Publications by authors named "Shah Saud"

53 Publications

Coronavirus and its terrifying inning around the globe: The pharmaceutical cares at the main frontline.

Chemosphere 2021 Feb 16;275:129968. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Department of Agronomy, University of Haripur, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Electronic address:

A novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) is an acute life-threatening disease, emerged in China, which imposed a potentially immense toll in terms of public health emergency due to high infection rate and has a devastating economic impact that attracts the world's attention. After that, on January 30, 2020, it was officially declared as a global pandemic by World Health Organization (WHO). The International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) recognized it as a Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and the disease named Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19). Several studies have been ameliorated the active role of COVID-19 transmission, etiology, pathogenicity, and mortality rate as serious impact on human life. The symptoms of this disease may include fever, fatigue, cough and some peoples are severely prone to gastrointestinal infection. The elderly and seriously affected peoples are likely concerned with serious outcomes. In this review, we mainly aimed to provide a benchmark summary of the silent characteristics and findings of some candidates for antiviral drugs and immunotherapies such as plasma therapy, cytokine therapy, antibodies, intravenous immunoglobulin, and pharmaceutical health concerns that are related to this disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.129968DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7884917PMC
February 2021

Investigating connections between COVID-19 pandemic, air pollution and community interventions for Pakistan employing geoinformation technologies.

Chemosphere 2021 Jun 29;272:129809. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Department of Agronomy, University of Haripur, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Electronic address:

Several major cities that witnessed heavy air pollution by particulate matter (PM) concentration and nitrogen dioxide (NO) have contributed to high rate of infection and severity of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. Owing to the negative impact of COVID-19 on health and economy, it is imperative to predict the pandemic trend of the COVID-19 outbreak. Pakistan is one of the mostly affected countries by recent COVID-19 pandemic in terms of COVID-cases and economic crises. Like other several Asian countries to combat the virus impacts, Pakistan implemented non-pharmacological interventions (NPI), such as national lockdowns. The current study investigates the effect of major interventions across three out of four provinces of Pakistan for the period from the start of the COVID-19 in March 22, 2020 until June 30, 2020, when lockdowns were started to be eased. High-resolution data on NO was recorded from Sentinel-5's Precursor spacecraft with TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (Sentinel-5P TROPOMI). Similarly, PM data were collected from sampling sties to investigate possible correlation among these pollutants and COVID-19. In addition, growth and susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) models utilizing time-series data of COVID-19 from February 26 to December 31, 2020, with- and without NPI that encompass the predicted number of infected cases, peak time, impact on the healthcare system and mortality in Pakistan. Maximum mean PM concentration of 108 μgm was recorded for Lahore with the range from 51 to 215 μgm during strict lockdown (L), condition. This is three times higher than Pak-EPA and US-EPA and four times for WHO guidelines, followed by Peshawar (97.2 and 58 ± 130), Islamabad (83 and 158 ± 58), and Karachi (78 and 50 ± 140). The majority of sampling sites in Lahore showed NO levels higher than 8.75E-5 (mol/m) in 2020 compared to 2019 during "L" period. The susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) model depicted a strong correlation (r) between the predicted and reported cases for Punjab (r = 0.79), Sindh (r = 0.91), Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) (r = 94) and Islamabad (r = 0.85). Findings showed that major NPI and lockdowns especially have had a large effect on minimizing transmission. Continued community intervention should be undertaken to keep transmission of SARS-CoV-2 under control in cities where higher incidence of COVID-19 cases until the vaccine is available. This study provides a methodological framework that if adopted can assist epidemiologist and policy makers to be well-prepared in advance in cities where PM concentration and NO levels are already high in order to minimize the potential risk of further spread of COVID-19 cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.129809DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7846247PMC
June 2021

Spatiotemporal variability of COVID-19 pandemic in relation to air pollution, climate and socioeconomic factors in Pakistan.

Chemosphere 2021 May 10;271:129584. Epub 2021 Jan 10.

