Publications by authors named "Shahram Moradi"

16 Publications

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The Burden of Stroke in Kurdistan Province, Iran From 2011 to 2017.

J Prev Med Public Health 2021 Mar 1;54(2):103-109. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Research Institute for Health Development, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to calculate the burden of stroke in Kurdistan Province, Iran between 2011 and 2017.

Methods: Incidence data extracted from the hospital information system of Kurdistan Province and death data extracted from the system of registration and classification of causes of death were used in a cross-sectional study. The World Health Organization method was used to calculate disability-adjusted life years (DALYs).

Results: The burden of stroke increased from 2453.44 DALYs in 2011 to 5269.68 in 2017, the years of life lost increased from 2381.57 in 2011 to 5109.68 in 2017, and the years of healthy life lost due to disability increased from 71.87 in 2011 to 159.99 in 2017. The DALYs of ischaemic stroke exceeded those of haemorrhagic stroke. The burden of disease, new cases, and deaths doubled during the study period. The age-standardised incidence rate of ischaemic stroke and haemorrhagic stroke in 2017 was 21.72 and 20.72 per 100 000 population, respectively.

Conclusions: The burden of stroke is increasing in Kurdistan Province. Since health services in Iran are based on treatment, steps are needed to revise the current treatment services for stroke and to improve the quality of services. Policy-makers and managers of the health system need to plan to reduce the known risk factors for stroke in the community. In addition to preventive interventions, efficient and up-to-date interventions are recommended for the rapid diagnosis and treatment of stroke patients in hospitals. Along with therapeutic interventions, preventive interventions can help reduce the stroke burden.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.20.335DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8046604PMC
March 2021

Synthesis and biological evaluation of new benzimidazole-1,2,3-triazole hybrids as potential α-glucosidase inhibitors.

Bioorg Chem 2020 01 4;95:103482. Epub 2019 Dec 4.

Nano Alvand Company, Avicenna Tech Park, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 1439955991, Iran. Electronic address:

In this study, a series of benzimidazole-1,2,3-triazole hybrids 8a-n as new α-glucosidase inhibitors were designed and synthesized. In vitro α-glucosidase inhibition activity results indicated that all the synthesized compounds (IC values ranging from 25.2 ± 0.9 to 176.5 ± 6.7 μM) exhibited more inhibitory activity in comparison to standard drug acarbose (IC = 750.0 ± 12.5 μM). Enzyme kinetic study on the most potent compound 8c revealed that this compound was a competitive inhibitor into α-glucosidase. Moreover, the docking study was performed in order to evaluation of interaction modes of the synthesized compounds in the active site of α-glucosidase and to explain structure-activity relationships of the most potent compounds and their corresponding analogs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bioorg.2019.103482DOI Listing
January 2020

Generating and Detecting High-Frequency Liquid-Based Sound Resonances with Nanoplasmonics.

Nano Lett 2019 10 6;19(10):7050-7053. Epub 2019 Sep 6.

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering , University of Victoria , Victoria , British Columbia Canada , V8P5C2.

We use metal nanostructures (nanoplasmonics) excited with dual frequency lasers to generate and detect high-frequency (>10 GHz) sound wave resonances in water. The difference frequency between the two lasers causes beating in the intensity, which results in a drop in the transmission through the nanostructure when an acoustic resonance is excited. By observing the resonance frequency shifts with changing nanostructure size, the transition from slow to fast sound in water is inferred, which has been measured by inelastic scattering methods in the past. The observed behavior shows remarkable similarities to finite element simulations using a simple Debye model for sound velocity (without fitting parameters).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.9b02507DOI Listing
October 2019

Perceptual Doping: An Audiovisual Facilitation Effect on Auditory Speech Processing, From Phonetic Feature Extraction to Sentence Identification in Noise.

Ear Hear 2019 Mar/Apr;40(2):312-327

Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Department of Behavioral Sciences and Learning, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.

