Publications by authors named "Shahram Shahabi"

45 Publications

Sitagliptin Repositioning in SARS-CoV-2: Effects on ACE-2, CD-26, and Inflammatory Cytokine Storms in the Lung.

Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol 2020 May 17;19(S1):10-12. Epub 2020 May 17.

Sarem Cell Research Center (SCRC), Sarem Women's Hospital, Tehran, Iran AND Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Tehran Medical Sciences, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

No Abstract.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18502/ijaai.v19i(s1.r1).2849DOI Listing
May 2020

Evaluation of Immunogenic Effect of Recombinant SAG-1 Antigen with Propranolol as Adjuvant in BALB/c Mice.

Adv Pharm Bull 2019 Oct 24;9(4):632-639. Epub 2019 Oct 24.

Department of Parasitology and Mycology, Faculty of Medicine, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran.

Propranolol as a novel adjuvant, was used to evaluate the immunogenic effect of three doses of recombinant SAG-1 (rSAG-1) antigen of in BALB/c mice for finding the optimal dose, and was compared with efficacy of tachyzoite lysate antigen (TLA). Eight different groups of 15 BALB/c mice received different volumes of the immunogenic material (three doses of r SAG-1 and one dose of TLA antigens), with or without propranolol adjuvant, subcutaneously. The control group mice received only PBS. Three weeks after the last immunization, the serum levels of IgG2a, IgG1 and IgG total antibodies against TLA, splenic interleukin-5 (IL-5) and Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) (produced against TLA) and the splenic lymphocyte proliferation after adding TLA were measured to evaluate humoral and cellular immune responses. Challenge test was performed by subcutaneously injection of 1000 alive and active tachyzoites in to five mice per each group and survival days for each group of mice were recorded. The mice group that received propranolol adjuvant and 20 µg of r SAG-1 antigen per dose of injection showed significantly more IFN-γ production, more proliferation of splenic lymphocytes and higher anti-TLA-specific IgG2a production (three main indexes for cell mediated immunity) in comparison with other groups. Moreover, in the challenge test, this group of mice had a significantly increased survival time, indicating the positive effect of propranolol in the more stimulating of cellular immunity that is necessary for toxoplasmosis prevention or suppress. Our results showed that rSAG-1 antigen in combination with propranolol as adjuvant (which can induce Th1 related responses) are good candidates for further study to a vaccine design.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15171/apb.2019.073DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6912185PMC
October 2019

Nicotine, as a novel tolerogenic adjuvant, enhances the efficacy of immunotherapy in a mouse model of allergic asthma.

Res Pharm Sci 2019 Aug;14(4):308-319

Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Cellular and Molecular Medicine Institute, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, I.R. Iran.

An increasing trend in the incidence of allergic diseases including asthma and related morbidity and mortality is observed worldwide during the last decades. Allergen-specific immunotherapy is suggested for the treatment of some allergic diseases; nevertheless, there is always a menace of uncommon, but life-treating reactions due to increasing the administration of allergen extract doses. Hence, improving its efficacy may reduce the required doses as well as the risk of such reactions. The current study aimed at examining the effects of nicotine (NIC), as a tolerogenic adjuvant, on the improvement of immunotherapy efficacy in a mouse model of allergic asthma. BALB/c mice were sensitized using alum and ovalbumin (OVA) on the days 0 and 7. Mice received OVA either alone or together with NIC (1 or 10 mg/kg) on the days 21, 23, and 25. Then, the mice were challenged with OVA 5% using a nebulizer on the days 35, 38, and 41 and sacrificed the next day. Co-administration of OVA and NIC decreased the inflammation of the lung tissue, eosinophils count in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, the serum level of OVA-specific immunoglobulin E, as well as interleukin (IL)-4 production, while increasing the population of antigen-specific regulatory T-cells (Treg cells) and transforming growth factor-β/IL-4 (TGF-β/IL-4) ratio compared to the OVA and control groups in a dose-dependent manner. Collectively, the findings suggest that administration of NIC plus the allergen increased immunotherapy efficacy through decreasing allergic inflammation and allergic responses intensity, and increasing Treg cells population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/1735-5362.263555DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6714111PMC
August 2019

Evaluation of the efficacy of isopathic immunotherapy in the treatment of allergic asthma in BALB/C mice.

J Asthma 2020 06 3;57(6):670-679. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Cellular and Molecular Medicine Institute, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran.

: Homeopathy is a therapeutic method based on the fundamental principle of "like cures like." Homeopathic remedies are extremely dilute but involve vigorous shaking at each dilution. Isopathy is one approach of homeopathy, in which the causative agents or products of a disease are used to treat the same disease. Allergen immunotherapy is the only potential disease-modifying treatment for allergic patients. Subcutaneous immunotherapy is more effective than sublingual immunotherapy. However, subcutaneous immunotherapy is ineffective at a low dose, whereas at high doses it can result in an unacceptably high frequency of systemic reactions. In the current study, we evaluated the efficacy of isopathic immunotherapy with highly diluted ovalbumin (HD OVA) in the treatment of OVA-induced allergic asthma in BALB/c mice.: BALB/c mice were sensitized with OVA and alum. Two weeks later, the mice received HD OVA on days 21, 22, 32 and 41 (8 h after the last challenge) of the treatment. The mice were challenged with OVA (5%) aerosols on days 35, 38 and 41 for 20 minutes using an ultrasonic nebulizer and sacrificed the next day.: Isopathic immunotherapy significantly reduced lung tissue inflammation, the number of eosinophils in bronchoalveolar fluid, allergen-specific IgE and interleukin-4 production. It also insignificantly increased the production of transforming growth factor-beta and proliferation of regulatory T cells against the allergen.: Isopathic immunotherapy may be a good candidate treatment for allergic asthma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02770903.2019.1599384DOI Listing
June 2020

Regulatory effects of hemp seed/evening primrose oil supplement in comparison with rapamycin on the expression of the mammalian target of and genes in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

Res Pharm Sci 2019 Feb;14(1):36-45

Departement of Immunology and Genetics, Faculty of Medicine, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, I.R. Iran.

