Publications by authors named "Shahid Ullah Khan"

24 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Uncovering genomic regions controlling plant architectural traits in hexaploid wheat using different GWAS models.

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 24;11(1):6767. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

State Key Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Subtropical Agro-Bioresources, College of Agriculture, Guangxi University, 100 Daxue Rd., Nanning, Guangxi, China.

Wheat is a major food crop worldwide. The plant architecture is a complex trait mostly influenced by plant height, tiller number, and leaf morphology. Plant height plays a crucial role in lodging and thus affects yield and grain quality. In this study, a wheat population was genotyped by using Illumina iSelect 90K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assay and finally 22,905 high-quality SNPs were used to perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for plant architectural traits employing four multi-locus GWAS (ML-GWAS) and three single-locus GWAS (SL-GWAS) models. As a result, 174 and 97 significant SNPs controlling plant architectural traits were detected by ML-GWAS and SL-GWAS methods, respectively. Among these SNP makers, 43 SNPs were consistently detected, including seven across multiple environments and 36 across multiple methods. Interestingly, five SNPs (Kukri_c34553_89, RAC875_c8121_1490, wsnp_Ex_rep_c66315_64480362, Ku_c5191_340, and tplb0049a09_1302) consistently detected across multiple environments and methods, played a role in modulating both plant height and flag leaf length. Furthermore, candidate SNPs (BS00068592_51, Kukri_c4750_452 and BS00022127_51) constantly repeated in different years and methods associated with flag leaf width and number of tillers. We also detected several SNPs (Jagger_c6772_80, RAC875_c8121_1490, BS00089954_51, Excalibur_01167_1207, and Ku_c5191_340) having common associations with more than one trait across multiple environments. By further appraising these GWAS methods, the pLARmEB and FarmCPU models outperformed in SNP detection compared to the other ML-GWAS and SL-GWAS methods, respectively. Totally, 152 candidate genes were found to be likely involved in plant growth and development. These finding will be helpful for better understanding of the genetic mechanism of architectural traits in wheat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-86127-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7990932PMC
March 2021

Coronavirus and its terrifying inning around the globe: The pharmaceutical cares at the main frontline.

Chemosphere 2021 Feb 16;275:129968. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Department of Agronomy, University of Haripur, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Electronic address:

A novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) is an acute life-threatening disease, emerged in China, which imposed a potentially immense toll in terms of public health emergency due to high infection rate and has a devastating economic impact that attracts the world's attention. After that, on January 30, 2020, it was officially declared as a global pandemic by World Health Organization (WHO). The International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) recognized it as a Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and the disease named Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19). Several studies have been ameliorated the active role of COVID-19 transmission, etiology, pathogenicity, and mortality rate as serious impact on human life. The symptoms of this disease may include fever, fatigue, cough and some peoples are severely prone to gastrointestinal infection. The elderly and seriously affected peoples are likely concerned with serious outcomes. In this review, we mainly aimed to provide a benchmark summary of the silent characteristics and findings of some candidates for antiviral drugs and immunotherapies such as plasma therapy, cytokine therapy, antibodies, intravenous immunoglobulin, and pharmaceutical health concerns that are related to this disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.129968DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7884917PMC
February 2021

Indane-1,3-diones: as potential and selective α-glucosidase inhibitors, their synthesis, in vitro and in silico studies.

Med Chem 2020 Aug 25. Epub 2020 Aug 25.

PCSIR Laboratories Complex, Karachi, Shahra-e-Dr. Salimuzzaman Siddiqui, Karachi-75280. Pakistan.

Background: Diabetes mellitus is one the most chronic metabolic disorder. Since past few years our research group had synthesized and evaluated libraries of heterocyclic compounds against α and β-glucosidase enzymes and found encouraging results. The current study comprises of evaluation of indane-1,3-dione as antidiabetic agents based on our previously reported results obtained from closely related moiety isatin and its derivatives.

Objective: A library of twenty three indane-1,3-dione derivatives (1-23) was synthesized and evaluated for α and βglucosidase inhibitions. Moreover, in silico docking studies were carried out to investigate the putative binding mode of selected compounds with the target enzyme.

Method: The indane-1,3-dione derivatives (1-23) were synthesized by Knoevenagel condensation of different substituted benzaldehydes with indane-1,3-dione under basic condition. The structures of synthetic molecules were deduced by using different spectroscopic techniques including 1H-, 13C-NMR, EI-MS, and CHN analysis. Compounds (1-23) were evaluated for α and β-glucosidase inhibitions by adopting the literature protocols.