Hainan Key Laboratory for Sustainable Utilization of Tropical Bioresource, College of Tropical Crops,Hainan University, Haikou, 570228, China; Department of Agronomy, The University of Haripur, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, 21120, Pakistan. Electronic address:

Information on the spatiotemporal variability of respirable suspended particulate pollutant matter concentrations, especially of particles having size of 2.5 μm and climate are the important factors in relation to emerging COVID-19 cases around the world. This study aims at examining the association between COVID-19 cases, air pollution, climatic and socioeconomic factors using geospatial techniques in three provincial capital cities and the federal capital city of Pakistan. A series of relevant data was acquired from 3 out of 4 provinces of Pakistan (Punjab, Sindh, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) including the daily numbers of COVID-19 cases, PM concentration (μgm), a climatic factors including temperature (°F), wind speed (m/s), humidity (%), dew point (%), and pressure (Hg) from June 1 2020, to July 31 2020. Further, the possible relationships between population density and COVID-19 cases was determined. The generalized linear model (GLM) was employed to quantify the effect of PM, temperature, dew point, humidity, wind speed, and pressure range on the daily COVID-19 cases. The grey relational analysis (GRA) was also implemented to examine the changes in COVID-19 cases with PM concentrations for the provincial city Lahore. About 1,92, 819 COVID-19 cases were reported in Punjab, Sindh, KPK, and Islamabad during the study period. Results indicated a significant relationship between COVID-19 cases and PM and climatic factors at p < 0.05 except for Lahore in case of humidity (r = 0.175). However, mixed correlations existed across Lahore, Karachi, Peshawar, and Islamabad. The R value indicates a moderate relationship between COVID-19 and population density. Findings of this study, although are preliminary, offers the first line of evidence for epidemiologists and may assist the local community to expedient for the growth of effective COVID-19 infection and health risk management guidelines. This remains to be seen.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.129584DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7797023PMC
May 2021

Assessment of differences in morphological and physiological leaf lodging characteristics between two cultivars of Hippeastrum rutilum.

BMC Plant Biol 2020 Dec 14;20(1):565. Epub 2020 Dec 14.

College of Horticulture & Landscape Architecture, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, 150030, China.

Background: Environmental lodging stress, which is a result of numerous factors, is characterized by uncertainty. However, several studies related to lodging in cereal crops have reported that lodging in the Hippeastrum rutilum environment is very rare. Hippeastrum rutilum is a garden flower with high ornamental value and abundant germplasm resources. Under past cultivation practices, it was found that the plant types of 'Red Lion', with red flowers, and 'Apple Blossom', with pink flowers, are quite different. The leaves of 'Red Lion' are upright, while the leaves of 'Apple Blossom' show lodging, which seriously affects its ornamental value. The aims of this study were to compare the differences between the two varieties with leaf lodging and upright leaves according to morphological and physiological attributes. In this study, karyotype analysis and phenotypic morphological and physiological characteristics were compared to explore the differences between the two plant types.

Results: The karyotype analysis of the two cultivars showed that their chromosome types were both tetraploid plants. The results showed that the lignin content in the leaves of 'Red Lion' was high, the cross-sectional structure of the leaf vascular bundle was more stable, and the chlorophyll content was high. In addition, significantly less energy was transferred to the electron transport chain (ETR) during the photoreaction. Similarly, the results regarding the maximum photosynthetic rate (Fv/Fm), nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) and effective quantum yield of photosystem II photochemistry (△F/Fm') all indicated that the photosynthetic capacity of "Red Lion" was greater than that of "Apple Blossom", which was affected by leaf lodging. The size of the leaves was significantly smaller, and the leaf sag angle, leaf width, and leaf tip angle presented significantly lower values in 'Red Lion' than in 'Apple Blossom', which exhibits leaf sag. The difference in these factors may be the reason for the different phenotypes of the two cultivars.

