Publications by authors named "Shahram Amina"

11 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Outcome of lesional epilepsy surgery: Report of the first comprehensive epilepsy program in Iran.

Neurol Clin Pract 2019 Aug;9(4):286-295

Kashani Comprehensive Epilepsy Center (JMH, MZ), Kashani Hospital, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences; Departments of Neurology (JMH, SB, BZ, NM, MZ), Isfahan Neurosciences Research Center and Neurosurgery (HM), Department of Radiology (RB), Students' Research Center (SB, NM), and Department of Psychiatry (MB), Psychosomatic Research Center, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences; Shefa Neuroscience Research Center (ER), Tehran, Iran; Students' Research Center (AMH), School of Medicine, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Iran; Department of Neurology (PM), University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN; Department of Clinical Neurosciences (YA), University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada; and Epilepsy Center (SA, SL), Neurological Institute, University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, Cleveland, OH.

Background: We investigated the utility of epilepsy surgery and postoperative outcome in patients with lesional epilepsy in Iran, a relatively resource-poor setting.

Methods: This prospective longitudinal study was conducted during 2007-2017 in Kashani Comprehensive Epilepsy Center, Isfahan, Iran. Patients with a diagnosis of intractable focal epilepsy, with MRI lesions, who underwent epilepsy surgery and were followed up ≥ 24 months, were included and evaluated for postoperative outcome.

Results: A total of 214 patients, with a mean age of 26.90 ± 9.82 years (59.8% men) were studied. Complex partial seizure was the most common type of seizure (85.9%), and 54.2% of the cases had auras. Temporal lobe lesions (75.2%) and mesial temporal sclerosis (48.1%) were the most frequent etiologies. With a mean follow-up of 62.17 ± 19.33 months, 81.8% of patients became seizure-free postoperatively. Anticonvulsants were reduced in 86% of the cases and discontinued in 40.7%. In keeping with previous studies, we found that seizure freedom rates were lower among patients with longer follow-up periods.

Conclusions: We found high rates of seizure freedom after surgery in lesional epilepsy patients despite limited facilities and infrastructure; antiepileptic medications were successfully tapered in almost half of the patients. Considering the favorable outcome of epilepsy surgery in our series, we believe that it is a major treatment option, even in less resource-intensive settings, and should be encouraged. Strategies to allow larger scale utility of epilepsy surgery in such settings in the developing world and dissemination of such knowledge may be considered an urgent clinical need, given the established mortality and morbidity in refractory epilepsy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/CPJ.0000000000000627DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6745744PMC
August 2019

Critique of the 2017 epileptic seizure and epilepsy classifications.

Epilepsia 2019 06 28;60(6):1032-1039. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Department of Neurology, University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, Cleveland, Ohio.

This article critiques the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) 2015-2017 classifications of epilepsy, epileptic seizures, and status epilepticus. It points out the following shortcomings of the ILAE classifications: (1) they mix semiological terms with epileptogenic zone terminology; (2) simple and widely accepted terminology has been replaced by complex terminology containing less information; (3) seizure evolution cannot be described in any detail; (4) in the four-level epilepsy classification, level two (epilepsy category) overlaps almost 100% with diagnostic level one (seizure type); and (5) the design of different classifications with distinct frameworks for newborns, adults, and patients in status epilepticus is confusing. The authors stress the importance of validating the new ILAE classifications and feel that the decision of Epilepsia to accept only manuscripts that use the ILAE classifications is premature and regrettable.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/epi.14699DOI Listing
June 2019

Classification of paroxysmal events and the four-dimensional epilepsy classification system.

Epileptic Disord 2019 02;21(1):1-29

Case Medical Center - Pediatrics, Cleveland, Ohio, USA.

This educational review describes the classification of paroxysmal events and a four-dimensional epilepsy classification system. Paroxysmal events are classified as epileptic and non-epileptic paroxysmal events. Non-epileptic events are, in turn, classified as psychogenic and organic paroxysmal events. The following four dimensions are used to classify epileptic paroxysmal events: ictal semiology, the epileptogenic zone, etiology, and comorbidities. Efforts are made to keep these four dimensions as independent as possible. The review also includes 12 educational vignettes and three more detailed case reports classified using the 2017 classification of the ILAE and the four-dimensional epilepsy classification. In addition, a case is described which is classified using the four-dimensional epilepsy classification with different degrees of precision by an emergency department physician, a neurologist, and an epileptologist. [Published with video sequences on www.epilepticdisorders.com].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1684/epd.2019.1033DOI Listing
February 2019

Multiple hippocampal transections for intractable hippocampal epilepsy: Seizure outcome.

Epilepsy Behav 2016 05 8;58:86-90. Epub 2016 Apr 8.

University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Cleveland, OH, United States.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the seizure outcomes after transverse multiple hippocampal transections (MHTs) in 13 patients with intractable TLE.