The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling plays a critical role in lipid synthesis and immune responses. The T regulatory cells (Treg) as suppressor of T cells, are a subset of T cells that modulate the immune system, maintain tolerance, and prevent autoimmune diseases.. The interleukin (IL) -10 derived from the Treg and T helper (Th) 2 is an anti-inflammatory cytokine in multiple sclerosis (MS) and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Due to the exclusive roles of rapamycin (RAPA) in mTOR inhibition, we evaluated the regulatory effect of the hemp seed oil/evening primrose oil (HSO/EPO) supplement in comparison with RAPA in EAE. EAE was induced by using myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein peptide and complete freund's adjuvant (CFA) in C57BL/6 mice, total mRNA was extracted from local lymph nodes and real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to evaluate the expression level of the rapamycin-insensitive companion of mTOR complex 2 () and genes. The expression of and genes were significantly increased in HSO/EPO group. In contrast with RAPA groups, histological findings have shown that the HSO/EPO treated group remarkably reduced cell infiltration and promoted remyelination. The EPO/HSO has beneficial effects on the repair of myelin, which was confirmed by immunological and histological findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/1735-5362.251851DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6407336PMC
February 2019

The potential effects of hemp seed/evening primrose oils on the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 and interferon-gamma genes expression in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

Res Pharm Sci 2018 Dec;13(6):523-532

Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Cellular and Molecular Medicine Institute, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, I.R. Iran.

The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) has a fundamental role in the metabolism, growth, and regulation of the immune system. The interferon gamma (IFN-γ)derived from T helper 1 (Th1) cells is a prominent pro-inflammatory cytokine in multiple sclerosis (MS) and its animal model, the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Due to the exclusive role of rapamycin (RAPA) in mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) inhibition, essentially Th1 differentiation and IFN-γ production, we evaluated the potential therapeutic effects of hemp seed/evening primrose oils (HSO/EPO) in comparison with RAPA administration in EAE. To evaluate the therapeutic effects of EPO/HSO supplement in comparison with RAPA, EAE was induced using myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) peptide and complete Freund's adjuvant in C57BL/6 mice. The weight, clinical score, and histological findings were evaluated. Total mRNA was extracted from local lymph nodes and qRT-PCR was used for the purpose of the genes expression level of regulatory associated protein of TORC1 () and IFN-γ. Our results indicated that the relative expression of and -γ genes were significantly reduced in HSO/EPO, RAPA, and RAPA + HSO/EPO treated groups in comparison with the untreated group. Interestingly, histological findings have shown that the HSO/EPO treated group remarkably regenerated the myelin sheath, but this did not occur in the case of RAPA or combined RAPA and HSO/EPO treated groups. Our findings suggeste that HSO/HPO can be used as a potent immunomodulator and as a good candidate for re-myelination and downregulation of immune response for treatment of MS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/1735-5362.245964DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6288989PMC
December 2018

Propranolol efficacy as a novel adjuvant for immunization against Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites.

Exp Parasitol 2018 Nov 22;194:60-66. Epub 2018 Sep 22.

Department of Parasitology and Mycology, Faculty of Medicine, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran. Electronic address:

Severe or lethal damages, caused by Toxoplasma gondii infection in congenital cases and immunocompromised patients implies the necessity for development of a vaccine and an appropriate adjuvant would be needed to elicit a protective Th1 biased-immune response. The adjuvant activity of propranolol was surveyed and compared with alum by immunization of BALB/c mice with protein components of T. gondii tachyzoites. Five groups of BALB/c mice were immunized with phosphate buffered saline (negative control), Toxoplasma lysate antigen (TLA), alum plus TLA, Propranolol plus TLA, and alum, propranolol and TLA. Immunization efficacy was evaluated by lymphocyte proliferation and DTH tests, challenge with live tachyzoites, IFN-γ production by spleen cells, serum TNF-α concentration and anti- Toxoplasma total IgG, IgG1 and IgG2a measurements. Mice of the PRP-TLA group induced significantly more IFN-γ and TNF-α production and lymphocyte proliferation than other groups. This group of mice also showed more anti-T. gondii IgG2a and DTH responses and showed a significantly increased survival time after challenge. These findings indicate that propranolol as an adjuvant in combination with TLA, may enhance cellular immunity against T. gondii.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exppara.2018.09.014DOI Listing
November 2018

Correction to: Blocking of opioid receptors in experimental formaline-inactivated respiratory syncytial virus (FI-RSV) immunopathogenesis: from beneficial to harmful impacts.

Med Microbiol Immunol 2018 11;207(5-6):345

Department of Virology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

In the original publication, seventh author's name was incorrectly published as 'Maryam Golaram'.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00430-018-0562-1DOI Listing
November 2018

Evaluation of the efficacy of nicotine in treatment of allergic asthma in BALB/c mice.

Int Immunopharmacol 2018 Oct 14;63:239-245. Epub 2018 Aug 14.

Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Cellular and Molecular Medicine institute, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran. Electronic address:

Nicotine, an nAChR agonist, shows prominent anti-inflammatory properties, and some studies have illustrated its suppressive effects on inflammation. Here, we have examined whether nicotine as a medicine may have beneficial effects on the treatment of asthma in a mouse model of allergic asthma. BALB/c mice were sensitized with OVA and alum. Two weeks later, the mice received nicotine with concentrations of 1 and 10 mg/kg three times every other day. After 10 days, the mice were challenged with OVA (5%) using an ultrasonic nebulizer and died the next day. Our results showed that the administration of nicotine reduced lung-tissue inflammation, the number of eosinophils in bronchoalveolar fluid, allergen-specific IgE and IL-4 production, while it increased the TGF-β/IL-4 ratio and the number of Treg cells. Our results showed that nicotine applies its suppressive effects in a dose-dependent manner: administration of 10 mg/kg of nicotine showed more suppressive effects than 1 mg/kg. Such data suggested that nicotine might be a good candidate to be used as a medicine in the treatment of allergic asthma by decreasing allergic inflammation severity and potentiating Treg cells proliferation against the allergen.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2018.08.006DOI Listing
October 2018

The protective effect of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium as the gut microbiota members against chronic urticaria.

Int Immunopharmacol 2018 Jun 11;59:168-173. Epub 2018 Apr 11.

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: Chronic Urticaria is a common disorder which is defined by recurrent occurrence of wheals and sometimes angioedema. It has a notable influence on the patients' quality of life. Regulation of the immune system is one of the important roles of the gut microbiota. The effect of dysbiosis considering some members of gut microbiota in patients with chronic urticaria has been demonstrated in our previous study.

Objective: Comparing the frequency and bacterial load of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, and Bacteroides between patients with chronic urticaria and healthy controls.

Methods: 20 patients with chronic urticaria and 20 age and sex matched healthy individuals were included in the present study. Stool samples were analyzed for determining the frequency and bacterial load of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, and Bacteroides genera.

Results: There were no significant differences among the frequencies of detectable Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, or Bacteroides in stool samples of patients with chronic urticaria and healthy controls. The relative amounts of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium were significantly higher in fecal samples from controls compared to patients with chronic urticaria (P = 0.038 and 0.039, respectively).

Conclusion: It is the first study on the implication of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, and Bacteroides genera as gut microbiota members in patients with chronic urticaria.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2018.04.007DOI Listing
June 2018

Blocking of opioid receptors in experimental formaline-inactivated respiratory syncytial virus (FI-RSV) immunopathogenesis: from beneficial to harmful impacts.

Med Microbiol Immunol 2018 04 18;207(2):105-115. Epub 2017 Dec 18.

Department of Virology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Opioid system plays a significant role in pathophysiological processes, such as immune response and impacts on disease severity. Here, we investigated the effect of opioid system on the immunopathogenesis of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) vaccine (FI-RSV)-mediated illness in a widely used mouse model. Female Balb/c mice were immunized at days 0 and 21 with FI-RSV (2 × 10 pfu, i.m.) and challenged with RSV-A2 (3 × 10 pfu, i.n.) at day 42. Nalmefene as a universal opioid receptors blocker administered at a dose of 1 mg/kg in combination with FI-RSV (FI-RSV + NL), and daily after live virus challenge (RSV + NL). Mice were sacrificed at day 5 after challenge and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and lungs were harvested to measure airway immune cells influx, T lymphocyte subtypes, cytokines/chemokines secretion, lung histopathology, and viral load. Administration of nalmefene in combination with FI-RSV (FI-RSV + NL-RSV) resulted in the reduction of the immune cells infiltration to the BAL fluid, the ratio of CD4/CD8 T lymphocyte, the level of IL-5, IL-10, MIP-1α, lung pathology, and restored weight loss after RSV infection. Blocking of opioid receptors during RSV infection in vaccinated mice (FI-RSV-RSV + NL) had no significant effects on RSV immunopathogenesis. Moreover, administration of nalmefene in combination with FI-RSV and blocking opioid receptors during RSV infection (FI-RSV + NL-RSV + NL) resulted in an increased influx of the immune cells to the BAL fluid, increases the level of IFN-γ, lung pathology, and weight loss in compared to control condition. Although nalmefene administration within FI-RSV vaccine decreases vaccine-enhanced infection during subsequent exposure to the virus, opioid receptor blocking during RSV infection aggravates the host inflammatory response to RSV infection. Thus, caution is required due to beneficial/harmful functions of opioid systems while targeting as potentially therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00430-017-0531-0DOI Listing
April 2018

Association of altered gut microbiota composition with chronic urticaria.

Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2017 07;119(1):48-53

Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: An altered gut microbiota composition has recently been linked to some types of allergies.

Objective: To compare the relative amounts of Akkermansia muciniphila, Clostridium leptum, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, and Enterobacteriaceae as members of gut microbiota among patients with chronic urticaria (CU) and healthy controls.

Methods: A total of 20 patients with CU and 20 healthy individuals matched by age and sex participated in the study. Fresh fecal samples were collected, and DNA extracted from stool samples was analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction for the qualitative and quantitative assays of the so-called bacteria.

Results: The frequencies of A muciniphila, C leptum, and F prausnitzii in healthy controls' stool samples were significantly more than those of patients with CU (P < .001, P < .01, and P < .05, respectively), whereas the Enterobacteriaceae family was detected in all patients and healthy controls' stool samples. The relative amounts of A muciniphila in healthy control positive samples were significantly higher than those of samples from patients with CU (P < .001). Furthermore, there was a corresponding increase of relative amounts of C leptum and F prausnitzii in healthy control positive samples compared with those of patients with CU (P = .09 and P = .08, respectively). The mean of the relative amounts of Enterobacteriaceae family in the stool samples from patients with CU was more than that of healthy controls; however, the difference was nearly significant (P = .12).

Conclusion: The results reveal a change of frequency and relative amounts of A muciniphila, C leptum, and F prausnitzii in patients with CU compared with healthy controls. This is the first study, to our knowledge, to show the change of microbiota composition in patients with CU.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anai.2017.05.006DOI Listing
July 2017

Polymorphisms in Beta-2 Adrenergic Receptor Gene and Association with Tuberculosis.

