.

Sci Rep 2021 03 19;11(1):6481. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Department of Psychological Medicine, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore.

The novel Coronavirus-2019 (COVID-19) was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) in March 2020, impacting the lifestyles, economy, physical and mental health of individuals globally. This study aimed to test the model triggered by physical symptoms resembling COVID-19 infection, in which the need for health information and perceived impact of the pandemic mediated the path sequentially, leading to adverse mental health outcomes. A cross-sectional research design with chain mediation model involving 4612 participants from participating 8 countries selected via a respondent-driven sampling strategy was used. Participants completed online questionnaires on physical symptoms, the need for health information, the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) questionnaire and Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21). The results showed that Poland and the Philippines were the two countries with the highest levels of anxiety, depression and stress; conversely, Vietnam had the lowest mean scores in these areas. Chain mediation model showed the need for health information, and the perceived impact of the pandemic were sequential mediators between physical symptoms resembling COVID-19 infection (predictor) and consequent mental health status (outcome). Excessive and contradictory health information might increase the perceived impact of the pandemic. Rapid COVID-19 testing should be implemented to minimize the psychological burden associated with physical symptoms, whilst public mental health interventions could target adverse mental outcomes associated with the pandemic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-85943-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7979938PMC
March 2021

E-cigarettes: A novel therapy or a looming catastrophe.

Ann Thorac Med 2021 Jan-Mar;16(1):73-80. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

Department of Pulmonary/Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, Virginia Tech Carilion School of Medicine, Roanoke, VA, USA.

Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) were originally developed in 2003 as healthier alternatives to conventional tobacco cigarettes. Their popularity has since significantly increased and both users and nonusers are exposed to their aerosol and product constituents. Although some evidence suggests that e-cigarette use may facilitate smoking cessation, definitive data are lacking and e-cigarettes are not approved by the Food and Drug Administration as a cessation aid. While e-cigarette aerosol contains fewer toxins than conventional cigarette smoke, studies evaluating whether e-cigarettes are less harmful are inconclusive. The health impact of e-cigarettes for both users and nonusers cannot be determined with currently available data, and there are both environmental concerns and issues regarding nonuser exposure. Most of the currently available data related to the health effects of e-cigarettes do not evaluate their effects on the general population and evidence regarding the systemic health effects of e-cigarettes is limited. In addition, there has been a recent rise in vaping-related lung injuries. Therefore, the detrimental effects of e-cigarette use should be further investigated, and every effort should be made to increase public awareness of the harmful effects of e-cigarettes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/atm.ATM_190_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7908894PMC
January 2021

Taste improvement of Maillard reaction intermediates derived from enzymatic hydrolysates of pea protein.

Food Res Int 2021 02 16;140:109985. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

Department of Food Science, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA. Electronic address:

Maillard reaction intermediates (MRIs) derived from enzymatic hydrolysates of pea protein, mainly initial Maillard reaction products, were prepared at a low temperature (80 °C) and the reaction time was determined by variable-temperature Maillard reaction. Electronic tongue and sensory evaluation were used to analyze the taste qualities of pea protein hydrolysates and their MRIs. Both evaluations showed that bitterness of enzymatic hydrolysates of pea protein reduced but umami taste increased through Maillard reaction. The intensities of umami and saltiness were positively correlated with the concentration of MRIs. Even when the dosage of MRIs was 0.1% (w/w), MRIs could achieve a 20% reduction in NaCl content without decreasing saltiness, which could be great potential substitutes for salt reduction. On the other hand, the increased MRIs promoted aldosterone secretion in saliva, which might enhance human perception of saltiness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2020.109985DOI Listing
February 2021

Anti-5'-Nucleotidases (5'-ND) and Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) Activities of Medicinal Plants to Combat Venom-Induced Toxicities.