Result: Off twenty three, eleven compounds displayed good to moderate activity against α-glucosidase enzyme, nonetheless, all compounds exhibited less than 50% inhibition against β-glucosidase enzyme. Compounds 1, 14, and 23 displayed good activity against α-glucosidase enzyme with IC50 values of 2.80 ± 0.11, 0.76 ± 0.01, and 2.17 ± 0.18 µM, respectively. The results have shown that these compounds have selectively inhibited the α-glucosidase enzyme. The in silico docking studies also supported the above results and showed different types of interactions of synthetic molecules with the active site of enzyme.

Conclusion: The compounds 1, 14, and 23 have shown good inhibition against α-glucosidase and may potentially serve as lead for the development of new therapeutic representatives.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1573406416666200826102051DOI Listing
August 2020

A Revolution toward Gene-Editing Technology and Its Application to Crop Improvement.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Aug 7;21(16). Epub 2020 Aug 7.

Graduate School of Biotechnology & Crop Biotech Institute, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 17104, Korea.

Genome editing is a relevant, versatile, and preferred tool for crop improvement, as well as for functional genomics. In this review, we summarize the advances in gene-editing techniques, such as zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like (TAL) effector nucleases (TALENs), and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) associated with the Cas9 and Cpf1 proteins. These tools support great opportunities for the future development of plant science and rapid remodeling of crops. Furthermore, we discuss the brief history of each tool and provide their comparison and different applications. Among the various genome-editing tools, CRISPR has become the most popular; hence, it is discussed in the greatest detail. CRISPR has helped clarify the genomic structure and its role in plants: For example, the transcriptional control of Cas9 and Cpf1, genetic locus monitoring, the mechanism and control of promoter activity, and the alteration and detection of epigenetic behavior between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) investigated based on genetic traits and related genome-wide studies. The present review describes how CRISPR/Cas9 systems can play a valuable role in the characterization of the genomic rearrangement and plant gene functions, as well as the improvement of the important traits of field crops with the greatest precision. In addition, the speed editing strategy of gene-family members was introduced to accelerate the applications of gene-editing systems to crop improvement. For this, the CRISPR technology has a valuable advantage that particularly holds the scientist's mind, as it allows genome editing in multiple biological systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21165665DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7461041PMC
August 2020

Eu , Sm Deep-Red Phosphors as Novel Materials for White Light-Emitting Diodes and Simultaneous Performance Enhancement of Organic-Inorganic Perovskite Solar Cells.

Small 2020 Jun 27;16(25):e2001551. Epub 2020 May 27.

Department of Chemistry, King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, Dhahran, 31261, Saudi Arabia.

The luminous efficiency of inorganic white light-emitting diodes, to be used by the next generation as light initiators, is continuously progressing and is an emerging interest for researchers. However, low color-rendering index (Ra), high correlated color temperature (CCT), and poor stability limit its wider application. Herein, it is reported that Sm - and Eu -doped calcium scandate (CaSc O (CSO)) are an emerging deep-red-emitting material with promising light absorption, enhanced emission properties, and excellent thermal stability that make it a promising candidate with potential applications in emission display, solid-state white lighting, and the device performance of perovskite solar cells (PSCs). The average crystal structures of Sm -doped CSO are studied by synchrotron X-ray data that correspond to an extremely rigid host structure. Samarium ion is incorporated as a sensitizer that enhances the emission intensity up to 30%, with a high color purity of 88.9% with a 6% increment. The impacts of hosting the sensitizer are studied by quantifying the lifetime curves. The CaSc O :0.15Eu ,0.03Sm phosphor offers significant resistance to thermal quenching. The incorporation of lanthanide ion-doped phosphors CSOE into PSCs is investigated along with their potential applications. The CSOE-coated PSCs devices exhibit a high current density and a high power conversion efficiency (15.96%) when compared to the uncoated control devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202001551DOI Listing
June 2020

Copper-induced oxidative stress, initiation of antioxidants and phytoremediation potential of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) seedlings grown under the mixing of two different soils of China.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2020 Feb 17;27(5):5211-5221. Epub 2019 Dec 17.

MOA Key Laboratory of Crop Ecophysiology and Farming System in the Middle Reaches of the Yangtze River, College of Plant Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, China.

Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.), one of the oldest cultivated crops, continues to be widely grown for oil, fiber and food. Furthermore, the plants show a metal tolerance dependent on species so is ideal for research. Present study was conducted to find out the influence of copper (Cu) toxicity on plant biomass, growth, chlorophyll content, malondialdehyde (MDA) contents, proline production, antioxidative enzymes and metal up taken by L. usitatissimum from the soil grown under mixing of Cu-contaminated soil with natural soil by 0:1 (control), 1:0, 1:1, 1:2 and 1:4. Results revealed that, high concentration of Cu in the soil affected plant growth and development by reducing plant height, plant diameter and plant fresh and dry biomass and chlorophyll contents in the leaves compared with the control. Furthermore, Cu in excess causes generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide radical (O) and hydroxyl radicals (OH), which is manifested by high malondialdehyde (MDA) and proline contents also. The increasing activities of superoxidase dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) in the roots and leaves of L. usitatissimum are involved in the scavenging of ROS. Results also showed that L. usitatissimum also has capability to revoke large amount of Cu from the contaminated soil. As Cu concentration in the soil increases, the final uptake of Cu concentration by L. usitatissimum increases. Furthermore, the soil chemical parameters (pH, electrical conductivity and cation exchange capacity) were increasing to highest levels as the ratio of Cu concentration to the natural soil increases. Thus, Cu-contaminated soil is amended with the addition of natural soil significantly reduced plant growth and biomass, while L. usitatissimum is able to revoke large amount of Cu from the soil and could be grown as flaxseed and a potential candidate for phytoremediation of Cu.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-019-07264-7DOI Listing
February 2020

Antimicrobial potentials of medicinal plant's extract and their derived silver nanoparticles: A focus on honey bee pathogen.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2019 Nov 21;26(7):1815-1834. Epub 2018 Feb 21.

Institute of Chemical Sciences, Gomal University Dera Ismail Khan, KPK, Pakistan.

Infectious (or Communicable) diseases are not only the past but also the present problem in developing as well as developed countries. It is caused by various pathogenic microbes like fungi, bacteria, parasites and virus etc. The medicinal plants and nano-silver have been used against the pathogenic microbes. Herbal medicines are generally used for healthcare because they have low price and wealthy source of antimicrobial properties. Like medicinal plants, silver nanoparticles also have emergent applications in biomedical fields due to their immanent therapeutic performance. Here, we also explore the various plant parts such as bark, stem, leaf, fruit and seed against Gram negative and Gram-positive bacteria, using different solvents for extraction i.e. methanol, ethyl acetate, chloroform, acetone, . hexane, butanol, petroleum ether and benzene. Since ancient to date most of the countries have been used herbal medicines, but in Asia, some medicinal plants are commonly used in rural and backward areas as a treatment for infectious diseases. In this review, we provide simple information about medicinal plants and Silver nanoparticles with their potentialities such as antiviral, bactericidal and fungicidal. Additionally, the present review to highlights the versatile applications of medicinal plants against honey bee pathogen such as fungi (), mites ( spp. and sp.), bacteria (), and microsporidia ( and ). In conclusion, promising nonchemical (plant extracts) are innocuous to adult bees. So, we strongly believed that this effort was made to evaluate the status of medicinal plants researches globally.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2018.02.010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6864162PMC
November 2019

pharmacological investigation of and using animal models.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2019 Nov 9;26(7):1602-1606. Epub 2018 Oct 9.

Department of Biological Sciences Gomal University Dera Ismail Khan KP, Pakistan.

Experimental based evidence suggests that most of the medicinal plants possess wide-ranging pharmacological and biological activities that may possibly use in treatment of inflammation-related diseases. The current study was aimed to explore the acute toxicity, analgesic, sedative and antipyretic activities of and in mices. In experimental models were used in this study. Acute toxicity was evaluated for 24 h' interval at concentration of 500, 1000, 1500 and 2000 mg/kg. The analgesic activity was estimated by acetic acid induced writhing test. White wood apparatus enclosed in stainless steel was used for sedative experiment and antipyretic activity was evaluated in brewer's yeast induced hyperthermic at 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg i.p. Both plants were found safe at all tested doses. and dose-dependently reduced abdominal constrictions in mice. Both plants exhibited significant ( < 0.0001) sedative effects in dose of 50, 150 and 150 mg/kg. Both plants markedly ( < 0.0001) reduced yeast induced hyperthermia. The inhibitions were dose-dependent and remained significant up to five hours of administration. These investigational results have linked a pharmacological indication for the traditional claim of the drugs to be used as an anti-inflammatory, analgesics and antipyretic agents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2018.10.008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6864368PMC
November 2019

Morpho-physiological traits, gaseous exchange attributes, and phytoremediation potential of jute (Corchorus capsularis L.) grown in different concentrations of copper-contaminated soil.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2020 Feb 10;189:109915. Epub 2019 Nov 10.