Lung 2017 02 29;195(1):147-153. Epub 2016 Nov 29.

Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran.

Purpose: Genetic susceptibility for tuberculosis in human has been previously demonstrated. Polymorphisms in genes involved in immune responses may alter the susceptibility of individuals to tuberculosis. Polymorphisms of beta-2 adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) gene can be possibly an important risk factor in tuberculosis. In this study, the association between rs1042713 (Arg16Gly +46A>G) and rs1042714 (Gln27Glu +79C>G) polymorphisms in ADRB2 gene and tuberculosis was evaluated.

Methods: Genotype distributions of the rs1042713 (Arg16Gly +46A>G) and rs1042714 (Gln27Glu +79C>G) polymorphisms in ADRB2 gene in 106 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and 88 healthy subjects were studied by PCR-RFLP method in an Iranian population.

Results: The frequency of rs1042713*G and rs1042714*G alleles in ADRB2 gene in tuberculosis patients was significantly different from healthy controls [odds ratio (OR) 0.176, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.065-0.48, P value <0.001 and OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.247-0.825, P value = 0.009, respectively]. There were no significant differences in haplotype analysis between the patients and control subjects.

Conclusion: The association was reported between rs1042713 and rs1042714 polymorphisms in ADRB2 gene and tuberculosis for the first time. rs1042713*G and rs1042714*G polymorphisms in ADRB2 gene makes people more susceptible to develop the disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00408-016-9968-yDOI Listing
February 2017

Mixture of Alum--Naloxone and Alum--Naltrexone as a novel adjuvant elicits immune responses for Toxoplasma gondii lysate antigen in BALB /c mice.

Exp Parasitol 2016 Mar 7;162:28-34. Epub 2016 Jan 7.

Department of Parasitology, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran. Electronic address:

Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is an obligate intracellular parasite. Treatment of the infection induced by this parasite is not straightforward due to the toxic side effects of the available drugs. Vaccine development could be a solution to this problem. In the present study, T.gondii Lysate Antigen (TLA), as a model vaccine, in combination with the Alum-NLT (Aluminum phosphate-Naltrexone) and Alum-NLX (Aluminum phosphate-Naloxone) were evaluated for immunization BALB/c. 147 female BALB/c mice which were divided into seven groups of 21, were allocated to immunization experiments. The first group was selected as the negative control group, followed by the second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth and seventh groups which were immunized with Vac, Vac-Alum, Vac-NLX, Vac-NLT, Vac-Alum-NLX, Vac-Alum-NLT, respectively. Ten days after the final immunization, mice in all groups were divided into three groups for evaluating cellular immune responses, measuring the delayed-type hypersensitivity responses (DTHs) and evaluating survival. The DTH and cellular immune responses showed that in mice immunized with the TLA vaccine combined with the Alum-NLT mixture, the efficacy improved by increasing the production of Interleukin-5(IL-5) and Interferon gamma. This consequently shifted the immune responses toward a Th1 profile by increasing the IFN-γ/IL-5 ratios. In challenge experiments, immunized mice with the Alum-NLT-Vac mixture survived for a longer period of time which indicated an improvement in protective immunity against T. gondii. Administration of the Alum-NLT mixture adjuvant in combination with TLA vaccine enhanced the cellular immunity by shifting the immune response to a Th1 pattern. This shift to the Th1 pattern plays an important role in the induction of cellular.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exppara.2016.01.001DOI Listing
March 2016

A Survey of Medical Students' Knowledge and Attitudes Toward Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Urmia, Iran.

J Evid Based Complementary Altern Med 2016 Oct 21;21(4):306-10. Epub 2015 Sep 21.

Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran.

Personal beliefs of medical students may interfere with their tendency for learning Complementary and Alternative Medicine concepts. This study aimed to investigate the knowledge and attitudes of medical students toward complementary and alternative medicine in Urmia, Iran. A structured questionnaire was used as data collection instrument. One hundred questionnaires were returned. Thirty-one percent of students reported use of alternative medicine for at least once. Iranian Traditional Medicine was the main type of alternative medicine used by medical students (93.5%). Neuromuscular disorders were the main indication of alternative medicine use among students (34.4%). Ninety percent of participants demonstrated competent knowledge about acupuncture while the lowest scores belonged to homeopathy (12%). Study results showed that 49% of medical students had positive attitudes and demonstrated a willingness to receive training on the subject. Thus, there appears a necessity to integrate complementary and alternative medicine into the medical curriculum, by taking expectations and feedbacks of medical students into consideration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2156587215605751DOI Listing
October 2016

Evaluation of Alum-Naltrexone Adjuvant Activity, on Efficacy of Anti-Leishmania Immunization with Autoclaved Leishmania major (MRHO/IR/75/ER) Antigens in BALB/C Mice.

Iran J Parasitol 2014 Sep;9(3):311-8

Dept. of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Naltrexone, an opioid receptor antagonist shifts the immune response toward a Th1 profile. In the current study, we evaluated the efficacy of the mixture of NTX and alum, as a new adjuvant, to enhance immune response and induce protection against Leishmania major in a mouse model.

Methods: BALB/c mice were immunized three times either autoclaved L. major promastigotes' antigens alone or in combination with the adjuvant alum, naltrexone or the alum-naltrexone mixture. Both humoral and cellular immune responses were assessed two weeks after the last immunization and compared with control mice.

Results: The administration of alum- NTX in combination with the parasite antigen, significantly increased production of IFN-γ IFN-γ /IL-5 ratio, lymphocyte proliferation and improved DTH response against L. major. There was no significant difference in survival following challenge among groups.

