Publications by authors named "Shahid Mahboob"

89 Publications

A study on risk assessment of effect of hematoxylin dye on cytotoxicity and nephrotoxicity in freshwater fish: Food and water security prospective research.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2021 Apr 20;28(4):2267-2271. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Department of Zoology, College of Science. King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

The cytotoxicity in freshwater fishes due to different industrial dyes in industrial effluents is a major worldwide issue. Hematoxylin dye has a wide range of uses in textile industries and laboratories. This study was aimed to evaluate the toxic effects of hematoxylin's sublethal effect in vitro in . The fish was exposed to different grading concentrations of dye in the aquarium. Fish were sacrificed and dissected to remove the kidney after exposure to hematoxylin dye for specific time intervals. Nephrotoxicity and cytotoxicity induced by this dye were detected through histopathology by using the paraffin wax method. Immediate mortality of fish was noticed against the exposure to 0.08 g/L (LC) concentration of dye, but at 0.008 mg/L and 0.018 mg/L, it showed tremendous tissue damage in the kidneys, significant reduction in fish growth. This dye induced many alterations in the kidney such as tubular degeneration, vacuolation, shrinkage of a glomerulus, reduced lumen, congestion in the kidney, glomerulonephritis, absence of Bowmen space, necrosis of the hematopoietic interstitial tissues, clogging of tubules, necrosis in the glomerulus and increased space between glomerulus and bowmen's capsule. Although this dye has a wide range of biological and industrial applications, a minute amount of hematoxylin released in effluents is quite toxic to aquatic fauna.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2021.01.019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8071821PMC
April 2021

Green synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles for antimicrobial and vegetative growth applications: A novel approach for advancing efficient high quality health care to human wellbeing.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2021 Mar 19;28(3):1808-1815. Epub 2020 Dec 19.

Adhiyaman Arts and Science College for Women, Uthangarai, Tamil Nadu 635207, India.

The present work aims to synthesize zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles via green approaches using leaf extract of . UV-vis and FT-IR tests confirmed the existence of biomolecules, active materials, and metal oxides. The X-ray diffraction structural study exposes the ZnO nanoparticles formation with hexagonal phase structures. SEM and TEM analysis reveal surface morphologies of ZnO nanoparticles and most of them are spherical with a size range of 10 nm. ZnO nanoparticles were revealed strong antimicrobial activity against both bacterial and fungal strains. The germination of seeds and vegetative growth of has been greatly improved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.12.025DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7938149PMC
March 2021

Reproductive success in : A role of post-insemination association of male and female.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2021 Mar 22;28(3):1539-1543. Epub 2020 Dec 22.

Department of Botany, Hindu College Moradabad (Mahatma Jyotiba Phule Rohilkhand University Bareilly), India.

Reproductive success is attained by various mechanisms in insects. Prolonged post insemination association is one such mechanism to increase the reproductive success. The present study was conducted to assess the role of post insemination association of mating partners on reproductive performance in Chrysomelidae beetle, Pallister. The matings were disrupted at different time intervals and fecundity and percent egg viability of the females were recorded. In addition, the mounting attempts, mating attempts, time to commencement of mating and latent period were also recorded. It was hypothesized that: (1) the mounting and mating attempts would not exist, (2) copulation duration, would not affect the reproductive performance, and (3) the beetle would not exhibit the mate guarding behaviour. Interestingly, results revealed that 6.00 ± 1.3 and 6.59 ± 0.93 mounting and mating attempts are needed to establish successful mating. The results revealed that males improved their percent egg viability with a mating duration ranging from nearly 30-50 min. While fecundity increased with a mating duration of above 30 min and up to a duration of 60 min. This result concluded that males of this beetle display post copulatory mate guarding behaviour after 60 min in which male rides on female's back with his aedeagus inserted in the female genital tract.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.12.030DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7938115PMC
March 2021

An assessment of level of heavy metals pollution in the water, sediment and aquatic organisms: A perspective of tackling environmental threats for food security.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2021 Feb 2;28(2):1218-1225. Epub 2020 Dec 2.

Department of Zoology and Wildlife Biology A.V.C. College (Autonomous), Mannampandal, Mayiladuthurai - 609305, Tamil Nadu, India.

Pollution is severely threatening the wetland habitats. Heavy metals are one among of the major pollutants in wetland habitats. The cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn), were assessed in the water, sediment, benthic species (polychaetes, mollusc and crustaceans), prawn and fishes. The assessment of heavy metals was done by using double-beam Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The Hg, Cr and Co were greater in sediment, Ni and Cd were higher in polychaetes and molluscs respectively. However, the Cu and Pb greater in crabs and the Zinc was greater in fishes. The concentration of metals showed significant differences among the various sources examined (P < 0.05) except Cr (P > 0.05). The inter-correlational analysis among the metals assessed from the various sources showed that the Cr and Pb not correlated among the eight metals examined. However, the Cu and Co were correlated with Hg (r = 0.307) and (r = 0.788) respectively. The nickel was correlated with Hg (r = 0.367), Cu (r = 0.362) and Co (r = 0.432). The Zinc was correlated with the Cd (r = 0.331) and Hg (r = 0.737). However, correlation of metals among the different sources shown that the metals of polychaetes correlated with sediment r = 0.637, the metals of crabs correlated with the sediment and polychaetes r = 0.630 and r = 842 respectively, the metals of molluscs was also correlated with sediment (r = 0.636), polychaetes (r = 0.889) and crabs (r = 0.894). In addition to that the metals of prawns was correlated with the polychaetes (r = 839), crabs (r = 0.628) and molluscs (r = 0.634). The metals of fishes correlated with polychaetes (r = 0.529), crabs (r = 0.710), molluscs (r = 0.493) and prawns (r = 0.593). Indeed the multiple regression model explained that the metals of sediments influence the accumulation of metals in biotic species such as polychaetes, molluscs, crustaceans, prawns and fishes with 84% (F = 21.079; p < 0.001).The order of the heavy metals in the water, sediment and biotic species was Hg > Pb > Ni > Cr > Zn > Co > Cu > Cd. The study found that the level of heavy metals at various sources in the sanctuary is showing considerable warning and the sanctuary is required intensive assessment on various aspects of pollution since the Point Calimere Wildlife Sanctuary is supporting several species of migratory and endangered shorebirds seasonally.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.11.072DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7878681PMC
February 2021

network-based analysis of drugs used against COVID-19: Human well-being study.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2021 Mar 21;28(3):2029-2039. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, 11451, Saudi Arabia.