MOA Key Laboratory of Crop Ecophysiology and Farming System in the Middle Reaches of the Yangtze River, College of Plant Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, China. Electronic address:

Jute (Corchorus capsularis L.) is the most commonly used natural fiber as reinforcement in green composites and, due to its huge biomass, deep rooting system, and metal tolerance in stressed environments, it is an excellent candidate for the phytoremediation of different heavy metals. Therefore, the present study was carried out to examine the growth, antioxidant capacity, gaseous exchange attributes, and phytoremediation potential of C. capsularis grown at different concentrations of Cu (0, 100, 200, 300, and 400 mg kg) in a glass house environment. The results illustrate that C. capsularis can tolerate Cu concentrations of up to 300 mg kg without significant decreases in growth or biomass, but further increases in Cu concentration (i.e., 400 mg kg) lead to significant reductions in plant growth and biomass. The photosynthetic pigments and gaseous exchange attributes in the leaves of C. capsularis decreased as the Cu concentration in the soil increased. Furthermore, high concentrations of Cu in the soil caused lipid peroxidation by increasing the malondialdehyde content in the leaves. This implies that elevated Cu levels cause oxidative damage in C. capsularis. Antioxidants, such as superoxidase dismutase and peroxidase, come into play to scavenge the reactive oxygen species which are generated as a result of oxidative stress. In the present study, the concentrations of Cu in different parts of the plant (the roots, leaves, stem core, and fibers) were also investigated at four different stages of the life cycle of C. capsularis, i.e., 30, 60, 90, and 120 days after sowing (DAS). The results of this investigation reveal that, in the earlier stages of the growth, Cu was highly accumulated in the belowground parts of the plant while little was transported to the aboveground parts. Contrastingly, at a fully mature stage of the growth (120 DAS), it was observed that the majority of Cu was transported to the aboveground parts of the plant and very little accumulated in the belowground parts. The results also show a progressive increase in Cu uptake in response to increasing Cu concentrations in the soil, suggesting that C. capsularis is a potential bio-resource for the phytoremediation of Cu in Cu-contaminated soil.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2019.109915DOI Listing
February 2020

Targeted mutagenesis of BnTT8 homologs controls yellow seed coat development for effective oil production in Brassica napus L.

Plant Biotechnol J 2020 05 11;18(5):1153-1168. Epub 2019 Nov 11.

National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, China.

Yellow seed is a desirable trait with great potential for improving seed quality in Brassica crops. Unfortunately, no natural or induced yellow seed germplasms have been found in Brassica napus, an important oil crop, which likely reflects its genome complexity and the difficulty of the simultaneous random mutagenesis of multiple gene copies with functional redundancy. Here, we demonstrate the first application of CRISPR/Cas9 for creating yellow-seeded mutants in rapeseed. The targeted mutations of the BnTT8 gene were stably transmitted to successive generations, and a range of homozygous mutants with loss-of-function alleles of the target genes were obtained for phenotyping. The yellow-seeded phenotype could be recovered only in targeted mutants of both BnTT8 functional copies, indicating that the redundant roles of BnA09.TT8 and BnC09.TT8b are vital for seed colour. The BnTT8 double mutants produced seeds with elevated seed oil and protein content and altered fatty acid (FA) composition without any serious defects in the yield-related traits, making it a valuable resource for rapeseed breeding programmes. Chemical staining and histological analysis showed that the targeted mutations of BnTT8 completely blocked the proanthocyanidin (PA)-specific deposition in the seed coat. Further, transcriptomic profiling revealed that the targeted mutations of BnTT8 resulted in the broad suppression of phenylpropanoid/flavonoid biosynthesis genes, which indicated a much more complex molecular mechanism underlying seed colour formation in rapeseed than in Arabidopsis and other Brassica species. In addition, gene expression analysis revealed the possible mechanism through which BnTT8 altered the oil content and fatty acid composition in seeds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pbi.13281DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7152602PMC
May 2020

Antagonist effects of strains of Bacillus spp. against Rhizoctonia solani for their protection against several plant diseases: Alternatives to chemical pesticides.

C R Biol 2019 Jun - Aug;342(5-6):124-135. Epub 2019 Aug 9.

Statistical Genomics Lab, College of Plant Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China.

Rhizoctonia solan Kühn (teleomorph: Thanatephorus cucumeris (Frank) Donk (R. solani) is a soil-borne phytopathogenic species complex as well as a necrotic fungus that causes significant crop yield losses worldwide. Agronomic practices (crop rotation), resistant cultivars, and chemical pesticides are widely used to control R. solani. However, these practices are insufficient to control the pest. Moreover, the application of chemical pesticides is harmful to both the environment and human health. Therefore, the use of biocontrol agents (BCAs) and that of plant-growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) are considered to be potentially sustainable, cost-effective, efficient, and eco-friendly ways to control R. solani. Several microorganisms have been used as biocontrol agents (BCAs) to manage R. solani. Among these, biocontrol agents (BCAs) Bacillus spp. are used to promote plant growth. Furthermore, due to its broad range of antibiotic-producing abilities, Bacillus spp. is widely used against R. solani. In this review, current and previous studies about the ability of Bacillus spp. to control diseases caused by R. solani are reported. It also focuses on the plant-growth promotion attributes of Bacillus spp. in response to the deleterious effects of R. solani.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.crvi.2019.05.002DOI Listing
December 2019

High arsenic contamination and presence of other trace metals in drinking water of Kushtia district, Bangladesh.