Conclusion: Immunization with the alum- naltrexone mixture as an adjuvant, in combination with the autoclaved L. major promastigotes antigens, can enhance cellular immunity and shift the immune responses to a Th1 pattern.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4316561PMC
September 2014

Evaluation of the adjuvant activity of propranolol, a Beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist, on efficacy of a malaria vaccine model in BALB/c mice.

Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol 2014 Oct;13(5):307-16

Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

We have previously shown the adjuvant activity of propranolol (PRP) (a beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist) using a vaccine model for Salmonella typhimurium. In this study PRP was used as an adjuvant in combination with Plasmodium berghei (P. berghei) whole blood stage (PWBS) antigens. BALB/c mice were immunized three times with a 2-week interval, either PWBS vaccine alone or in combination with the adjuvant alum or propranolol. The control group received phosphate buffered saline. Evaluation of the cellular and humoral immunity was performed by measurement of interferon (IFN)-γ, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, lymphocyte proliferation, total IgG and IgG2a in the control and immunized groups. Furthermore, Clinical evaluations were carried out by analyze survival rate and parasitemia of the mice. Our results showed that the mice immunized with propranolol induced higher levels of antibody, IFN-γ and TNF-α as well as stronger lymphocyte proliferative responses compared with other groups. This resulted in improved protective immunity against Plasmodium berghei. Administration of the PRP as an adjuvant in combination with the PWBS Antigen vaccine can shift the immune responses to a T helper1 pattern and enhance the protective immunity.
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October 2014

A novel adjuvant, the mixture of alum and naltrexone, augments vaccine-induced immunity against Plasmodium berghei.

Immunol Invest 2014 14;43(7):653-66. Epub 2014 Jul 14.

Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Urmia University of Medical Sciences , Urmia , Iran .

We previously showed that the mixture of naltrexone (NLT), a general opioid antagonist, and alum, acts as an effective adjuvant in enhancing vaccine-induced T helper 1 (TH1) humoral immune responses against Toxoplasma gondii. Here, we tested the efficacy of the mixture of NLT and alum in the induction of immunity in response to blood stages of Plasmodium berghei (BSPb) as a model vaccine. BALB/c mice were divided into five vaccination groups. Mice in the experimental groups received the BSPb vaccine alone or in combination with the adjuvant alum, NLT or the alum-NLT mixture. Mice in the control group received PBS. All mice were immunized on days 0, 7 and 14. Two weeks after the last immunization, immune responses to Plasmodium berghei were assessed. Our results indicated that including the alum-NLT mixture as an adjuvant during vaccination increased the ability of the BSPb vaccine to enhance lymphocyte proliferation, shifted the immune response towards a TH1 profile and increased Plasmodium berghei-specific IgG2a. This resulted in improved protective immunity against Plasmodium berghei. In conclusion, administering alum-NLT mixture in combination with the BSPb vaccine enhanced the vaccine-induced immunity, and shifted the immune response toward TH1 pattern.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/08820139.2014.914531DOI Listing
May 2015

A novel adjuvant, mixture of Alum and naltrexone, elicits humoral immune responses for excreted/secreted antigens of Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites vaccine in Balb/c murine model.

Turkiye Parazitol Derg 2013 ;37(2):92-6

Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran.

Objective: The excreted-secreted antigens (ESA) from the tachyzoites seem to play a key role in immunity against Toxoplasma gondii. The aim of this study is to investigate whether Alum-NLT mixture, as a new adjuvant, can induce humoral immunity in response to excreted secreted antigens (ESA) of Toxoplasma gondii as a model vaccine or not.

Methods: Six- to eight-week-old female Balb/c mice were divided into five groups. Mice in the experimental groups received either ESA vaccine alone or in combination with the adjuvant Alum, NLT or Alum-NLT mixture; Mice in the negative control group received phosphate buffered saline (PBS). All mice were immunised, three times subcutaneously (s.c.) with a total volume of 150μl each with a 10-day interval. Ten days after the final immunisation, immune response to Toxoplasma gondii was assessed.

Results: Our results revealed that Alum-NLT mixture as an adjuvant during vaccination boosts the efficacy of the ESA vaccine by means of increasing Toxoplasma gondii-specific IgG, IgG2a production and the ratio of IgG2a/IgG1 (P-value < 0.05). The use of this adjuvant mixture improved the protective immunity against Toxoplasma gondii.

Conclusion: Administration of the Alum-NLT mixture as an adjuvant in ESA vaccine enhances humoral immunity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5152/tpd.2013.22DOI Listing
March 2014

K+ channel modulation causes genioglossus inhibition in REM sleep and is a strategy for reactivation.

Respir Physiol Neurobiol 2013 Sep 18;188(3):277-88. Epub 2013 Jul 18.

Departments of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada M5S 1A8.

Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is accompanied by periods of upper airway motor suppression that cause hypoventilation and obstructive apneas in susceptible individuals. A common idea has been that upper airway motor suppression in REM sleep is caused by the neurotransmitters glycine and γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) acting at pharyngeal motor pools to inhibit motoneuron activity. Data refute this as a workable explanation because blockade of this putative glycine/GABAergic mechanism releases pharyngeal motor activity in all states, and least of all in REM sleep. Here we summarize a novel motor-inhibitory mechanism that suppresses hypoglossal motor activity largely in REM sleep, this being a muscarinic receptor mechanism linked to G-protein-coupled inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channels. We then outline how this discovery informs efforts to pursue therapeutic targets to reactivate hypoglossal motor activity throughout sleep via potassium channel modulation. One such target is the inwardly rectifying potassium channel Kir2.4 whose expression in the brain is almost exclusive to cranial motor nuclei.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.resp.2013.07.011DOI Listing
September 2013

Long acting propranolol and HSP-70 rich tumor lysate reduce tumor growth and enhance immune response against fibrosarcoma in Balb/c mice.