Biomed Res Int 2021 4;2021:6631042. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Department of Pharmacy, COMSATS University Islamabad, Abbottabad Campus 22060, KPK, Pakistan.

is one of the highly venomous snakes of Pakistan that is responsible for numerous cases of envenomation and deaths. In Pakistan, medicinal plants are commonly used traditionally for snakebite treatment because of their low cost and easy availability in comparison with antivenom. The current research is aimed at evaluating the inhibitory activity of Pakistani medicinal plants against acetylcholinesterase and 5'-nucleotidases present in venom. Acetylcholinesterase and 5'-nucleotidase enzymatic assays were performed at different venom concentrations to check the activity of these enzymes. Methanolic extracts from different parts of plants were used for in vitro determination of their inhibitory activity against 5'-nucleotidases in snake venom. Active methanolic extracts were subsequently fractioned using different solvents, and these fractions were also assessed for their anti-5'-nucleotidase activity. Results of this study exhibited that Willd. ex O. Berg, L., (L.) R. Br., (Wild.) R. Br., L., and L. were able to significantly ( > 0.5) neutralize the 5'-nucleotidase activity by 88%, 86%, 86%, 85%, 83.7%, and 83%, respectively, compared with a standard antidote (snake venom antiserum). Thus, this study indicates that these plants possess the potential to neutralize one of the toxic enzymatic components of venom and hence can help to augment the future efforts of developing alternative therapy for the management of snakebites.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/6631042DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7878093PMC
May 2021

The impact of COVID-19 pandemic on physical and mental health of Asians: A study of seven middle-income countries in Asia.

PLoS One 2021 11;16(2):e0246824. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Southeast Asia One Health University Network (SEAOHUN), Chiang Mai, Thailand.

The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has impacted the economy, livelihood, and physical and mental well-being of people worldwide. This study aimed to compare the mental health status during the pandemic in the general population of seven middle income countries (MICs) in Asia (China, Iran, Malaysia, Pakistan, Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam). All the countries used the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) and Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21) to measure mental health. There were 4479 Asians completed the questionnaire with demographic characteristics, physical symptoms and health service utilization, contact history, knowledge and concern, precautionary measure, and rated their mental health with the IES-R and DASS-21. Descriptive statistics, One-Way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and linear regression were used to identify protective and risk factors associated with mental health parameters. There were significant differences in IES-R and DASS-21 scores between 7 MICs (p<0.05). Thailand had all the highest scores of IES-R, DASS-21 stress, anxiety, and depression scores whereas Vietnam had all the lowest scores. The risk factors for adverse mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic include age <30 years, high education background, single and separated status, discrimination by other countries and contact with people with COVID-19 (p<0.05). The protective factors for mental health include male gender, staying with children or more than 6 people in the same household, employment, confidence in doctors, high perceived likelihood of survival, and spending less time on health information (p<0.05). This comparative study among 7 MICs enhanced the understanding of metal health in the general population during the COVID-19 pandemic.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0246824PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7877638PMC
February 2021

Biochemical profile of milk thistle ( L.) with special reference to silymarin content.

Food Sci Nutr 2021 Jan 9;9(1):244-250. Epub 2020 Nov 9.

University of The Gambia Sere Kunda Gambia.

The main objective of current study was to evaluate the antioxidant potential and nutritional composition of milk thistle with special reference to silymarin. For the purpose, different varieties of milk thistle were procured from three different cities of Pakistan. The study was comprised of three different phases. In 1st phase, nutritional composition, that is, moisture, fat, protein, fiber, and nitrogen free extract, was determined according to their respective methods. Moreover, antioxidant potential and quantification of silymarin content were explored in 2nd phase. Furthermore, in last phase, milk thistle seeds tea was developed and evaluated for nutritional and sensorial characteristics. At last, data obtained from each parameter was subjected to appropriate statistical design to determine the level of significance. Results showed significant difference in the nutritional and chemical composition of different milk thistle varieties as well as locations. Moreover, moisture content, ash content, fat content, fiber content, protein content, and NFE varied from 6.27% to 5.01%, 2.37 to 1.25%, 23.19 to 19.74%, 7.4 to 4.39%, 30.09 to 20.74%, and 45.42 to 34.13%, respectively. Furthermore, silymarin content quantified though HPLC ranged from 1669.5 mg/g to 1607.6 mg/g for soxhlet extract whereas, 1,840.6 mg/g to 1765.9 mg/g for microwave-assisted extraction extract. Conclusively, it was depicted from the results that in case of variety, Blue was the best than White whereas, Islamabad was best in case of location.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.1990DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7802570PMC
January 2021

Survival and storage stability of encapsulated probiotic under simulated digestion conditions and on dried apple snacks.

Food Sci Nutr 2020 Oct 25;8(10):5392-5401. Epub 2020 Aug 25.