Methods: Thirteen patients with normal memory scores, including 8 with nonlesional hippocampi on MRI, had temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) necessitating depth electrode implantation. After confirming hippocampal seizure onset, they underwent MHT. Intraoperative monitoring was done with 5-6 hippocampal electrodes spaced at approximately 1-cm intervals and spike counting for 5-8min before each cut. The number of transections ranged between 4 and 7. Neuropsychological assessment was completed preoperatively and postoperatively for all patients and will be reported separately.

Results: Duration of epilepsy ranged between 5 and 55years. There were no complications. Intraoperatively, MHT resulted in marked spike reduction (p=0.003, paired t-test). Ten patients (77%) are seizure-free (average follow-up was 33months, range 20-65months) without medication changes. One of the 3 patients with persistent seizures had an MRI revealing incomplete transections, another had an additional neocortical seizure focus (as suggested by pure aphasic seizures), and the third had only 2 seizures in 4years, one of which occurred during antiseizure medication withdrawal. Verbal and visual memory outcomes will be reported separately. Right and left hippocampal volumes were not different preoperatively (n=12, p=0.64, Wilcoxon signed-rank test), but the transected hippocampal volume decreased postoperatively (p=0.0173).

Conclusions: Multiple hippocampal transections provide an effective intervention and a safe alternative to temporal lobectomy in patients with hippocampal epilepsy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yebeh.2016.03.004DOI Listing
May 2016

Lesion-negative anterior cingulate epilepsy.

Epileptic Disord 2015 Jun;17(2):134-42

Epilepsy Center, UH Case Medical Center, Cleveland, OH, USA.

MRI-negative anterior cingulate epilepsy is a rare entity. Herein, we describe a case of MRI and functional imaging-negative intractable frontal lobe epilepsy in which, initially, secondary bilateral synchrony of surface and intracranial EEG and non-lateralizing semiology rendered identification of the epileptogenic zone difficult. A staged bilateral stereotactic EEG exploration revealed a very focal, putative ictal onset zone in the right anterior cingulate gyrus, as evidenced by interictal and ictal high-frequency oscillations (at 250Hz) and induction of seizures from the same electrode contacts by 50-Hz low-intensity cortical stimulation. This was subsequently confirmed by ILAE class 1 outcome following resection of the ictal onset and irritative zones. Histopathological examination revealed focal cortical dysplasia type 1b (ILAE Commission, 2011) as the cause of epilepsy. The importance of anatomo-electro-clinical correlation is illustrated in this case in which semiological and electrophysiological features pointed to the anatomical localization of a challenging, MRI-negative epilepsy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1684/epd.2015.0749DOI Listing
June 2015

Proposal: different types of alteration and loss of consciousness in epilepsy.

Epilepsia 2014 Aug 30;55(8):1140-4. Epub 2014 Jun 30.

Neurology, Case Medical Center, Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.A.

There are at least five types of alterations of consciousness that occur during epileptic seizures: auras with illusions or hallucinations, dyscognitive seizures, epileptic delirium, dialeptic seizures, and epileptic coma. Each of these types of alterations of consciousness has a specific semiology and a distinct pathophysiologic mechanism. In this proposal we emphasize the need to clearly define each of these alterations/loss of consciousness and to apply this terminology in semiologic descriptions and classifications of epileptic seizures. The proposal is a consensus opinion of experienced epileptologists, and it is hoped that it will lead to systematic studies that will allow a scientific characterization of the different types of alterations/loss of consciousness described in this article.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/epi.12595DOI Listing
August 2014

Age-specific periictal electroclinical features of generalized tonic-clonic seizures and potential risk of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP).

Epilepsy Behav 2013 Nov 5;29(2):289-94. Epub 2013 Sep 5.

Epilepsy Center, Neurological Institute, University Hospitals Case Medical Center, 11100 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA; Neurology Department, Hospital de Santo António, Centro Hospitalar do Porto, Largo Professor Abel Salazar, 4099-001 Porto, Portugal.

Generalized tonic-clonic seizure (GTCS) is the commonest seizure type associated with sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). This study examined the semiological and electroencephalographic differences (EEG) in the GTCSs of adults as compared with those of children. The rationale lies on epidemiological observations that have noted a tenfold higher incidence of SUDEP in adults. We analyzed the video-EEG data of 105 GTCS events in 61 consecutive patients (12 children, 23 seizure events and 49 adults, 82 seizure events) recruited from the Epilepsy Monitoring Unit. Semiological, EEG, and 3-channel EKG features were studied. Periictal seizure phase durations were analyzed including tonic, clonic, total seizure, postictal EEG suppression (PGES), and recovery phases. Heart rate variability (HRV) measures including RMSSD (root mean square successive difference of RR intervals), SDNN (standard deviation of NN intervals), and SDSD (standard deviation of differences) were analyzed (including low frequency/high frequency power ratios) during preictal baseline and ictal and postictal phases. Generalized estimating equations (GEEs) were used to find associations between electroclinical features. Separate subgroup analyses were carried out on adult and pediatric age groups as well as medication groups (no antiepileptic medication cessation versus unchanged or reduced medication) during admission. Major differences were seen in adult and pediatric seizures with total seizure duration, tonic phase, PGES, and recovery phases being significantly shorter in children (p<0.01). Generalized estimating equation analysis, using tonic phase duration as the dependent variable, found age to correlate significantly (p<0.001), and this remained significant during subgroup analysis (adults and children) such that each 0.12-second increase in tonic phase duration correlated with a 1-second increase in PGES duration. Postictal EEG suppression durations were on average 28s shorter in children. With cessation of medication, total seizure duration was significantly increased by a mean value of 8s in children and 11s in adults (p<0.05). Tonic phase duration also significantly increased with medication cessation, and although PGES durations increased, this was not significant. Root mean square successive difference was negatively correlated with PGES duration (longer PGES durations were associated with decreased vagally mediated heart rate variability; p<0.05) but not with tonic phase duration. This study clearly points out identifiable electroclinical differences between adult and pediatric GTCSs that may be relevant in explaining lower SUDEP risk in children. The findings suggest that some prolonged seizure phases and prolonged PGES duration may be electroclinical markers of SUDEP risk and merit further study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yebeh.2013.08.010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3799796PMC
November 2013