Introduction: Researchers worldwide with great endeavor searching and repurpose drugs might be potentially useful in fighting newly emerged coronavirus. These drugs show inhibition but also show side effects and complications too. On December 27, 2020, 80,926,235 cases have been reported worldwide. Specifically, in Pakistan, 471,335 has been reported with inconsiderable deaths.

Problem Statement: Identification of COVID-19 drugs pathway through drug-gene and gene-gene interaction to find out the most important genes involved in the pathway to deal with the actual cause of side effects beyond the beneficent effects of the drugs.

Methodology: The medicines used to treat COVID-19 are retrieved from the Drug Bank. The drug-gene interaction was performed using the Drug Gene Interaction Database to check the relation between the genes and the drugs. The networks of genes are developed by Gene MANIA, while Cytoscape is used to check the active functional association of the targeted gene. The developed systems cross-validated using the EnrichNet tool and identify drug genes' concerned pathways using Reactome and STRING.

Results: Five drugs Azithromycin, Bevacizumab, CQ, HCQ, and Lopinavir, are retrieved. The drug-gene interaction shows several genes that are targeted by the drug. Gene MANIA interaction network shows the functional association of the genes like co-expression, physical interaction, predicted, genetic interaction, co-localization, and shared protein domains.

Conclusion: Our study suggests the pathways for each drug in which targeted genes and medicines play a crucial role, which will help experts o overcome and deal with the side effects of these drugs, as we find out the gene analysis for the COVID-19 drugs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2021.01.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7825994PMC
March 2021

Cellulase immobilized magnetic nanoparticles for green energy production from L: Sustainability research in waste recycling.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2021 Jan 13;28(1):901-910. Epub 2020 Nov 13.

Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, 11451, Saudi Arabia.

This study presents ethanol's fabrication by fermenting the golden trumpet flower () with the yeast strain . The changes in different parameters during fermentation were studied and optimized while producing the ethanol and the end product was subjected to emission test study by blending petrol and ethanol. The floral substrate contains 65% polysaccharides. The strain was obtained in the form of baker's yeast from a domestic shop. For 100 ml of slurry, the highest bioethanol yield recorded was about 18.75 ml via optimization of different culture conditions, including a 1:8 ratio for slurry preparation, maintained under 35 ⁰C, 5.5 pH, 72 h. old inoculum with a quantity of 3.75 g 100 ml, fermented for120 h. The highest yield of bioethanol was acquired under the addition of urea. This technique & design is capable of industrial-scale fabrication of bioethanol by using floral substrates. This research was conducted to fabricate ethanol by fermentation ( L floral substrate with The optimum physiochemical parameters required to obtain the highest yield of bioethanol from flower by fermentation was studied. The immobilization strategy with a cheap agricultural substrate and magnetic nanoparticles were also studied. The engine performance and emission studies were done with different blends of petrol and bio-ethanol.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.11.034DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7783813PMC
January 2021

Facile synthesis of gold and platinum doped titanium oxide nanoparticles for antibacterial and photocatalytic activity: A photodynamic approach.

Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther 2021 Mar 17;33:102148. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

Unit of Vector Control, Phytochemistry and Nanotechnology, Department of Zoology, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar, 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India; Unit of Natural Products and Nanotechnology, Department of Zoology, Government College for Women (Autonomous), Kumbakonam, 612 001, Tamil Nadu, India.

A simple method has been needed to synthesize nanoparticles (NPs) to avoid environmental pollution, an alternative chemical and physical method. This current study deals with phytosynthesis of gold (Au) and platinum (Pt) metal doped with titanium oxide (TiO) NPs using Enterolobium saman bark extract. This extract plays a vital role in reducing and stabilizing Au and Pt doped into the TiO NPs lattices. Phytosynthesized samples were characterized by XRD, SEM, ED-XRF, TEM, FTIR, Raman, and UV-vis-DRS analyses. The metal doping effect has decreased bandgap energy and particle size, whereas increased conductivity for TiO/M-Au and TiO/M-Pt NPs compared to pristine TiO NPs. Phytosynthesized NPs were fabricated for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) and photocatalytic behaviour against methylene blue (MB) dye was studied. An obtained result demonstrates that TiO/M-Au NPs have excellent feasibility for applying DSSC and photocatalytic application due to particle size, crystallite size, absorption ability, and bandgap energy. Besides, synthesized samples were measured with cyclic voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy found that the metal doping is drifted the dielectric and increases that the metal doping is drifted the dielectric increases electro-catalytic of the TiO. Different concentrations of all NPs were tested against Escherichia coli MTCC 40 and S. aureus ATCC 6633 bacteria by a well-diffusion method. The 10 mg concentration of all NPs showed better antibacterial activity. However, we believe that the proposed simple phytosynthesized method provides an efficient way to overcome the chemical and physical methods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pdpdt.2020.102148DOI Listing
March 2021

Probing of heavy metals in the feathers of shorebirds of Central Asian Flyway wintering grounds.

Sci Rep 2020 12 17;10(1):22118. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

Unit of Vector Control, Phytochemistry and Nanotechnology, Department of Zoology, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar, Tamil Nadu, 608 002, India.