Iran J Immunol 2013 Jun;10(2):70-82

Department of Immunology, School of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Noradrenaline (NA), the principal neurotransmitter released from sympathetic nerve terminals, influences T-cell maturation, not only directly in developing T cells, but also indirectly, by acting on the thymic nonlymphoid cells. In vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated the anti-proliferative, anti-migratory, anti-angiogenic and cytotoxic properties of propranolol, β-AR blocker, against various cancers.

Objectives: To evaluate the effect of propranolol on efficacy of HSP-70 rich lysate vaccine in immunotherapy of fibrosarcoma.

Methods: Mouse fibrosarcoma WEHI-164 cells were used to immunize tumor-bearing mice with or without propranolol and HSP-70. Splenocytes proliferation, cytotoxicity activity of the splenocytes, naturally occurring CD4+ CD25high T-reg cells and IFN-γ and IL-4 secretion as well as tumor size, were assessed to describe the anti-tumor immune response.

Results: A significant increase in the level of IFN-γ in the mice vaccinated with WEHI-164 cells enriched with HSP-70 and co-treated with propranolol was observed compared to controls. However, HSP enrichment or propranolol treatment alone did not enhance the immune response as measured by the level of IFN-γ. Likewise, a decrease in tumor growth in the test group (p<0.01) and a significant increase in CTL activity (p<0.05) was observed.

Conclusion: HSP enriched vaccine shows anti-tumor activity, probably due to the modulation of immune responses.
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http://dx.doi.org/IJIv10i2A2DOI Listing
June 2013

The Oncolytic Effect of Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) in Human Skin Cancer Cell Line, A431.

Iran Red Crescent Med J 2013 Jan 5;15(1):62-7. Epub 2013 Jan 5.

Department of Virology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran.

Background: Oncolytic viruses have become of noticeable interest as a novel biological approach for selectively infecting cancer cells and triggering apoptosis in a number of malignant cells. Many researches are devoted to characterize more viruses with oncolytic properties.

Objectives: Evidences on the oncolytic feature of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are conflicting; therefore, this study was designed to elucidate the possible role of RSV on the modulation of cell growth and apoptosis in the skin cancer cells.

Materials And Methods: Plaque assay was used to determine RSV titers. The cytotoxic effect of RSV in A431 (skin carcinoma cell line) was determined using MTT assay. The detection of apoptosis was performed via Annexin-V-FITC staining method and analyzed with flow cytometry.

Results: The results indicated that A431 cell growth was inhibited following infection by RSV in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The most growth inhibitory effect of RSV was occurred at the MOI of 3, and 48 hour after infection. The inhibitory effect of RSV on the cell growth was accompanied by the induction of apoptosis in the skin cancer cells. The percentages of early and late apoptotic cells were increased following exposure to RSV in a concentration- and time-dependent manner.

Conclusions: This study delineated the beneficial role of RSV for growth regulation of skin cancer cells and highlighted the involvement of RSV in the induction of apoptosis in A431 cells. These findings might conduct evidence into the oncolytic properties of RSV in the skin cancer. Further studies are required to indicate intracellular targets for RSV-induced apoptosis in skin cancer cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5812/ircmj.4722DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3589781PMC
January 2013

Like cures like: a neuroimmunological model based on electromagnetic resonance.

Electromagn Biol Med 2013 Dec 23;32(4):508-26. Epub 2013 Jan 23.

Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Urmia University of Medical Sciences , Urmia , Iran.

Objectives: Recent investigations have pointed to the production of characteristic electromagnetic (EM) waves in highly diluted sterile filtrates of different microorganisms and their associated DNA molecules. Analysis of these diluted solutions that are prepared using methods almost identical to the way that homeopathic medicines are prepared has pointed to the existence of nanostructures capable of emitting EM waves. Combining these results with findings that point to the interaction of EM waves with sensory nerves with subsequent activation of homeostatic efferent pathways, we propose a model to describe mechanisms underlying the effects of homeopathic remedies. THE MODEL: Living cells and tissues are capable of generating EM waves in their physiological conditions. When a cell deviates from its physiological state, in addition to normal EM emissions, it starts to produce EM waves with altered characteristics. According to our model, the main cause of the therapeutic effects of homeopathic remedies is the occurrence of resonance between the non-physiological EM waves of the patient and extremely low-frequency EM waves produced by nanostructures present in the homeopathic remedy. Resonance occurs if the frequency and amplitude characteristics of the patient's non-physiological EM waves and those produced by nanostructures of the applied homeopathic remedy are similar. Once resonance occurs, stimulation of the patient's sensory neurons, which are sensitized due to inflammation of any origin, leads to triggering of different regulatory mechanisms, including the activation of descending antinociceptive and/or cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathways, which leads to the restoration of homeostasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/15368378.2012.743911DOI Listing
December 2013

A novel adjuvant, mixture of alum and the beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol, elicits both humoral and cellular immune responses for heat-killed Salmonella typhimurium vaccine.

Vaccine 2012 Mar 16;30(16):2640-6. Epub 2012 Feb 16.

Center for Cellular and Molecular Research, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran.

Objective: To determine the efficacy of the mixture of propranolol (PRP), a beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist, and alum, as a new adjuvant, in the induction of humoral and cellular immunity in response to heat-killed Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhimurium) (HKST) as a model vaccine.

Methods: BALB/c mice were divided into five groups. Mice in the experimental groups received either the HKST vaccine alone or in combination with the adjuvant alum, PRP or the alum-PRP mixture. Mice in the negative control group received phosphate-buffered saline. All mice were immunized two times on days 0 and 14. Two weeks after the last immunization, immune responses to S. typhimurium were assessed.