Modern technology calls for a modern approach to classification of epileptic seizures and the epilepsies.

Epilepsia 2012 Mar 14;53(3):405-11. Epub 2012 Feb 14.

Epilepsy Center, Case Medical Center, University Hospitals, Cleveland, OH 44022, USA.

In the last 10-15 years the ILAE Commission on Classification and Terminology has been presenting proposals to modernize the current ILAE Classification of Epileptic Seizures and Epilepsies. These proposals were discussed extensively in a series of articles published recently in Epilepsia and Epilepsy Currents. There is almost universal consensus that the availability of new diagnostic techniques as also of a modern understanding of epilepsy calls for a complete revision of the Classification of Epileptic Seizures and Epilepsies. Unfortunately, however, the Commission is still not prepared to take a bold step ahead and completely revisit our approach to classification of epileptic seizures and epilepsies. In this manuscript we critically analyze the current proposals of the Commission and make suggestions for a classification system that reflects modern diagnostic techniques and our current understanding of epilepsy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1528-1167.2011.03376.xDOI Listing
March 2012

Can semiology predict psychogenic nonepileptic seizures? A prospective study.

Ann Neurol 2011 Jun 17;69(6):997-1004. Epub 2011 Mar 17.

Epilepsy Center, Neurological Institute, University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Cleveland, OH, USA.

Objective: Reducing health and economic burdens from diagnostic delay of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) requires prompt referral for video electroencephalography (VEEG) monitoring, the diagnostic gold standard. Practitioners make VEEG referrals when semiology suggests PNES, although few semiological signs are supported by well-designed studies, and most VEEG studies neglect to concurrently measure how accurately seizure witnesses can ascertain semiology. In this study, we estimate the value of eyewitness-reported and video-documented semiology for predicting PNES, and we measure accuracy of eyewitness reports.

Methods: We prospectively interviewed eyewitnesses of seizures in patients referred for VEEG monitoring, to inquire about 48 putative PNES and ES signs. Multiple, EEG-blinded, epileptologists independently evaluated seizure videos and documented the presence/absence of signs. We used generalized estimating equations to identify reliable video-documented PNES and ES signs, and we compared eyewitness reports with video findings to assess how accurately signs are reported. We used logistic regression to determine whether eyewitness reports could predict VEEG-ascertained seizure type.

Results: We analyzed 120 seizures (36 PNES, 84 ES) from 35 consecutive subjects. Of 45 video-documented signs, only 3 PNES signs ("preserved awareness," "eye flutter," and "bystanders can intensify or alleviate") and 3 ES signs ("abrupt onset," "eye-opening/widening," and postictal "confusion/sleep") were significant and reliable indicators of seizure type. Eyewitness reports of these 6 signs were inaccurate and not statistically different from guessing. Consequentially, eyewitness reports of signs did not predict VEEG-ascertained diagnosis. We validated our findings in a second, prospective cohort of 36 consecutive subjects.

Interpretation: We identified 6 semiological signs that reliably distinguish PNES and ES, and found that eyewitness reports of these signs are unreliable. We offer suggestions to improve the accuracy of eyewitness reports.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ana.22345DOI Listing
June 2011

Improvement of myoclonic epilepsy in Down syndrome treated with levetiracetam.

Epileptic Disord 2010 Jun 20;12(2):151-4. Epub 2010 May 20.

Department of Neurology, University Hospitals of Cleveland, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, USA.

Late Onset Myoclonic Epilepsy in Down Syndrome (LOMEDS) is a recognized entity usually preceded by cognitive deterioration. We report two patients with LOMEDS and cognitive decline, aged 52 and 44 years. Continuous video-EEG recording showed generalised spike and slow wave complexes as an ictal correlate of the myoclonic jerks in both patients. Low dose levetiracetam resulted in rapid, sustained seizure freedom in both patients with no reported adverse events. As for other myoclonic epilepsies, levetiracetam appears to be effective for the treatment of LOMEDS, and may be considered as a first line agent for this disorder.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1684/epd.2010.0306DOI Listing
June 2010