Objective: We have previously shown that the gain provided by prior audiovisual (AV) speech exposure for subsequent auditory (A) sentence identification in noise is relatively larger than that provided by prior A speech exposure. We have called this effect "perceptual doping." Specifically, prior AV speech processing dopes (recalibrates) the phonological and lexical maps in the mental lexicon, which facilitates subsequent phonological and lexical access in the A modality, separately from other learning and priming effects. In this article, we use data from the n200 study and aim to replicate and extend the perceptual doping effect using two different A and two different AV speech tasks and a larger sample than in our previous studies.

Design: The participants were 200 hearing aid users with bilateral, symmetrical, mild-to-severe sensorineural hearing loss. There were four speech tasks in the n200 study that were presented in both A and AV modalities (gated consonants, gated vowels, vowel duration discrimination, and sentence identification in noise tasks). The modality order of speech presentation was counterbalanced across participants: half of the participants completed the A modality first and the AV modality second (A1-AV2), and the other half completed the AV modality and then the A modality (AV1-A2). Based on the perceptual doping hypothesis, which assumes that the gain of prior AV exposure will be relatively larger relative to that of prior A exposure for subsequent processing of speech stimuli, we predicted that the mean A scores in the AV1-A2 modality order would be better than the mean A scores in the A1-AV2 modality order. We therefore expected a significant difference in terms of the identification of A speech stimuli between the two modality orders (A1 versus A2). As prior A exposure provides a smaller gain than AV exposure, we also predicted that the difference in AV speech scores between the two modality orders (AV1 versus AV2) may not be statistically significantly different.

Results: In the gated consonant and vowel tasks and the vowel duration discrimination task, there were significant differences in A performance of speech stimuli between the two modality orders. The participants' mean A performance was better in the AV1-A2 than in the A1-AV2 modality order (i.e., after AV processing). In terms of mean AV performance, no significant difference was observed between the two orders. In the sentence identification in noise task, a significant difference in the A identification of speech stimuli between the two orders was observed (A1 versus A2). In addition, a significant difference in the AV identification of speech stimuli between the two orders was also observed (AV1 versus AV2). This finding was most likely because of a procedural learning effect due to the greater complexity of the sentence materials or a combination of procedural learning and perceptual learning due to the presentation of sentential materials in noisy conditions.

Conclusions: The findings of the present study support the perceptual doping hypothesis, as prior AV relative to A speech exposure resulted in a larger gain for the subsequent processing of speech stimuli. For complex speech stimuli that were presented in degraded listening conditions, a procedural learning effect (or a combination of procedural learning and perceptual learning effects) also facilitated the identification of speech stimuli, irrespective of whether the prior modality was A or AV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/AUD.0000000000000616DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6400397PMC
August 2019

Visual Cues Contribute Differentially to Audiovisual Perception of Consonants and Vowels in Improving Recognition and Reducing Cognitive Demands in Listeners With Hearing Impairment Using Hearing Aids.

J Speech Lang Hear Res 2017 09;60(9):2687-2703

Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Department of Behavioral Sciences and Learning, Linköping University, Sweden.

Purpose: We sought to examine the contribution of visual cues in audiovisual identification of consonants and vowels-in terms of isolation points (the shortest time required for correct identification of a speech stimulus), accuracy, and cognitive demands-in listeners with hearing impairment using hearing aids.

Method: The study comprised 199 participants with hearing impairment (mean age = 61.1 years) with bilateral, symmetrical, mild-to-severe sensorineural hearing loss. Gated Swedish consonants and vowels were presented aurally and audiovisually to participants. Linear amplification was adjusted for each participant to assure audibility. The reading span test was used to measure participants' working memory capacity.

Results: Audiovisual presentation resulted in shortened isolation points and improved accuracy for consonants and vowels relative to auditory-only presentation. This benefit was more evident for consonants than vowels. In addition, correlations and subsequent analyses revealed that listeners with higher scores on the reading span test identified both consonants and vowels earlier in auditory-only presentation, but only vowels (not consonants) in audiovisual presentation.