The study is intended to deliver the incidence of heavy metals in the feathers of shorebirds from two important Central Asian Flyway (CAF) migratory shorebirds wintering sites such as the Point Calimere Wildlife Sanctuary (PWLS) and Pichavaram Mangrove Forest (PMF), India. Feathers of fifteen species of shorebirds and seven different metals viz., Cu, Cr, Co, Pb, Hg, Ni and Zn were analyzed. Zn was highest in Dunlin, Little-ringed Plover, Marsh Sandpiper, and Common sandpiper, Ni showed highest in Little ringed plover, and Common sandpiper, Co, Cr, and Cu were maximum in Little stint, Marsh sandpiper, and Dunlin, respectively. The Hg was higher in Black-winged stilt, Common redshank, Curlew Sandpiper, Eurasian curlew, Lesser Sand-plover, Temminck's stint, Kentish plover, Spotted redshank, and Wood sandpiper, the Pb found highest in Kentish plover, Painted stork, Spotted redshank, Wood sandpiper, Eurasian Curlew, and Lesser sand-plover. The concentration of metals showed significant variations among the species of shorebirds studied (P < 0.001). The mercury negatively correlated with the other metals than the other six metals studied in both the wetlands. The order of metal concentration in the feathers of shorebirds was Zn > Ni > Co > Cr > Cu > Pb > Hg. Nevertheless, the current study revealed that the level of metals in the shorebirds is alarming; since the PWLS and PMF are located along the CAF routes, it needs intensive studies on various pollutions to manage both the resident as well as migratory shorebirds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-79029-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7747699PMC
December 2020

A Chromosome-Level Genome Assembly of the Anglerfish .

Front Genet 2020 27;11:581161. Epub 2020 Nov 27.

Key Lab of Sustainable Development of Marine Fisheries, Ministry of Agriculture, Yellow Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Qingdao, China.

Anglerfishes are a highly diverse group of species with unique characteristics. Here, we report the first chromosome-level genome of a species in the order Lophiiformes, the yellow goosefish (), obtained by whole genome shotgun sequencing and high-throughput chromatin conformation capture. Approximately 97.20% of the assembly spanning 709.23 Mb could be anchored to 23 chromosomes with a contig N50 of 164.91 kb. The BUSCO value was 95.4%, suggesting that the quality of the assembly was high. A comparative gene family analysis identified expanded and contracted gene families, and these may be associated with adaptation to the benthic environment and the lack of scales in the species. A majority of positively selected genes were related to metabolic processes, suggesting that digestive and metabolic system evolution expanded the diversity of yellow goosefish prey. Our study provides a valuable genetic resource for understanding the mechanisms underlying the unique features of the yellow goosefish and for investigating anglerfish evolution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2020.581161DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7729161PMC
November 2020

Down-regulation of hepatic G-6-Pase expression in hyperglycemic rats: Intervention with biogenic gold nanoconjugate.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2020 Dec 22;27(12):3334-3341. Epub 2020 Sep 22.

Department of Bio-Medical Sciences, School of BioSciences and Technology, Vellore Institute of Technology (VIT), Vellore 632 014, Tamil Nadu, India.

Chronic diabetes extensively complicates the glucose metabolism to onset and progress the complication. Concurrently, several contemporary medicines, especially organo-metallic formulations, are emerging to treat hyperglycemia. The current study aims to emphasize the gold nanoparticles (GNPs) potential for glucose metabolism regulation in Streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetes. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was carried out to detect the mRNA expression of Glucose transporters 2 (GLUT2), Glucokinase (GK) and Glucose 6 Phosphatase (G-6-Pase). The study shows remarkable results such as the prognostic effect of GNPs in reinforcing the repression of enzyme complex G-6-Pase about 13.3-fold when compared to diabetes control. Also, molecular docking studies showed significant inhibition of G-6-Pase by the terpenoid ligands with alpha and beta amyrin from leaf extract of . Thus the study explored the novel mechanism of G-6-Pase downregulated by GNPs intervention that majorly contributes to the regulation of circulatory glucose homeostasis during diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.09.026DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7715047PMC
December 2020

Evaluating antibody response pattern in asymptomatic virus infected pregnant females: Human well-being study.

J King Saud Univ Sci 2021 Jan 2;33(1):101255. Epub 2020 Dec 2.

Department of Obstetrics, Wuhan Maternal and Children Health Hospital, Wuhan, Hubei, China.

The ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic infecting millions of people globally has given rise to serious public health threats. The need for early detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in asymptomatic pregnant women is compelling to detect vertical transmission timely. Here, 11 SARS-CoV-2 asymptomatic pregnant cases from Wuhan China were investigated. All the patients were initially tested negative for SARS-CoV-2 on RT-PCR, so a chest CT scan was performed. Also, serum antibody (IgM and IgG) titers were estimated. CT scan of patients revealed typical abnormalities related to SARS-CoV-2, indicating ground-glass opacity and infection lesions suggesting viral pneumonia. Elevated IgM and IgG antibodies levels () were also noticed in infected patients. Hence, CT imaging and serum antibody response are valuable in the early detection of SARS-CoV-2 in asymptomatic pregnant patients. These might serve as prognostic markers for healthcare professionals, in RT-PCR negative patients, to assess the effect of given treatment by chest CT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jksus.2020.101255DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7709611PMC
January 2021

Cloning and functional analysis of c/ebpα as negative regulator of dmrt1 in Chinese tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis).

Gene 2021 Feb 19;768:145321. Epub 2020 Nov 19.

Key Lab of Sustainable Development of Marine Fisheries, Ministry of Agriculture, Yellow Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China; Laboratory for Marine Fisheries Science and Food Production Processes, Pilot National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology (Qingdao), Qingdao 266237, China. Electronic address:

c/ebpα is a member of the C/EBP family of transcription factors, which are involved in cell growth and differentiation and have a conserved basic leucine zipper (bZIP) domain. However, little is known about its function in sex determination and differentiation. In the present study, c/ebpα was cloned from the gonads of Chinese tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis). The full-length cDNA of c/ebpα was 1583 bp, with a 198-bp 5' UTR, a 446-bp 3' UTR, and a 939-bp open reading frame encoding a 312-amino acid peptide. qRT-PCR revealed that c/ebpα was predominantly expressed in undifferentiated gonads of male C. semilaevis at 30 dpf and 60 dpf and peaked at 60 dpf. Expression levels of c/ebpα in the testis were constantly higher than those in ovaries at all developmental stages. Moreover, a dual-luciferase assay revealed that c/ebpα could negatively regulate the male-determining gene dmrt1 in vitro. These results provide fundamental information indicating that C. semilaevis c/ebpa might be involved in early gonadal differentiation and functions as a negative regulator of dmrt1 by repressing its transcription.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2020.145321DOI Listing
February 2021

Early response to heat stress in Chinese tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis): performance of different sexes, candidate genes and networks.