J Environ Manage 2019 Jul 3;242:199-209. Epub 2019 May 3.

College of Plant Sciences and Technology/National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, China.

Drinking water with excessive concentration levels of arsenic (As) is a great threat to human health. A hydrochemical approach was employed in 50 drinking water samples (collected from Kushtia district, Bangladesh) to examine the occurrence of geogenic As and the presence of trace metals (TMs), as well as the factors controlling As release in aquifers. The results reveal that the drinking water of shallow aquifers is highly contaminated by As (6.05-590.7 μg/L); 82% of samples were found to exceed the WHO recommended limit (10 μg/L) for potable water, but the concentrations of Si, B, Mn, Sr, Se, Ba, Fe, Cd, Pb, F, U, Ni, Li, and Cr were within safe limits. The Ca-HCO-type drinking water was identified as having high contents of As, pH and HCO, a medium-high content EC, and low concentrations of NO, SO, K, and Cl. The significant correlation between As and NO indicates that NO might be attributed to the use of phosphate fertilizers and a factor responsible for enhancing As in aquifers. The study also reports that the occurrence of high As and the presence of TMs in drinking water may be a result of local anthropogenic activities, such as irrigation, intensive land use and the application of agrochemicals. The insignificant correlation between As and SO demonstrated that As is released from SO minerals under reducing conditions. An elevated pH value along with decoupling of As and HCO plays a vital role in mobilizing As to aquifer systems. Moreover, the positive relationship between As and Si indicated that As is transported in the biogeochemical environment. The reductive suspension of Mn(IV)-oxyhydroxides also accelerated the As mobilization process. Over exploitation of tube-well water and the competitive ion exchange process are also responsible for the release of As in aquifers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2019.04.086DOI Listing
July 2019

Nano-biotechnology: a new approach to treat and prevent malaria.

Int J Nanomedicine 2019 21;14:1401-1410. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Institute of Chemical Sciences, Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan.

Malaria, the exterminator of ~1.5 to 2.7 million human lives yearly, is a notorious disease known throughout the world. The eradication of this disease is difficult and a challenge to scientists. Vector elimination and effective chemotherapy for the patients are key tactics to be used in the fight against malaria. However, drug resistance and environmental and social concerns are the main hurdles in this fight against malaria. Overcoming these limitations is the major challenge for the 21st-century malarial researchers. Adapting the principles of nano-biotechnology to both vector control and patient therapy is the only solution to the problem. Several compounds such as lipids, proteins, nucleic acid and metallic nanoparticles (NPs) have been successfully used for the control of this lethal malaria disease. Other useful natural reagents such as microbes and their products, carbohydrates, vitamins, plant extracts and biodegradable polymers, are also used to control this disease. Among these particles, the plant-based particles such as leaf, root, stem, latex, and seed give the best antagonistic response against malaria. In the present review, we describe certain efforts related to the control, prevention and treatment of malaria. We hope that this review will open new doors for malarial research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S190692DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6390872PMC
April 2019

Serum organochlorine pesticides residues and risk of cancer: A case-control study.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2018 Nov 17;25(7):1284-1290. Epub 2017 Oct 17.

College of Plant Sciences and Technology, Huazhong Agriculture University, Wuhan 430070, PR China.

Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are frequently used worldwide as insecticides, fungicides, herbicides and termiticides and have been associated with a variety of cancers in animal and human studies. In the present study, we examined residues of fourteen OCPs in the serum samples of diagnosed cancer patients and healthy residents of Karachi, Pakistan. A random collection of fasting blood samples was carried out from the donors with informed consent. Serum was separated within 2 h of blood collection and was then subjected to extraction with organic solvents followed by purification with florisil column. The final organic extract of each serum sample was processed with Gas Chromatograph coupled with Electron Capture Detector (GC-ECD). OCPs were detected in 97.59% of the cancer cases and 93.75% of the healthy subjects. Mean concentrations of total OCPs (ΣOCPs) was found elevated in the cancer group (0.606 mg/kg) compared with the control group (0.322 mg/kg). Endosulfan was the highest prevalent OCP with a mean concentration of 0.214 mg/kg in the cancer group and 0.166 mg/kg in the control group. The second most prevalent OCP was 4,4-DDE with a mean concentration of 0.131 mg/kg in the cancer group and 0.019 mg/kg in the control group. Highest level of ΣOCPs was detected in the breast cancer cases (20.411 mg/kg) with a mean level of (2.041 mg/kg). In light of the obtained results and available literature on the subject, it has been concluded that OCPs are positively associated with the risk of various cancers in humans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2017.10.023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6252000PMC
November 2018

Multiple biomarkers based appraisal of deltamethrin induced toxicity in silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix).