Conclusion: The results of this study proved that lodging affects the photosynthetic capacity of Hippeastrum rutilum and revealed some indexes that might be related to leaf lodging, laying a theoretical foundation for cultivating and improving new varieties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12870-020-02784-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7737282PMC
December 2020

Targeting salt stress coping mechanisms for stress tolerance in Brassica: A research perspective.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2021 Jan 27;158:53-64. Epub 2020 Nov 27.

School of Agronomy, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei, 230036, China. Electronic address:

Brassica genus comprises numerous cultivated brassica species with various economic importance. Salt stress is an overwhelming problem causing serious losses in Brassica species (e.g. B. napus, B. rapa, B. oleracea, B. juncea) growth and grain yield production by inducing ionic and ROS toxicity. Given that a significant variation exists in salt tolerance level in Brassica genus, Brassica species exhibited numerous salt tolerance mechanisms which were either overlooked or given less importance to improve and understand innate salt stress tolerance mechanism in Brassica species. In this review, we tried to highlight the importance and recent findings relating to some overlooked and potential mechanisms such as role of neurotransmitters, and role of cytosolic Ca and ROS as signaling elements to enhance salt stress tolerance. Studies revealed that salt tolerant brassica species retained more K in leaf mesophyll which confers overall salinity tolerance in salt tolerance brassica species. Neurotransmitter such as melatonin, dopamiane and eATP regulates K and Ca permeable ion channels and plays a very crucial role in ionic homeostasis under salinity stress in brassica. At the end, the numerous possible salt stress agronomic strategies were also discussed to mitigate the severity of the salt stress in Brassica species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2020.11.044DOI Listing
January 2021

Effects of the nitrification inhibitor nitrapyrin and mulch on NO emission and fertilizer use efficiency using N tracing techniques.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Feb 16;757:143739. Epub 2020 Nov 16.

Department of Soil Science, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, 60800, Punjab, Pakistan.

Nitrous oxide (NO), is a potent greenhouse gas (GHG) that shares 7% of global warming around the world. Among different sources, agricultural systems account for approx. 60% of global anthropogenic NO emissions. These NO emissions are associated with the activity of nitrifiers and denitrifiers that contribute to >4 Tg (teragrams) NO-N emission per year. Application of nitrogen (N) fertilizers and manures in agricultural fields plays an imperative role in this regard. On the other hand nitrification inhibitors are an effective approach to minimize NO-N emissions from agricultural fields. Here we examined the effects of applying urea with a nitrification inhibitor (Ni) nitrapyrin and mulch (Mu) on urea transformation, nitrous oxide (NO) emissions, grain yield and nitrogen (N) uptake efficiency. The treatments include a control (zero N), urea (U) applied at 200 kg N ha, U + Ni (Ni applied at 700 g ha), U+ Mu (Mu applied at 4 t ha) and U + Ni + Mu. The NO emission factor (EF) was 66% and 75% when U and Mu were applied, respectively. Yield-scaled NO emissions were lower in U and Mu by 45% and 55%, respectively. The Ni coupled with Mu enhanced urea-N recovery by 58% and wheat grain yield by 23% and total N uptake by 30% compared with U alone. In conclusion, Ni usage is an effective strategy to mitigate NO emissions under field conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.143739DOI Listing
February 2021

Influence of semi-arid environment on radiation use efficiency and other growth attributes of lentil crop.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Mar 16;28(11):13697-13711. Epub 2020 Nov 16.

Department of Agronomy, University College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur (IUB), Bahawalpur, Pakistan.