Results: Administration of the alum-PRP mixture as an adjuvant increased the ability of the HKST vaccine to enhance lymphocyte proliferation, shifted the immune response towards a T-helper (Th) 1 pattern and increased S. typhimurium specific IgG, IgG2a and IgG1. This resulted in improved protective immunity against S. typhimurium.

Conclusion: Administration of the alum-PRP mixture as an adjuvant in combination with the HKST vaccine, can enhance both humoral and cellular immunity and shift the immune responses to a Th1 pattern.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2012.02.017DOI Listing
March 2012

Assessment of scientific thinking in basic science in the Iranian second national Olympiad.

BMC Res Notes 2012 Jan 23;5:61. Epub 2012 Jan 23.

Education Development and Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Background: To evaluate the scientific reasoning in basic science among undergraduate medical students, we established the National Medical Science Olympiad in Iran. In this Olympiad, the drawing of a concept map was used to evaluate a student's knowledge framework; students' ability in hypothesis generation and testing were also evaluated in four different steps. All medical students were invited to participate in this program. Finally, 133 undergraduate medical students with average grades ≥ 16/20 from 45 different medical schools in Iran were selected. The program took the form of four exams: drawing a concept map (Exam I), hypothesis generation (Exam II), choosing variables based on the hypothesis (Exam III), measuring scientific thought (Exam IV). The examinees were asked to complete all examination items in their own time without using textbooks, websites, or personal consultations. Data were presented as mean ± SE of each parameter. The correlation coefficient between students' scores in each exam with the total final score and average grade was calculated using the Spearman test.

Results: Out of a possible score of 200, the mean ± SE of each exam were as follows: 183.88 ± 5.590 for Exam I; 78.68 ± 9.168 for Exam II; 92.04 ± 2.503 for exam III; 106.13 ± 2.345 for Exam IV. The correlation of each exam score with the total final score was calculated, and there was a significant correlation between them (p < 0.001). The scatter plot of the data showed a linear correlation between the score for each exam and the total final score. This meant that students with a higher final score were able to perform better in each exam through having drawn up a meaningful concept map.The average grade was significantly correlated with the total final score (R = 0.770), (p < 0.001). There was also a significant correlation between each exam score and the average grade (p < 0.001). The highest correlation was observed between Exam I (R = 0.7708) and the average grade. This means students with higher average grades had better grades in each exam, especially in drawing the concept map.

Conclusions: We hope that this competition will encourage medical schools to integrate theory and practice, analyze data, and read research articles. Our findings relate to a selected population, and our data may not be applicable to all medical students. Therefore, further studies are required to validate our results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1756-0500-5-61DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3292993PMC
January 2012

The Effects of Isoproterenol and Propranolol on Cytokine Profile Secretion by Cultured Tumor-infiltrating Lymphocytes Derived from Colorectal Cancer Patients.

Cell J 2012 22;13(4):281-9. Epub 2011 Dec 22.

1. Department of Immunology, Isfahan Medical School, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Objective: Anti-tumor immunity and cytokine profiles have important roles in the development of cancer. Norepinephrine (NE) release due to sympathetic activation leads to a Th2 deviation via the beta-2 adrenergic receptor Beta-2 adrenergic receptor (β-2AR) and could increase cancer progression. This study intends to determine the effects of isoproterenol (ISO; beta-agonist) and propranolol (PRO; beta-antagonist) on the production of IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-17. Cytokine levels have been examined in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). The β-2AR expression on lymphocyte subsets was also assessed.

Materials And Methods: In this experimental study, TILs were isolated from fresh CRC tissue and patient PBMCs were obtained just prior to surgery. The cells were cultured in medium for 72 hours. Concomitantly, cells were stimulated with 10 µg/ml phytohemagglutinin (PHA) alone or in the presence of either 1 µmol/L of PRO or 1 µmol/L ISO. The concentration of cytokines in the supernatants was measured by ELISA. Three-color flow cytometry was used to determine the expression of β-2AR on the lymphocyte subsets. Statistical analyses were performed via paired or independent t-test.

Results: Levels of IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-17 were elevated after PHA-stimulation of PBMCs and TILs. However, the elevation of IFN-γ and IL-17 production by TILs in response to PHA was significantly lower than PBMCs. In the presence of ISO, the IFN-γ/IL-4 ratio reduced in all groups, but this reduction was very low in TILs. Interestingly, the effects of PRO on cytokine production were, at least partially, comparable to those of ISO. Depressed levels of β-2AR expression were demonstrated on CD4+IFN-γ+ and CD4+IL-17+ lymphocytes in patients' PBMCs and TILs.

Conclusion: This study has demonstrated the effects of ISO and PRO on cytokine production by TILs and determined β-2AR expression on these cells. ISO failed to induce a shift toward the expected Th2 cytokine profile in CRC patients' TILs, which might be due to the downregulation of β-2AR expression on TILs. Additionally, in this study, PRO induced a shift to a Th2 profile in PBMCs.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3584474PMC
March 2013

Synergistic effects of glutamine and ciprofloxacin in reduction of Pseudomonas aeruginosa-induced septic shock severity.

Int Immunopharmacol 2011 Dec 19;11(12):2214-9. Epub 2011 Oct 19.

Department of Microbiology; Faculty of Sciences, Zanjan Islamic Azad University, Zanjan, Iran.

Background: Systemic inflammatory response induced by over expressing inflammatory mediators is the main pathogenic mechanism of septic shock. Glutamine (Gln) has been demonstrated to inhibit pro-inflammatory cytokine release through enhanced heat shock protein (HSP) expression.

Objective: To assess the effect of co-administration of Gln and antibiotic ciprofloxacin in reduction of septic shock severity caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in mice.