BMC Genomics 2020 Oct 27;21(1):745. Epub 2020 Oct 27.

Key Lab of Sustainable Development of Marine Fisheries, Ministry of Agriculture, Yellow Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Nanjing Road 106, Qingdao, 266071, China.

Background: Temperature is known to affect living organisms and alter the expression of responsive genes, which affects a series of life processes, such as development, reproduction and metabolism. Several genes and gene families have been involved in high temperature responses, such as heat shock protein (hsp) family, Jumonji family and genes related to cortisol synthesis. Gonad is a vital organ related to the existence of a species. However, the comprehensive understanding of gonadal responses to environmental temperature is limited.

Results: To explore the effects of environmental temperature on genes and gene networks in gonads, we performed acute heat treatment (48 h) on Chinese tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis). Gonadal transcriptome analysis was conducted on females, pseudomales and males exposed to high (28 °C) and normal (22 °C) temperatures. A total of 1226.24 million clean reads were obtained from 18 libraries. Principal component analysis (PCA) and differentially expressed gene (DEG) analysis revealed different performance of sex responses to heat stress. There were 4565, 790 and 1117 specific genes altered their expression level in females, pseudomales and males, respectively. Of these, genes related to hsp gene family, cortisol synthesis and metabolism and epigenetic regulation were involved in early heat response. Furthermore, a total of 1048 DEGs were shared among females, pesudomales and males, which may represent the inherent difference between high and normal temperatures. Genes, such as eef1akmt3, eef1akmt4, pnmt and hsp family members, were found.

Conclusions: Our results depicted for the first time the gonadal gene expression under acute high temperature treatment in Chinese tongue sole. The findings may provide a clue for understanding the responses of genes and networks to environmental temperature.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12864-020-07157-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7590793PMC
October 2020

Entomofaunal survey and larvicidal activity of greener silver nanoparticles: A perspective for novel eco-friendly mosquito control.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2020 Nov 4;27(11):2917-2928. Epub 2020 Sep 4.

Unit of Vector Control, Phytochemistry and Nanotechnology, Department of Zoology, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar, 608 002 Tamil Nadu, India.

The entomofaunal survey and its toxicity of (Asteraceae) leaf aqueous extract-mediated (-LAE) silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were assessed against selected human vector mosquitoes (HVMs). A total of 1800 individuals of 29 species belongs to 7 genera were identified. Month-wise and Genus-wise abundance of HVMs larval diversity were calculated and one-way ANOVA statistically analyzed the average physico-chemical characteristics. The relationship between physicochemical characteristics and HVMs larvae in KWS was interpreted. The total larval density and container index were 23530.18 and 1961.85 examined against 10 different containers. Various spectroscopic and microscopic investigation characterized -AgNPs. The AgNPs tested against HVMs larvae, the predominant LC/LC values of 18.17/39.56, 23.45/42.49 and 21.82/40.43 μg/mL were observed on and respectively. The findings of this investigation, improperly maintained drainages, containers and unused things in study sites, are engaged to HVMs development. This will be essential for designing and implementing HVMs control. The larval toxic potentiality of AgNPs had a prompt, inexpensive and compelling synthesis of multi-disperse action against HVMs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.08.046DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7569148PMC
November 2020

Photocatalytic, antiproliferative and antimicrobial properties of copper nanoparticles synthesized using Manilkara zapota leaf extract: A photodynamic approach.

Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther 2020 Dec 13;32:102058. Epub 2020 Oct 13.

Department of Animal Health and Management, Alagappa University, Science Block, 6th Floor, Burma Colony, Karaikudi, 630 004, Tamil Nadu, India. Electronic address:

Copper nanoparticles were synthesized using Manilkara zapota leaf extract. The synthesis of the nanoparticle was primarily visualized when the colour of the reaction mixture turned into reddish-brown. Biosynthesized nanoparticles were characterized by UV-vis, FT-IR, XRD, SEM and EDX. The UV spectra showed maximum absorption at 584 nm. FT-IR studies showed stretching frequency at 592.76 cm which is the fingerprint region for Cu-O bond. The crystallinity of the synthesized copper nanoparticles (Mz-Cu NPs) was revealed through XRD analysis. The synthesized Mz-Cu NPs were spherical with an average size of 18.9-42.5 nm and it was shown by SEM analysis. EDX analysis displayed that the nano sample contains 58 % of copper. The antimicrobial property of the synthesized nanoparticles was evaluated against fungal plant pathogens Rhizoctonia solani (MTCC 12232), Sclerotium oryzae (MTCC 12230) and bacterial species, namely Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 23857), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Vibrio harveyi (ATCC 35084), Vibrio parahaemolyticus (ATCC 33845). In in-vitro haemolytic assay, the particle showed 5.73, 3.34, 0.5 % hemolysis at 100, 50, 25 μg/mL concentration respectively. In the antiproliferative assay, the IC values of MCF7 and Vero cells were found to be 53.89 and 883.69 μg/μl. The particle degraded Methyl violet, Malachite green and Coomassie brilliant blue by 92.2, 94.9 and 78.8 %, within 50, 40 and 60 min, respectively, through its photocatalytic activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pdpdt.2020.102058DOI Listing
December 2020