Chemosphere 2019 Jan 25;214:519-533. Epub 2018 Sep 25.

Department of Agriculture, University of Swabi, Swabi, 23561, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Electronic address:

Deltamethrin (DLM) is α-cyano (type II) synthetic pyrethroid. DLM exposure leads to strong neurotoxic effects and a number of complex toxicological syndromes. The current study assessed DLM mediated oxidative stress, behavioral, hematological, histopathological, and biochemical toxic effects on silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix). Exposure to an acute concentration (2 μg/L) of DLM resulted in different behavioral inconsistencies and a time-dependent significant (P < 0.05) change in the hematology and serum biochemistry of silver carp. A significant (P < 0.05) increase in the activities of reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant enzymes whereas a significant decrease in total protein contents in the liver, gills, brain, and muscle tissues were observed. DLM exposure increased the activities of metabolic enzymes in the gills, muscles, and liver of silver carp. A significant (P < 0.05) increase in DNA damage in peripheral blood erythrocytes was evident. DLM exposure led to a time-dependent significant (P < 0.05) increase in the whole-body cortisol and blood glucose level, while a significant decrease in acetylcholine esterase activity in the brain, liver, and muscle tissues. Different histopathological changes in the liver, gills, brain, and intestine were observed, however, no significant change in the gross anatomy and morphometric parameters of the fish was observed. The current study provides valuable information for devising better strategies regarding environmental management, chemicals' risk assessment, biodiversity conservation, and monitoring of the aquatic organisms. DLM was concluded to be highly toxic to fish. The extensive use of DLM should be prohibited or allowed under strict environmental laws; otherwise, it might lead to the extermination of the susceptible wildlife, such as commercially very valuable but nearly threatened silver carp.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.09.145DOI Listing
January 2019

In vitro biological screening of a critically endangered medicinal plant, Atropa acuminata Royle Ex Lindl of north western Himalaya.

Sci Rep 2018 07 23;8(1):11028. Epub 2018 Jul 23.

Department of Agriculture, University of Swabi, Swabi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

Atropa acuminata Royle Ex Lindl (Atropa acuminata) under tremendous threat of extinction in its natural habitat. However, the antimicrobial, antileishmanial and anticancer effects of the plant's extracts have not been reported yet. In the current study, an attempt has been made to evaluate the pharmacological potential of this plant's extracts against microbes, Leishmania and cancer. The roots, stems and leaves of Atropa acuminata were ground; then, seven different solvents were used alone and in different ratios to prepare crude extracts, which were screened for pharmacological effects. The aqueous, methanolic and ethanolic extracts of all parts carried a broad spectrum of anti-bacterial activities, while no significant activity was observed with combined solvents. Three types of cytotoxicity assays were performed, i.e., haemolytic, brine shrimp and protein kinase assays. The aqueous extract of all the parts showed significant haemolytic activity while n-hexane extracts of roots showed significant activity against brine shrimp. The acetone extracts strongly inhibited protein kinase while the methanolic extracts exhibited significant cytotoxic activity of roots and stem. The anti-leishmanial assays revealed that the methanolic extract of leaves and roots showed significant activity. These findings suggest that this plant could be a potential source of natural product based drugs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-29231-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6056422PMC
July 2018

Malathion induced oxidative stress leads to histopathological and biochemical toxicity in the liver of rohu (Labeo rohita, Hamilton) at acute concentration.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2018 10 7;161:270-280. Epub 2018 Jun 7.

College of Plant Sciences and Technology/National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetics and Improvement Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, PR China; Department of Agriculture, University of Swabi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Electronic address:

Organophosphorus pesticides form a diverse group of chemicals, having a wide range of physicochemical properties with crucial toxicological actions and endpoints. These are extensively used to control pests of different food (fruits, vegetables, tea, etc.) and non-food (tobacco, cotton, etc.) crops. Malathion is an important widely used organophosphorus pesticide but its hepatotoxic effects on fish are not well studied. Therefore, the current study was designed to investigate the hepatotoxic effects of Malathion on rohu (Labeo rohita) fish in a semi-static system using different parameters. The LC of Malathion was found to be 5 µg/L for rohu for 96 h through Probit analysis and was used for further toxicity testing. To find the hepatotoxic effects of Malathion, changes in different biochemical indices including protein contents, Lipid Peroxidation (LPO), activities of four protein metabolic enzymes [Aspartate Aminotransferase (AAT), Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH), Alanine Aminotransferase (AlAT), and Glutamate Dehydrogenase (GDH)], seven antioxidant enzymes [Catalase (CAT), Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), Peroxidase (POD), Glutathione (GSH), Glutathione Reductase (GR), Glutathione-s-transferase (GST), and Glutathione Peroxidase (GSH-Px)], DNA damage [in term of comet tail length, tail moment, DNA percentage in tail, and olive tail moment], reactive oxygen species (ROS), and Histopathological alterations were assayed. Malathion exposure led to a time-reliant significant (P < 0.05) decrease in protein contents and a significant (P < 0.05) increase in ROS, LPO, enzymatic activities, and DNA damage. The histopathological examination of the liver showed different changes including hepatic necrosis, fatty infiltration, hemorrhage vacuolation, glycogen vacuolation, congestion, and cellular swelling. The current study clearly revealed Malathion as a potent hepatotoxic pesticide; therefore the injudicious, indiscriminate and extensive use of Malathion should be prohibited or at least reduced and strictly monitored.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2018.06.002DOI Listing
October 2018

Honey: Single food stuff comprises many drugs.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2018 Feb 16;25(2):320-325. Epub 2017 Aug 16.

Department of Biotechnology, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Honey is a natural food item produced by honey bees. Ancient civilizations considered honey as a God gifted prestigious product. Therefore, a huge literature is available regarding honey importance in almost all religions. Physically, honey is a viscous and jelly material having no specific color. Chemically, honey is a complex blend of many organic and inorganic compounds such as sugars, proteins, organic acids, pigments, minerals, and many other elements. Honey use as a therapeutic agent is as old as human civilization itself. Prior to the appearance of present day drugs, honey was conventionally used for treating many diseases. At this instant, the modern research has proven the medicinal importance of honey. It has broad spectrum anti-biotic, anti-viral and anti-fungal activities. Honey prevents and kills microbes through different mechanism such as elevated pH and enzyme activities. Till now, no synthetic compound that works as anti-bacterial, anti-viral and anti-fungal drugs has been reported in honey yet it works against bacteria, viruses and fungi while no anti-protozoal activity has been reported. Potent anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancerous activities of honey have been reported. Honey is not only significant as anti-inflammatory drug that relieve inflammation but also protect liver by degenerative effects of synthetic anti-inflammatory drugs. This article reviews physico-chemical properties, traditional use of honey as medicine and mechanism of action of honey in the light of modern scientific medicinal knowledge.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2017.08.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5815988PMC
February 2018

Nanosilver: new ageless and versatile biomedical therapeutic scaffold.

Int J Nanomedicine 2018 2;13:733-762. Epub 2018 Feb 2.

College of Plant Sciences and Technology.

Silver nanotechnology has received tremendous attention in recent years, owing to its wide range of applications in various fields and its intrinsic therapeutic properties. In this review, an attempt is made to critically evaluate the chemical, physical, and biological synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) as well as their efficacy in the field of theranostics including microbiology and parasitology. Moreover, an outlook is also provided regarding the performance of AgNPs against different biological systems such as bacteria, fungi, viruses, and parasites (leishmanial and malarial parasites) in curing certain fatal human diseases, with a special focus on cancer. The mechanism of action of AgNPs in different biological systems still remains enigmatic. Here, due to limited available literature, we only focused on AgNPs mechanism in biological systems including human (wound healing and apoptosis), bacteria, and viruses which may open new windows for future research to ensure the versatile application of AgNPs in cosmetics, electronics, and medical fields.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S153167DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5799856PMC
April 2018

Progress toward Catalytic Micro- and Nanomotors for Biomedical and Environmental Applications.

Adv Mater 2018 Jun 7;30(24):e1703660. Epub 2018 Feb 7.

Department of Chemistry, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 111, 80101, Joensuu, Finland.

Synthetic micro- and nanomotors (MNMs) are tiny objects that can autonomously move under the influence of an appropriate source of energy, such as a chemical fuel, magnetic field, ultrasound, or light. Chemically driven MNMs are composed of or contain certain reactive material(s) that convert chemical energy of a fuel into kinetic energy (motion) of the particles. Several different materials have been explored over the last decade for the preparation of a wide variety of MNMs. Here, the discovery of materials and approaches to enhance the efficiency of chemically driven MNMs are reviewed. Several prominent applications of the MNMs, especially in the fields of biomedicine and environmental science, are also discussed, as well as the limitations of existing materials and future research directions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.201703660DOI Listing
June 2018

Precise editing of CLAVATA genes in Brassica napus L. regulates multilocular silique development.

Plant Biotechnol J 2018 07 19;16(7):1322-1335. Epub 2018 Jan 19.

National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, China.