Methods: Six- to eight-week old male BALB/c mice were used. At first, P. aeruginosa susceptibility to ciprofloxacin was determined. Then, 75% lethal dose (LD 75) of P. aeruginosa in a 10-day period was assessed. For determining survival rate, fifty mice were divided into 5 groups which included control (+), control (-), Gln, ciprofloxacin, and "glutamine+ciprofloxacin" group. All mice, except for control (-), were given an LD75 dose of P. aeruginosa and after 30 min each group received its special treatment: control (-) and control (+) groups received only 500λ phosphate buffer saline (PBS). Gln group received 500λ Ala-Gln, Cip group received 500λ ciprofloxacin. The Cip+Gln group received 500λ Gln and ciprofloxacin. Finally serum TNF-α, IL-10 and HSP-70 concentrations were measured and the severity of liver necrosis was examined.

Results: Glutamine in combination with ciprofloxacin significantly increased survival rate and serum HSP-70 and IL-10 concentration and significantly decreased serum TNF-α concentration and the liver necrosis severity in comparison to control (+) group.

Conclusion: Gln has synergistic effects with ciprofloxacin in reduction of P. aeruginosa-induced septic shock.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2011.10.003DOI Listing
December 2011

Naloxone and alum synergistically augment adjuvant activities of each other in a mouse vaccine model of Salmonella typhimurium infection.

Immunobiology 2011 Jun 27;216(6):744-51. Epub 2010 Oct 27.

Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Genetics, Faculty of Medicine, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran.

Alum is the most commonly used adjuvant for human vaccination but is a poor inducer of cell mediated immunity and T helper 1 (Th1) responses. We have previously shown that naloxone (NLX), which is a general opioid antagonist, acts as an effective adjuvant in enhancing vaccine-induced cellular immunity and Th1 immune responses. Here, we tested the efficacy of an alum-NLX mixture, as a new adjuvant, in the induction of humoral and cellular immunity in response to endotoxin-removed lysate (ERL) of Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhimurium) as a model vaccine. BALB/c mice were divided into five vaccination groups. Mice in the experimental groups received either the ERL vaccine alone or in combination with the adjuvant alum, NLX or the alum-NLX mixture. Mice in the negative control group received phosphate-buffered saline. All mice were immunized on days 0 and 7. Two weeks after the last immunization, immune responses to S. typhimurium were assessed. Our results indicate that including the alum-NLX mixture as an adjuvant during vaccination increased the ability of the ERL vaccine to enhance lymphocyte proliferation, shifted the immune response toward a Th1 profile and increased S. typhimurium-specific IgG, IgG2a and the ratio of IgG2a to IgG1. This resulted in improved protective immunity against S. typhimurium. In conclusion, administering an alum-NLX mixture adjuvant in combination with the ERL vaccine enhances both humoral and cellular immunity, and shifts the immune response to a Th1 pattern.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.imbio.2010.10.005DOI Listing
June 2011

A novel adjuvant, a mixture of alum and the general opioid antagonist naloxone, elicits both humoral and cellular immune responses for heat-killed Salmonella typhimurium vaccine.

FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 2011 Feb 5;61(1):54-62. Epub 2010 Nov 5.

Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Genetics, Faculty of Medicine, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran.

In the current study, we tested the efficacy of the mixture of naloxone, an opioid receptor antagonist, and alum, as a new adjuvant, in the induction of humoral and cellular immunity in response to heat-killed Salmonella typhimurium (HKST) as a model vaccine. BALB/c mice were divided into five groups. Mice in the experimental groups received either the HKST vaccine alone or in combination with the adjuvant alum, naloxone or the alum-naloxone mixture. Mice in the negative control group received phosphate-buffered saline. All mice were immunized two times on days 0 and 14. Two weeks after the last immunization, immune responses to S. typhimurium were assessed. Our results indicated that the administration of the alum-naloxone mixture as an adjuvant increased the ability of the HKST vaccine to enhance lymphocyte proliferation, shifted the immune response towards a T-helper 1 (Th1) pattern and increased S. typhimurium-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgG2a, IgG1 and the ratio of IgG2a to IgG1. This resulted in improved protective immunity against S. typhimurium. In conclusion, the administration of the alum-naloxone mixture as an adjuvant, in combination with the HKST vaccine, can enhance both humoral and cellular immunity and shift the immune responses to a Th1 pattern.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1574-695X.2010.00747.xDOI Listing
February 2011

Evaluation of the adjuvant activity of naloxone, an opioid receptor antagonist, in combination with heat-killed Listeria monocytogenes vaccine.

Microbes Infect 2010 May 10;12(5):382-8. Epub 2010 Feb 10.

Food and Beverages Safety Research Center, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran.

We have previously demonstrated the adjuvant activity of naloxone (NLX), a general opioid antagonist, using a DNA vaccine for herpes simplex virus type 1. Here, the adjuvant activity of NLX has been evaluated using a heat-killed Listeria monocytogenes (HKLM) vaccine as a model for general immunization against intracellular bacteria. BALB/c mice were divided into three groups: the Vac group received the HKLM vaccine alone; the NLX-Vac group received the HKLM vaccine in combination with the adjuvant NLX; and the control group received phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Our results indicate that the administration of NLX as an adjuvant enhances the ability of the HKLM vaccine to increase lymphocyte proliferation, delayed type hypersensitivity, and skewing of the immune response toward a T-helper 1 (Th1) pattern. Additionally, combination of NLX with the HKLM vaccine improves protective immunity against L. monocytogenes. In conclusion, administration of NLX as an adjuvant for the HKLM vaccine can enhance cell-mediated immunity and shift the immune response to Th1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micinf.2010.02.001DOI Listing
May 2010
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