A study on the potential reprotoxic effects of thimerosal in male albino rats.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2020 Oct 2;27(10):2798-2802. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Thimerosal is ethyl mercury based compound which is being used as a preservative in vaccines since decades. Pharmaceutical products and vaccines that contain thimerosal are among the potential source of mercury exposure. Current research was intended to ascertain the reprotoxic effects of thimerosal on rat testes. Twenty-four adult male albino rats were sorted into four groups (n = 6). The first group was a control group. Rats of experimental Group 2, 3 and 4 were treated with various dosages of thimerosal (0.5, 10, 50 mg/kg) respectively. Rats were decapitated after thirty days of trial and different parameters were analyzed. Thimerosal exposure resulted in a significant decrease in antioxidant enzyme activities including catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GSR) and increased levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Different doses of thimerosal significantly decreased (p < 0.05) the concentration of plasma testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). Additionally, Daily sperm production (DSP) and efficiency of daily sperm production were significantly reduced followed by thimerosal exposure. Moreover, thimerosal significantly (p < 0.05) decreased the primary spermatocytes, secondary spermatocytes, number of spermatogonia along with spermatids. Thimerosal induced adverse histopathological and morphological changes in testicular tissues such as decreased Leydig cells, diameter of seminiferous tubules, tunica albuginea height and epithelial height. On the other hand, the increase in tubular lumen and interstitial spaces was observed due to thimerosal. These outcomes indicated that thimerosal has potential reprotoxic effects in male albino rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.06.045DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7499386PMC
October 2020

Enhanced modulation of gut microbial dynamics affecting body weight in birds triggered by natural growth promoters administered in conventional feed.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2020 Oct 24;27(10):2747-2755. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Karachi Institute of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan.

This study explored the effects of natural growth promoters (phytogenic feed additives and organic acids) on animal performance, carcass characteristics, blood parameters, gut microflora composition, and microbe-host interactions in broiler chickens over a 42-day feeding period. Two-hundred-fifty-day-old chicks were randomly assigned to one of five treatments: (i) control diets (CON); (ii) control diets + 40 g/tons antibiotic growth promoter (AB); (iii) control diets + 3 kg/tons organic acids (ORG); (iv) control diets + 3 kg/tons phytogenic feed additives (PHY); (v) control diets + 3 kg/tons organic acids + phytogenic feed additive combination (COM). A non-significant differences ( > ) were observed in broiler performance among treatments at 21 days of age; however, a gradually increasing body weight gain and reduced feed conversion ratio were observed at 42 days in treatments versus control group. Biochemical indices were non-significant ( > ) except for decreased cholesterol ( < ) and increased A/G ratio ( < ) recorded in the treatment groups. The addition of PHY and ORG improved total counts of spp. and spp. ( < ) as well as reduced caecal and ileal spp. and ( < ). Correlation analysis elucidated beneficial bacteria ( spp. and spp.) were positively and pathogenic bacteria ( spp. and ) were negatively correlated ( < ) with host weight gain. The findings indicated that dietary supplementation of PHY and ORG sustained balanced gut microflora, which in turn improved body weight. This study broadens the significance of using PHY and ORG as safe alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters for achieving healthier and economical broiler production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.06.027DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7499368PMC
October 2020

Histopathological alterations in gills, liver, kidney and muscles of Ictalurus punctatus collected from pollutes areas of River.

Braz J Biol 2021 Jul-Sep;81(3):814-821. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Government College University, Department of Zoology, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

Untreated sewage and industrial wastes from Faisalabad city are disposed to River Chenab through Chakbandi Main Drain (CMD). The present project is planned to investigate the effects of this freshwater pollution on the body of fish Ictalurus punctatus. The specimens of this fish species were collected upstream and downstream of the entrance of CMD into River Chenab. Fish gills, liver, kidney and muscles from dorsolateral regions of fish were subjected to histopathology. Farmed fish and fish from upstream areas were used as control. Fish collected from polluted experimental sites showed significant damage in selected organs. Gill tissues showed an abnormality in the form of an uplifting of the primary epithelium, fusion, vacuolation, hypertrophy, and necrosis. While liver tissues subjected to hepatocytes degeneration, necrosis, mitochondrial granular hepatocyte, and sinusoids dilation. Kidney tissues indicated increased bowmen space and constricted glomerulus and degenerated nephrons. Edema, necrosis, and atrophy were observed in muscle tissues of fish from polluted areas. Fish from the upstream area showed fused gill lamellae, inflammatory cell infiltration, hypertrophy and vacuolation in hepatocytes. Kidney tissues indicated the presence of nuclear tubular cells, destructive renal tubules, hemorrhage, and necrosis at tubular epithelium. Intra myofibril spaces were also observed in muscles. Specimens of control fish indicated no variation in gills, liver, kidney, and muscles. The present study revealed a strong correlation between the degree of tissue damage and environmental contamination. Present findings also compel global warnings to protect our water bodies and fish to rescue the human population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1519-6984.234266DOI Listing
February 2021

Design and development of porous terracotta disc: An eco-friendly novel control agent for mosquito larvae.

Exp Parasitol 2020 Nov 3;218:107988. Epub 2020 Sep 3.

Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, 11451, Saudi Arabia.

In the present work, we synthesized silver nanoparticles supported by rice husk by hydrothermal treatment, as-synthesized silver nanoparticles rice husk (AgNPs-RH) bio-composite mixed with potter clay thoroughly, molded, dried into a disc-shaped before firing and applying as a point of use larvicidal agent. As designed, porous terracotta disc (PTD) infused with AgNPs-RH-biocomposite were characterized by UV spectrophotometer, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The amount of silver ions released from the PTD was also found to be within the prescribed limit of 0.1 ppm-level. Later we dropped the PTD and tested its larvicidal activity against the IV instar larva stage of Aedes, Anopheles and Culex species. We found 100% larvicidal mortality in 24 h of exposure to the designed PTD and the amount of silver released from the porous disc was found to be 0.0343 ppm. Further from the histopathological studies of dead larvae revealed that the silver ions from the PTD have substantially damaged the exoskeleton of larvae.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exppara.2020.107988DOI Listing
November 2020