Institute of Home & Food Sciences Government College University Faisalabad Faisalabad Pakistan.

The objective of the current study was to explore the probiotics carrier potential of apple dried snacks and improve the survival of probiotics under simulated gastrointestinal conditions. Purposely, the probiotics were encapsulated using two hydrogel materials (sodium alginate and carrageenan) by using encapsulator. Briefly, slices of apple were immersed in solution containing free and encapsulated probiotics and then dried by conventional drying method. The dried apple snack was analyzed for different characteristics (physiochemical and microbiological) during storage. The viability of the free and encapsulated probiotics was accessed in apple snack and under simulated gastrointestinal conditions. Apple snack rich with encapsulated probiotics showed a significant result ( < .05) regarding the survival and stability. The encapsulated probiotics decreased from 9.5 log CFU/g to 8.83 log CFU/g as compared to free probiotics that decreased to 5.28 log CFU/g. Furthermore, encapsulated probiotics exhibited a better stability under simulated gastrointestinal conditions as compared to free. During storage, an increase in phenolic content and hardness was observed while decrease in pH was noted. Results of sensory parameters indicated apple snack as potential and acceptable probiotics carrier.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.1815DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7590301PMC
October 2020

Assessment of antidiabetic potential and phytochemical profiling of Rhazya stricta root extracts.

BMC Complement Med Ther 2020 Sep 29;20(1):293. Epub 2020 Sep 29.

KTH Royal Institute of Technology, School of Chemical Science and Engineering, SE-100 44, Stockholm, Sweden.

Background: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease characterized by hyperglycemia that may occur due to genetic, environmental or lifestyle factors. Natural remedies have been used to treat diabetes since long and many antidiabetic compounds of varied efficacies have been isolated from medicinal plants. Rhazya stricta has been used for decades for the treatment of diabetes mellitus and associated ailments. Considering the folkloric use of R. stricta against diabetes, it was aimed to investigate the effectiveness of its root extracts against diabetes through in vitro assays and in vivo studies using animal model along with phytochemical profiling through GCMS.

Methods: Various fractions of Rhazya stricta obtained through column chromatography were evaluated for a variety of assays including α-glucosidase, Dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV), β-secretase and Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion studies. For the in vivo studies the alloxan-induced diabetic mice were treated with root extracts and blood glucose levels, HbA1C, and other biochemical markers along with the histological study of the liver were done. The phytochemical identification was performed using an Agilent 7890B GC coupled to a 7010 Triple Quadrupole (MS/MS) system. GraphPad Prism software version 5.01 was used for statistical analysis.

Results: Majority of the extract fractions showed excellent results against diabetes by inhibiting enzymes DPP-IV (Up to 61%) and β-secretase (Up to 83%) with IC 979 μg/ml and 169 μg/ml respectively with increase in the GLP1 secretion. The results of in vivo studies indicated a marked reduction in blood glucose and HbA1c levels along with positive effects on other parameters like lipid profile, liver functions and renal functions of extract-treated mice as compared to control. The histological examination of the liver demonstrated hepatoprotective effects against diabetes led changes and various classes of phytochemicals were also identified through GCMS in different fractions.

Conclusion: The results revealed strong antidiabetic activity of R. stricta root with the potential to protect body organs against diabetic changes. Moreover, a variety of phytochemicals has also been identified through GCMS that might be responsible for the antidiabetic potential of Rhazya stricta root.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12906-020-03035-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7523044PMC
September 2020

A case report of sleep terrors exacerbated by cetirizine.

J Clin Sleep Med 2021 01;17(1):99-101

Department of Pulmonary Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, Virginia Tech Carilion School of Medicine, Roanoke, Virginia.

None: Sleep terrors are a type of sleep disorder that is classified as parasomnias and is more common in children than in adults. Cetirizine is a histamine H1 antagonist that is US Food and Drug Administration approved for the treatment of allergic rhinitis and urticaria and has common adverse effects of drowsiness and headaches. We present a case of an adult man with a history of chronic sleep terror disorder and allergic rhinitis who developed worsening of his sleep terrors after initiation of cetirizine that subsequently resolved after discontinuing cetirizine and starting paroxetine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5664/jcsm.8794DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7849635PMC
January 2021
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