Multilocular silique is a desirable agricultural trait with great potential for the development of high-yield varieties of Brassica. To date, no spontaneous or induced multilocular mutants have been reported in Brassica napus, which likely reflects its allotetraploid nature and the extremely low probability of the simultaneous random mutagenesis of multiple gene copies with functional redundancy. Here, we present evidence for the efficient knockout of rapeseed homologues of CLAVATA3 (CLV3) for a secreted peptide and its related receptors CLV1 and CLV2 in the CLV signalling pathway using the CRISPR/Cas9 system and achieved stable transmission of the mutations across three generations. Each BnCLV gene has two copies located in two subgenomes. The multilocular phenotype can be recovered only in knockout mutations of both copies of each BnCLV gene, illustrating that the simultaneous alteration of multiple gene copies by CRISPR/Cas9 mutagenesis has great potential in generating agronomically important mutations in rapeseed. The mutagenesis efficiency varied widely from 0% to 48.65% in T with different single-guide RNAs (sgRNAs), indicating that the appropriate selection of the sgRNA is important for effectively generating indels in rapeseed. The double mutation of BnCLV3 produced more leaves and multilocular siliques with a significantly higher number of seeds per silique and a higher seed weight than the wild-type and single mutant plants, potentially contributing to increased seed production. We also assessed the efficiency of the horizontal transfer of Cas9/gRNA cassettes by pollination. Our findings reveal the potential for plant breeding strategies to improve yield traits in currently cultivated rapeseed varieties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pbi.12872DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5999189PMC
July 2018

Bacillus safensis with plant-derived smoke stimulates rice growth under saline conditions.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2017 Oct 3;24(30):23850-23863. Epub 2017 Sep 3.

College of Plant Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, Hubei, 430070, China.

Salinity is a worldwide environmental problem of agricultural lands. Smoke and plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPR) are individually used to improve plant growth, but the combined effects of these have not been studied yet under saline conditions. The combined effect of plant growth-promoting bacteria Bacillus safensis and plant-derived smoke Cymbopogon jwarancusa was studied under different salinity level as 50, 100, and 150 mM on rice (cv. Basmati-385). Smoke dilutions of C. jwarancusa (C-500 and C-1000) and bacterial culture of B. safensis were used to soak seeds for 10 h. It was observed that the salt concentration decreases the germination percentage, vegetative growth, ion contents (K and Ca), and photosynthetic pigments (Chl "a," Chl "b," and carotene) while an increase occurred in Na, total soluble protein (TSP), proline, total soluble sugar, catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) contents. The combined effect of B. safensis and smoke primed seeds increased the germination percentage, seedling growth, ion contents (K, Ca), and photosynthetic pigments (Chl "a," Chl "b," carotene) and reduced the Na ion content, total soluble protein, proline content, total soluble sugar, CAT, and POD activity by lowering the drastic effect of salt stress. It was concluded that combined effect of smoke and PGPR is more effective than individual effect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-017-0026-yDOI Listing
October 2017

Heavy metals content, phytochemical composition, antimicrobial and insecticidal evaluation of Elaeagnus angustifolia.

Toxicol Ind Health 2016 Jan 30;32(1):154-61. Epub 2013 Sep 30.

Department of Zoology, Kohat University of Science and Technology, Kohat, Pakistan.

Elaeagnus angustifolia was analyzed for determination of metals, phytoconstituents, bactericidal, fungicidal and insecticidal effects and to explore its chemical and biological potential. The root, branches, leaves, stem bark and root bark parts of E. angustifolia were found to contain iron, lead, copper, cadmium, zinc, chromium, nickel and cobalt in different concentrations. Crude extract of Elaeagnus angustifolia (Ea.Cr) was tested positive for the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins and tannins. Ea.Cr and its fractions, n-hexane (Ea.Hex), ethyl acetate (Ea.EtAc) and aqueous (Ea.Aq) showed bactericidal activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, while against Pseudomonas aeruginosa only Ea.Hex and Ea.EtAc were effective. When tested for antifungal effect, Ea.Cr exhibited fungicidal action against Aspergillus fumagatus, Ea.EtAc and Ea.Aq against Aspergillus flavis and Ea.EtAc against Aspergillus niger. Ea.Hex was active against all three fungal strains. The chloroform fraction (Ea.CHCl3) was found inactive against the used microbes. Ea.Cr, Ea.Hex, Ea.CHCl3, Ea.EtAc and Ea.Aq caused mortality of Tribolium castaneum and Ephestia cautella insects observed after 24 and 48 h of treatment. These data indicate that E. angustifolia exhibits different heavy metals and compound groups. Methanolic extract of E. angustifolia and its various fractions possess antibacterial, antifungal and insecticidal activities, which elucidate medicinal application of the plant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0748233713498459DOI Listing
January 2016