Evaluation of larvicidal efficacy of (Castor) and synthesized green silver nanoparticles against L.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2020 Sep 21;27(9):2403-2409. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

mosquitoes are the most important group of vectors that transmit pathogens, including arboviruses, and cause human diseases such as dengue fever, yellow fever, Zika virus, and Chikungunya. Biosynthesis and the use of green silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) is a vital step to identify reliable and eco-friendly controls for these vectors. In this study, (.) larvae (2nd and 3rd instar) were exposed to leaf extracts of (Castor) and AgNPs synthesized from the extract to evaluate their larvicidal potential. Synthesized AgNPs were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (XRD). larvae were treated with different concentrations (50-250 ppm) of the leaf extract and synthesized AgNPs. There were five replicates per treatment, in addition to a positive (temephos) and negative control (dechlorinated water). Mortality was recorded after 12, 24, 36, and 48 h and the data were subjected to Probit analysis. The nanoparticles were more toxic (LC = 46.22 ppm and LC = 85.30 ppm) than the plant extract (106.24 and 175.73 ppm, respectively). The leaf extracts of were subjected to HPLC analysis to identify their chemical constituents. This study suggests that plant extracts and synthesized nanoparticles are excellent alternatives to hazardous chemical pesticides used to control vector mosquitoes. This is a potentially useful technique that can reduce aquatic toxicity from insecticide use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.04.025DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7451677PMC
September 2020

Ecotoxicity of neonicotinoids and diamides on population growth performance of Zygogramma bicolorata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2020 Oct 20;203:110998. Epub 2020 Jul 20.

School of Agricultural Sciences, Sharda University, GN, Delhi, India.

Relative ecotoxicity of approved neonicotinoids (i.e. imidacloprid, clothianidin, acetamiprid, thiacloprid, thiamethoxam and dinotefuran) and diamides (i.e. chlorantraniliprole, cyantraniliprole and flubendiamide) was examined on population growth parameters of Zygogramma bicolorata Pallister on parthenium under laboratory conditions at 27 ± 1 °C, 65 ± 5% relative humidity and 10 L : 14D photoperiod. The dose of all tested insecticides in the bioassay procedure was within a minimum range of their recommended field rate. In acute toxicity trial, imidacloprid caused highest rate of mortality in treated adults of Z. bicolorata, however, it was lowest in flubendiamide treatment followed by cyantraniliprole and chlorantraniliprole. Further, based on toxicity coefficient (E) value in acute toxicity trial, all were classified as harmful (H) and diamides were classified as moderately harmful (MH) as per IOBC classification. Moreover, chronic toxicity trials were carried out through life table response experiments (LTREs) in the F progeny of acute toxicity experienced group. Prolonged development with the highest mortality was evident in as compared to diamides. Furthermore, population growth parameters i.e. potential fecundity (Pf), natality rate (m), intrinsic rate of increase (r), net reproductive rate (R) and finite rate of increase (λ) was greatly reduced in Z. bicolorata treated with neonicotinoids as compared with diamides. However, mean generation time (T), corrected generation time (τ) and the doubling time (DT) was prolonged in neonicotinoids followed by diamides. Furthermore, proportion of females was greatly reduced (0.43-0.48 females) in neonicotinoids as comparison to diamides (0.53-0.55 females) and control (0.67 females). On the basis of ecotoxicity trials, the tested neonicotinoids were highly toxic to Z. bicolorata than diamides. Therefore, diamide insecticides could be used with Z. bicolorata, however, for validation experimentation need to be done under natural field conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2020.110998DOI Listing
October 2020

Does Pallister really affects the growth, density and reproductive performance of L?

Saudi J Biol Sci 2020 Jul 30;27(7):1871-1878. Epub 2020 Mar 30.

Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

Pallister (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is a satisfactory potential candidate for controlling L The study was conducted in order to evaluate the bio-control potential of to satisfactory reduced the density of parthenium weed in natural field conditions. Therefore, beetles were released in the twelve study sites @ 12 adults and/or larvae/m in their respective sites on 5th, 10th, 15th and 20th day after initial field releases. Observations were made on defoliation by the beetle perthenium plant height, plant biomass, leaf injury rating and soil seed reservoir. Present study showed that field releases of considerably lowering down the parthenium density at all treated sites. At larval release sites by the 60th day of observation a complete defoliation was noted, however at adult release sites it took 80 days for complete defoliation. Moreover, significantly higher number of developmental stages i.e. eggs, larvae and adults were noted in the adults released sites than to larval released sites and the controls. It was also noted that plant height and its density, flowers & leaves production biomass of parthenium plant and seed reservoir in soil was negatively affected in treated sites as compared to untreated sites. Thus, we have concluded that adults can be utilized in biocontrol program because population build-up was greater in those sites where adults were released.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.03.023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7296485PMC
July 2020

Disentangling the interplay of positive and negative selection forces that shaped mitochondrial genomes of and .

R Soc Open Sci 2020 Jan 8;7(1):190669. Epub 2020 Jan 8.

Wuxi Fisheries College, Nanjing Agricultural University, Wuxi 214081, People's Republic of China.

We hypothesized that the mitogenome of (GL), native to the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, might exhibit genetic adaptations to the extreme environmental conditions associated with high altitudes (greater than 3000 m). To test this, we also sequenced the mitogenome of (GP), whose native range is close to the Tibetan plateau, but at a much lower altitude (200-1500 m). The two mitogenomes exhibited conserved mitochondrial architecture, but low identity between genes (55% to 76.1% ). Standard (homogeneous) phylogenetic models resolved Gammaridae as paraphyletic, but 'heterogeneous' CAT-GTR model as monophyletic. In indirect support of our working hypothesis, GL, GP and exhibit evidence of episodic diversifying selection within the studied Gammaroidea dataset. The mitogenome of GL generally evolves under a strong purifying selection, whereas GP evolves under directional (especially pronounced in ) and/or relaxed selection. This is surprising, as GP does not inhabit a unique ecological niche compared to other gammarids. We propose that this rapid evolution of the GP mitogenome may be a reflection of its relatively recent speciation and heightened non-adaptive (putatively metabolic rate-driven) mutational pressures. To test these hypotheses, we urge sequencing mitogenomes of remaining species populating the same geographical range as GP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsos.190669DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7029888PMC
January 2020

Evaluation of the andrographolides role and its indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase inhibitory potential and attendant molecular mechanism against STZ-induced diabetic rats.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2020 Feb 17;27(2):713-719. Epub 2019 Dec 17.

Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

The study is to scrutinize andrographolides with Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) inhibitory potential, its molecular mechanism against streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic retinopathy (DR) in Wistar rats. Oxidative stress markers such as Kynurenine metabolites, retinal histopathological changes have been studied. Further, IDO gene expression and docking studies have been performed. Andrographolide treated rats have been reducing the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and protein carbonyls Kynurenine metabolites with an improvement in the level of GSH and expression of IDO as revealed by morphological changes in inner and outer nuclear layer of the retina. The current results of this study have been generated information about an activity of the andrographolide in the essential pocket of IDO. Our results explain, involving IDO and andrographolide would constitute an attempt to identify natural products with therapeutic value and further studies in this direction would be of immense significance in the administration of diabetes and its related problems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2019.12.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6997866PMC
February 2020

Reassessment of species distribution and occurrence of mud crab ( spp., Portunidae) in Malaysia through morphological and molecular identification.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2020 Feb 29;27(2):643-652. Epub 2019 Nov 29.

Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

This study utilized genetic and morphometric approaches to assess the molecular and morphometric differentiation among commercially important species of mud crab. Molecular investigations were derived from 542 bp mitochondrial DNA COI on 249 individuals within genus from nine states in Malaysia represents four marine regions; South China Sea, Sulu Sea, Straits of Singapore and Straits of Malacca. Four specimens were obtained from Indonesia to give a robust analysis in this study. For species delimitation, Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD) method on a web interface was employed. Analysis on phylogenetics was implemented utilizing Neighbour joining (NJ) and Maximum Parsimony (MP) methods. The inter- and intraspecies genetic distances ( ) was computed using Kimura 2-parameter distance and executed in MEGA version 5.05. All samples were genetically and morphologically identified and clustered into four distinct species. Among the species, was the most abundant ( = 111), on the other hand the occurrence of in Malaysia was very low ( = 29). No single individual of from Malaysia was recorded in this study. Both genetic distance and phylogenetic approaches exhibited a correlative monophyletic association among all specimens analysed. This present study is crucial as it reports the reassessment of all species within genus in Malaysia, eventually could be employed as a reference source for subsequent research mainly on mariculture and other conservation efforts for the species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2019.11.030DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6997873PMC
February 2020

Investigating the antiangiogenic potential of (humeidh), anticancer activity in cancer cell lines and assessment of developmental toxicity in zebrafish embryos.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2020 Feb 6;27(2):611-622. Epub 2019 Dec 6.

College of Science, Department of Zoology, King Saud University, 11451 Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Recent trends in anticancer therapy is to use therapeutic agents which not only kill the cancer cell, but are less toxic to surrounding normal cells/tissue. One approach is to cut the nutrient supply to growing tumor cells, by blocking the formation of new blood vessels around the tumor. As the phytochemicals and botanical crude extracts have proven their efficacy as natural antiangiogenic agents with minimum toxicities, there is need to explore varieties of medicinal plants for novel antiangiogenic compounds. (Humeidh), is an annual herbal plant with proven medicinal values. The antiangiogenic potential, and developmental toxicity of humeidh in experimental animal models has never been studied before. The crude extracts were prepared from the roots, stems, leaves and flowers of in methanol, chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-hexane. The developmental toxicity screening in zebrafish embryos, has revealed that was not toxic to zebrafish embryos The chloroform stem extract showed significant level of antiangiogenic activity in zebrafish angiogenic assay on a dose dependent manner. Thirty five (35) bioactive compounds were identified by gas chromatography mass spectrophotometry (GC-MS) analysis in the stem extract of . Propanoic acid, 2-[(trimethylsilyl)oxy]-, trimethylsilyl ester, Butane, 1,2,3-tris(trimethylsiloxy), and Butanedioic acid, bis(trimethylsilyl) ester were identified as major compound present in the stem of . The anticancer activity of roots, stem, leaves and flowers crude extract was evaluated in human breast cancer (MCF7), human colon carcinoma (Lovo, and Caco-2), human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cell lines. Most of the crude extracts did not show significant level of cytotoxicity in tested cancer cells line, except, chloroform extract of stem which exhibited strong anticancer activity in all tested cancer cells with IC values in micro molar range. Based on these results, it is recommended that formulation prepared from can further be tested in clinical trials in order to explore its therapeutic potential as an effective and safe natural anticancer product.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2019.11.042DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6997907PMC
February 2020

Population structure and genetic diversity of and in Penang as revealed by mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase I.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2020 Mar 27;27(3):953-967. Epub 2020 Jan 27.

Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

The population genetics study is crucial as it helps in understanding the epidemiological aspects of dengue and help improving a vector control measures. This research aims to investigate the population genetics structure of two common species of mosquitoes in Penang; and using Cytochrome Oxidase I (COI) mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) marker. Molecular investigations were derived from 440 bp and 418 bp mtDNA COI on 125 and 334 larvae of and respectively, from 32 locations in Penang. All samples were employed in the BLASTn for species identification. The haplotype diversity, nucleotide diversity, neutrality test and mismatch distribution analysis were conducted in DnaSP version 5.10.1. AMOVA analysis was conducted in ARLEQUIN version 3.5 and the phylogenetic reconstructions based on maximum likelihood (ML) and neighbor-joining (NJ) methods were implemented in MEGA X. The relationships among haplotypes were further tested by creating a minimum spanning tree using Network version 4.6.1. All samples were genetically identified and clustered into six distinct species. Among the species, was the most abundant (67.2%), followed by (25.2%) and the rest were counted for sp. and sp. Both and show low nucleotide diversity (π) and high haplotype diversity (), while the neutrality test shows a negative value in most of the population for both species. There are a total of 39 and 64 haplotypes recorded for and respectively. AMOVA analysis revealed that most of the variation occurred within population for both species. Mismatch distribution analysis showed bimodal characteristic of population differentiation for but showed unimodal characteristics of population differentiation. Genetic distance based on Tamura-Nei parameter showed low genetic divergent within population and high genetic divergent among population for both species. The maximum likelihood tree showed no obvious pattern of population genetic structure for both and from Penang and a moderate to high bootstrap values has supported this conclusion. The minimum spanning network for and showed five and three dominant haplotypes respectively, which indicates a mixture of haplotypes from the regions analysed. This study revealed that there is no population genetic structure exhibited by both and in Penang. Mutation has occurred rapidly in both species and this will be challenging in controlling the populations. However, further analysis needed to confirm this statement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.01.021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7042630PMC
March 2020

Evaluation of Yeast Fermented Poultry By-Product Meal in Nile Tilapia () Feed: Effects on Growth Performance, Digestive Enzymes Activity, Innate Immunity, and Antioxidant Capacity.