Conclusion: Consonants and vowels differed in terms of the benefits afforded from their associative visual cues, as indicated by the degree of audiovisual benefit and reduction in cognitive demands linked to the identification of consonants and vowels presented audiovisually.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1044/2016_JSLHR-H-16-0160DOI Listing
September 2017

The Efficacy of Short-term Gated Audiovisual Speech Training for Improving Auditory Sentence Identification in Noise in Elderly Hearing Aid Users.

Front Psychol 2017 13;8:368. Epub 2017 Mar 13.

Department of Behavioral Sciences and Learning, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.

This study aimed to examine the efficacy and maintenance of short-term (one-session) gated audiovisual speech training for improving auditory sentence identification in noise in experienced elderly hearing-aid users. Twenty-five hearing aid users (16 men and 9 women), with an average age of 70.8 years, were randomly divided into an experimental (audiovisual training, = 14) and a control (auditory training, = 11) group. Participants underwent gated speech identification tasks comprising Swedish consonants and words presented at 65 dB sound pressure level with a 0 dB signal-to-noise ratio (steady-state broadband noise), in audiovisual or auditory-only training conditions. The Hearing-in-Noise Test was employed to measure participants' auditory sentence identification in noise before the training (pre-test), promptly after training (post-test), and 1 month after training (one-month follow-up). The results showed that audiovisual training improved auditory sentence identification in noise promptly after the training (post-test vs. pre-test scores); furthermore, this improvement was maintained 1 month after the training (one-month follow-up vs. pre-test scores). Such improvement was not observed in the control group, neither promptly after the training nor at the one-month follow-up. However, no significant between-groups difference nor an interaction between groups and session was observed.

Conclusion: Audiovisual training may be considered in aural rehabilitation of hearing aid users to improve listening capabilities in noisy conditions. However, the lack of a significant between-groups effect (audiovisual vs. auditory) or an interaction between group and session calls for further research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00368DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5346541PMC
March 2017

Comparison of Gated Audiovisual Speech Identification in Elderly Hearing Aid Users and Elderly Normal-Hearing Individuals: Effects of Adding Visual Cues to Auditory Speech Stimuli.

Trends Hear 2016 06 17;20. Epub 2016 Jun 17.

Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Department of Behavioral Sciences and Learning, Linköping University, Sweden.

The present study compared elderly hearing aid (EHA) users (n = 20) with elderly normal-hearing (ENH) listeners (n = 20) in terms of isolation points (IPs, the shortest time required for correct identification of a speech stimulus) and accuracy of audiovisual gated speech stimuli (consonants, words, and final words in highly and less predictable sentences) presented in silence. In addition, we compared the IPs of audiovisual speech stimuli from the present study with auditory ones extracted from a previous study, to determine the impact of the addition of visual cues. Both participant groups achieved ceiling levels in terms of accuracy in the audiovisual identification of gated speech stimuli; however, the EHA group needed longer IPs for the audiovisual identification of consonants and words. The benefit of adding visual cues to auditory speech stimuli was more evident in the EHA group, as audiovisual presentation significantly shortened the IPs for consonants, words, and final words in less predictable sentences; in the ENH group, audiovisual presentation only shortened the IPs for consonants and words. In conclusion, although the audiovisual benefit was greater for EHA group, this group had inferior performance compared with the ENH group in terms of IPs when supportive semantic context was lacking. Consequently, EHA users needed the initial part of the audiovisual speech signal to be longer than did their counterparts with normal hearing to reach the same level of accuracy in the absence of a semantic context.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2331216516653355DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5562342PMC
June 2016

Audiovisual training is better than auditory-only training for auditory-only speech-in-noise identification.

J Acoust Soc Am 2014 Aug;136(2):EL142-7

Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Speech and Language Pathology, Linköping University, SE-581 85 Linköping, Sweden

The effects of audiovisual versus auditory training for speech-in-noise identification were examined in 60 young participants. The training conditions were audiovisual training, auditory-only training, and no training (n = 20 each). In the training groups, gated consonants and words were presented at 0 dB signal-to-noise ratio; stimuli were either audiovisual or auditory-only. The no-training group watched a movie clip without performing a speech identification task. Speech-in-noise identification was measured before and after the training (or control activity). Results showed that only audiovisual training improved speech-in-noise identification, demonstrating superiority over auditory-only training.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4890200DOI Listing
August 2014

Gated auditory speech perception in elderly hearing aid users and elderly normal-hearing individuals: effects of hearing impairment and cognitive capacity.

Trends Hear 2014 Jul 31;18. Epub 2014 Jul 31.

Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Department of Behavioral Sciences and Learning, Linköping University, Sweden.

This study compared elderly hearing aid (EHA) users and elderly normal-hearing (ENH) individuals on identification of auditory speech stimuli (consonants, words, and final word in sentences) that were different when considering their linguistic properties. We measured the accuracy with which the target speech stimuli were identified, as well as the isolation points (IPs: the shortest duration, from onset, required to correctly identify the speech target). The relationships between working memory capacity, the IPs, and speech accuracy were also measured. Twenty-four EHA users (with mild to moderate hearing impairment) and 24 ENH individuals participated in the present study. Despite the use of their regular hearing aids, the EHA users had delayed IPs and were less accurate in identifying consonants and words compared with the ENH individuals. The EHA users also had delayed IPs for final word identification in sentences with lower predictability; however, no significant between-group difference in accuracy was observed. Finally, there were no significant between-group differences in terms of IPs or accuracy for final word identification in highly predictable sentences. Our results also showed that, among EHA users, greater working memory capacity was associated with earlier IPs and improved accuracy in consonant and word identification. Together, our findings demonstrate that the gated speech perception ability of EHA users was not at the level of ENH individuals, in terms of IPs and accuracy. In addition, gated speech perception was more cognitively demanding for EHA users than for ENH individuals in the absence of semantic context.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2331216514545406DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4227697PMC
July 2014

Comparison of informational vs. energetic masking effects on speechreading performance.

Front Psychol 2014 24;5:639. Epub 2014 Jun 24.

Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Department of Behavioral Sciences and Learning, Linköping University Linköping, Sweden.

The effects of two types of auditory distracters (steady-state noise vs. four-talker babble) on visual-only speechreading accuracy were tested against a baseline (silence) in 23 participants with above-average speechreading ability. Their task was to speechread high frequency Swedish words. They were asked to rate their own performance and effort, and report how distracting each type of auditory distracter was. Only four-talker babble impeded speechreading accuracy. This suggests competition for phonological processing, since the four-talker babble demands phonological processing, which is also required for the speechreading task. Better accuracy was associated with lower self-rated effort in silence; no other correlations were found.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00639DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4068195PMC
July 2014

Gated auditory speech perception: effects of listening conditions and cognitive capacity.

Front Psychol 2014 2;5:531. Epub 2014 Jun 2.

Linnaeus Centre HEAD, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Department of Behavioral Sciences and Learning, Linköping University Linköping, Sweden.

This study aimed to measure the initial portion of signal required for the correct identification of auditory speech stimuli (or isolation points, IPs) in silence and noise, and to investigate the relationships between auditory and cognitive functions in silence and noise. Twenty-one university students were presented with auditory stimuli in a gating paradigm for the identification of consonants, words, and final words in highly predictable and low predictable sentences. The Hearing in Noise Test (HINT), the reading span test, and the Paced Auditory Serial Attention Test were also administered to measure speech-in-noise ability, working memory and attentional capacities of the participants, respectively. The results showed that noise delayed the identification of consonants, words, and final words in highly predictable and low predictable sentences. HINT performance correlated with working memory and attentional capacities. In the noise condition, there were correlations between HINT performance, cognitive task performance, and the IPs of consonants and words. In the silent condition, there were no correlations between auditory and cognitive tasks. In conclusion, a combination of hearing-in-noise ability, working memory capacity, and attention capacity is needed for the early identification of consonants and words in noise.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00531DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4040882PMC
June 2014

Gated audiovisual speech identification in silence vs. noise: effects on time and accuracy.