Front Vet Sci 2019 24;6:516. Epub 2020 Jan 24.

Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of dietary inclusion of fermented poultry by-product meal (FPBM) on growth performance, digestive enzymes activity, innate immunity, and antioxidant capacity in Nile tilapia (). A basal diet containing fish meal and soybean meal was considered as a control (Con), and four other diets were produced by inclusion of 10, 20, 30, or 40% FPBM (FPBM10, FPBM20, FPBM30, and FPBM40 diets). The experiment was done in triplicates (20 fish per replicate) and the fish were fed the test diets to visual satiety twice daily for 8 weeks. The groups of fish fed the FPBM10 and FPBM20 diets showed significantly ( < 0.05) higher weight gain and specific growth rate, and lower feed conversion ratio than those fed the Con and FPBM40 diets. Moreover, inclusion of 40% FPBM led to significant reduction of feed intake compared to the other treatments. FPBM at all the tested levels improved intestinal protease activity and lipase activity was enhanced at 10-30% inclusion levels. Furthermore, the FPBM10 and FPBM20 groups revealed significantly higher amylase activity than the other treatments. The FPBM10 group exhibited significantly higher phagocytic activity than the control group and phagocytic index was enhanced by dietary inclusion of 10-30% FPBM. However, inclusion of over 30% FPBM led to significant reduction of lysozyme, phagocytic, and bactericidal activities compared to the control group. Further, FPBM10 and FPBM20 diets increased the serum IgM levels, while NBT was significantly increased by feeding FPBM10 diet compared with FPBM30 and FPBM40 groups ( < 0.05). The group fed the FPBM30 diet showed significantly higher glutathione peroxidase activity than the control group. According to the analysis of the data by the polynomial regression, the inclusion of FPBM at 11.17-25.14% can be applied effectively in the diets of tilapia for better growth performance and health condition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2019.00516DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6996487PMC
January 2020

Sub-lethal effect of synthetic pyrethroid pesticide on metabolic enzymes and protein profile of non-target Zebra fish, .

Saudi J Biol Sci 2020 Jan 20;27(1):441-447. Epub 2019 Nov 20.

Department of Clinical Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Soonchunhyang University, Cheonan, Republic of Korea.

Extensive application of pesticide in agricultural field affects the enzymatic activity of non-target animals, including fishes. In this study, the impact of sublethal concentration of fenvalerate on marker enzymes of freshwater Zebra fish was evaluated. Pesticide-induced stress can specifically affect non target fishes, through elevated level of reactive oxygen species which is responsible for biochemical, cell metabolism and physiological activities. The oxidative stress mediated by fenvalerate at sub lethal concentrations after 28 days of exposure of Zebra fish. Following 28 days of exposure of pesticide, catalase, superoxide dismutase, aspartate amino transferases, alanine amino transferase, alkaline phosphatase and acid phosphatase were assessed. Results revealed reduction of superoxide dismutase activity after 28 days of exposure in sub lethal concentration of fenvalerate in liver and gills. In liver, catalase activity was found to be less in fenvalerate exposed fish than control fish. In liver, increase of 75.75% aspartate amino transferase and 38% increase in alanine amino transferase in gills. SGPT activity was relatively higher than SGOT suggests more contribution of phyruvalate than oxaloacetate formation. Fenvalerate induced changes in acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase activity in the liver and gills of Zebra fish after four weeks of exposure. Fenvalerate induced expression of various stress proteins in gill, liver, followed by muscle. Some proteins lost its intensity due to fenvalerate toxicity. Result revealed that enzyme assays and SDS-PAGE analysis for protein subunits determination is relevant tool to monitor stress in freshwater ecosystem. The findings suggest that in monitoring fenvalerate toxicity programme, enzyme activities can be potent diagnostic tool for fenvalerate induced toxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2019.11.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6933226PMC
January 2020

Analysis of bioactive composites and antiviral activity of extracts against Newcastle disease virus .

Saudi J Biol Sci 2020 Jan 11;27(1):335-340. Epub 2019 Oct 11.

Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

The study was implemented to actuate the qualitative and quantitative phyto constituents of extracts and its antiviral efficacy against avian ND virus. Among four tested solvents, the ethanolic extract of revealed the presence of highest quantity of all tested phytochemicals while petroleum ether extract showed the least. Folin-Ciocalteu method assessed the range of TPC extended from 81.01 ± 0.67 to 126.35 ± 0.45 µg GAE/mg. Acetonic extract showed the highest amount among all extracts and petroleum ether possessed the lower quantity. TFC ranged from 54.37 ± 0.45 to 88.12 ± 0.26 µg QE/mg followed by colorimetric method. From all extract ethanolic extract showed highest quantity and petroleum ether revealed the lower. HPLC analysis of ethanolic extract of confesses the presence six bioactive components by using the HP5-MS column. To check the antiviral potential of plants, different prepared treatments of plant extract and live virus were inoculated at 9 days old SPF embryonated chicken eggs. Results exposed that all plant extracts produce antiviral activity against NDV according to their potential and phytochemical profile. The highest survival rate was observed in the ethanolic extract at 400 µg/mL and acetonic extract at 300 µg/mL as it controls the NDV activity completely, evidence of absence of embryo death and HA titre. Dichloromethane and petroleum ether could not inhibit the virus completely. 600 µg/mL concentration was proved as toxic in all extracts except petroleum ether extract which showed a dose dependent pattern.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2019.10.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6933243PMC
January 2020
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