Front Psychol 2013 19;4:359. Epub 2013 Jun 19.

Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Department of Behavioral Sciences and Learning, Linköping University Linköping, Sweden.

This study investigated the degree to which audiovisual presentation (compared to auditory-only presentation) affected isolation point (IPs, the amount of time required for the correct identification of speech stimuli using a gating paradigm) in silence and noise conditions. The study expanded on the findings of Moradi et al. (under revision), using the same stimuli, but presented in an audiovisual instead of an auditory-only manner. The results showed that noise impeded the identification of consonants and words (i.e., delayed IPs and lowered accuracy), but not the identification of final words in sentences. In comparison with the previous study by Moradi et al., it can be concluded that the provision of visual cues expedited IPs and increased the accuracy of speech stimuli identification in both silence and noise. The implication of the results is discussed in terms of models for speech understanding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00359DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3685792PMC
June 2013

Piperazine-1,4-diium bis-(pyridine-2,6-dicarboxyl-ato-κO,N,O)cobaltate(II) tetra-hydrate.

Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online 2011 Jul 25;67(Pt 7):m985-6. Epub 2011 Jun 25.

The asymmetric unit of the title complex, (C(4)H(12)N(2))[Co(C(7)H(3)NO(4))(2)]·4H(2)O, consists of one piperazinediium dication, one [Co(py-2,6-dc)(2)](2-) dianion (where py-2,6-dc is pyridine-2,6-dicarboxyl-ate) and four water mol-ecules. The piperazinediium cation adopts a chair conformation and the Co(II) ion is six-coordinated in an N(2)O(4) environment, having a distorted octa-hedral geometry. In the crystal, inter-molecular O-H⋯O, N-H⋯O and weak C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the components, forming a three-dimensional network.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1107/S1600536811023518DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3151836PMC
July 2011

The comparison between trichloroacetic Acid 50% and co(2) laser in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis scar.

Indian J Dermatol 2011 Mar;56(2):171-3

Professor of Dermatology, Skin and Stem Cell Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran; Skin Diseases and Leishmaniasis Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Background: The scars of the cutaneous leishmaniasis and psychological problems of this disease need different interventions for its correction.

Aim: Our objective in this study was to compare the efficacy of 50% trichloroacetic acid (TCA) solution and CO(2) laser for treatment of the atrophic scars due to leishmaniasis.

Materials And Methods: This was a randomized clinical trial performed in 92 patients. Patients were randomized into two groups: the first group was treated with 50% TCA solution, once monthly and for a maximum of 5 months, and the second group was treated with CO(2) laser which was performed for only one time. Patients were followed-up at 3 and 6 months after starting the treatment. The improvement of scar was graded by a 6-point scale using digital camera and the collected data were analyzed using SPSS software.

Results: In this study, 74 females and 18 males were enrolled. The improvement of scar was 48.13% in the TCA group and 44.87% in the CO(2) laser group. This difference was not statically significant (P = 0.55). There was also no significant difference regarding side effects between these two groups.

Conclusion: The results of our study showed that efficacy of focal with 50% TCA solution is compared with CO(2) laser in treatment of leishmaniasis scar. Because of the low cost and simple application of TCA solution in comparison with CO(2) laser, we suggest use of this treatment for correction of leishmaniasis scar or the atrophic scars.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0019-5154.80411DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3108516PMC
March 2011

Clindamycin lotion alone versus combination lotion of clindamycin phosphate plus tretinoin versus combination lotion of clindamycin phosphate plus salicylic acid in the topical treatment of mild to moderate acne vulgaris: a randomized control trial.

Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 2009 May-Jun;75(3):279-82

Skin Diseases and Leishmaniasis Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Center for Research and Training in Skin Diseases and Leprosy, Medical Sciences/University of Tehran, Iran.

Background: Acne vulgaris is a common skin disease that affects 85% to 100% of people at some time during their lives. It is characterized by noninflammatory follicular papules or comedones and by inflammatory papules, pustules, and nodules in its more severe forms.

Aims: To compare the efficacy of combination treatment of clindamycin+salicylic acid, versus clindamycin+tretinoin versus clindamycin alone in the treatment of the mild-to-moderate acne vulgaris.

Methods: This was a single-blinded, randomized clinical trial.Forty-two female patients (age range: 15-25 years) with mild-to-moderate acne vulgaris were selected randomly and subsequently randomized to 3 groups. Group A patients were treated with 1% clindamycin lotion (C lotion) twice daily. Group B patients were treated with 1% clindamycin+0.025% tretinoin lotion once nightly (CT lotion). Group C patients were treated with 1% clindamycin+2% salicylic acid lotion twice daily (CS lotion) for 12 weeks. For comparison of efficacy of these treatments, and regarding the skewed distribution of the data, Kruskal-Wallis Test and Mann-Whitney U test were used. SPSS software was used for statistical analysis.

Results: There was a significant difference between 3 types of treatment in the respect of the total lesion count (TLC) improvement (P = 0.039). The efficacy of treatment on Acne Severity Index (ASI) was maximum for CS lotion (81.80% reduction in ASI). CT lotion reduced ASI by as much as 73.73% during 12 weeks of treatment. The efficacy of C lotion was calculated to be 37.87% in the reduction of ASI.

Conclusions: Our data suggested that the efficacy of CS lotion was significantly more than C lotion with respect to the TLC and ASI, although there was no significant difference between CS and CT lotion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0378-6323.51247DOI Listing
February 2010

Effect of topical honey application along with intralesional injection of glucantime in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis.

BMC Complement Altern Med 2007 Apr 27;7:13. Epub 2007 Apr 27.

Skin Disease and Leishmaniasis Research Center (Sedigheh Tahereh), Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Background: Leishmaniasis is an endemic disease in Iran. Although many treatments have been suggested for this disease, there hasn't been an effective and safe treatment yet. Regarding the healing effect of honey in the chronic ulcers and its reported therapeutic effect in cutaneous leishmaniasis, we performed a study to better evaluate the efficacy of honey in cutaneous leishmaniasis and its final scar.

Methods: In a prospective clinical trial, 100 patients with confirmed cutaneous leishmaniasis were selected and randomized into 2 groups. Group A were treated with topical honey twice daily along with intralesional injection of glucantime once weekly until complete healing of the ulcer or for maximum of 6 weeks. Group B were treated with intralesional injection of glucantime alone until complete healing of the ulcer or for a maximum of 6 weeks, too. The patients were followed for 4 months. The collected data were analyzed statistically using statistical tests including Chi-square, Mann Whitney and Kaplan-Mayer tests.

Results: In this study, 45 patients that had cutaneous leishmaniasis were treated with intralesional glucantime alone and 45 patients were treated with topical honey and glucantime. Ten patients left out the study. In the glucantime alone treated group, 32 patients (71.1%) had complete cure whereas in the group treated with both glucantime & topical honey, 23 patients (51.1%) achieved complete cure. This difference was significant statistically (p = 0.04).

Conclusion: Further studies to better clarify the efficacy of honey in cutaneous leishmaniasis is needed. We suggest that in another study, the efficacy of honey with standardized level of antibacterial activity is evaluated against cutaneous leishmaniasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1472-6882-7-13DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1891315PMC
April 2007