Solar radiation (SR) is essential for yield improvement in lentil, which is a crop of marginal environments. Herein, experiments were conducted over 2 years under a semi-arid environment to study the radiation interception (RI), efficiency, growth, and development of three lentil genotypes (Punjab Masoor-2009 (PM-2009), NIAB Masoor-2006 (NM-2006), and NIAB Masoor-2002 (NM-2002)) in relation to three nitrogen rates (13, 19, and 25 kg ha). Seasonal dynamics of intercepted photoactive radiation (IPAR) and cumulated photosynthetic photon flux density were highly associated with seasonal dynamics of leaf area index (LAI), with a high value of R (0.93 and 0.89) across all nitrogen rates and genotypes in both years. Nitrogen application promoted growth, and maximum LAI (3.97 and 3.57) and RI (324 and 301 MJ m) were attained for the first and second years of study, respectively. Biomass and yield were positively associated with IPAR. Variation in radiation absorption (RA) among genotypes was due to different patterns of LAI development. In both years, yield (23% and 25%) and radiation use efficiency (RUE) for grain yield (0.44 and 0.37 g MJ) were respectively higher for PM-2009 than for the other genotypes. Genotype PM-2009 had 15 days shorter crop cycle than others while 14% higher GDDs accumulated in the first year compared with the second due to the higher temperature. High nitrogen (25 kg ha) application resulted in higher dry matter (DM), and grain yield (GY), while RUE and PAR were not statistically different under 19 kg N ha application across years. Genotypes PM-2009 and NM-2006 may perform reasonably well under arid to semi-arid regions at farmer field. These findings may assist researchers and crop modelers to optimize the lentil ideotype for efficient light utilization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-11376-wDOI Listing
March 2021

Beneficial Effects of Mixing Kentucky Bluegrass With Red Fescue Plant-Soil Interactions in Black Soil of Northeast China.

Front Microbiol 2020 28;11:556118. Epub 2020 Oct 28.

College of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, China.

Continuous monoculture of cool-season turfgrass causes soil degradation, and visual turf quality decline is a major concern in black soil regions of Northeast China. Turf mixtures can enhance turfgrass resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses and increase soil microbial diversity. Understanding mechanism by plant-soil interactions and changes of black soil microbial communities in turf mixture is beneficial to restoring the degradation of urbanized black soils and maintaining sustainable development of urban landscape ecology. In this study, based on the previous research of different sowing models, two schemes of turf monoculture and mixture were conducted in field plots during 2016-2018 in a black soil of Heilongjiang province of Northeast China. The mixture turf was established by mixing 50% Kentucky bluegrass "Midnight" ( L.) with 50% Red fescue "Frigg" ( L.); and the monoculture turf was established by sowing with pure Kentucky bluegrass. Turf performance, soil physiochemical properties, and microbial composition from rhizosphere were investigated. Soil microbial communities and abundance were analyzed by Illumina MiSeq sequencing and quantitative PCR methods. Results showed that turfgrass quality, turfgrass biomass, soil organic matter (SOM), urease, alkaline phosphatase, invertase, and catalase activities increased in PF mixture, but disease percentage and soil pH decreased. The microbial diversity was also significantly enhanced under turf mixture model. The microbial community compositions were significantly different between the two schemes. Turf mixtures obviously increased the abundances of , , , and spp., while remarkably reduced the abundances of and spp. Redundancy analysis showed that the compositions of bacteria and fungi were related to edaphic parameters, such as SOM, pH, and enzyme activities. Since the increasing of turf quality, biomass, and disease resistance were highly correlated with the changes of soil physiochemical parameters and microbial communities in turf mixture, which suggested that turf mixture with two species (i.e., Kentucky blue grass and Red fescue) changed soil microbial communities and enhanced visual turfgrass qualities through positive plant-soil interactions by soil biota.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.556118DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7656059PMC
October 2020

Negative impact of long-term exposure of salinity and drought stress on native Tetraena mandavillei L.

Physiol Plant 2020 Nov 12. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Department of Botany and Microbiology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Tetraena mandavillei L. is a perennial shrub native to the Middle Eastern countries of Asia, which is extensively regarded as a drought-tolerant plant. However, the plant reduces growth and biomass when grown in high concentrations of sodium chloride in the soil. We conducted a pot experiment to influence the negative impact of different levels of salinity (0, 10, and 20 dSm ) and drought stress (100, 80, 60, and 40% water field capacity), to study different growth-related parameters, physiological alterations and ion uptake by T. mandavillei. Both salinity and drought stress caused a negative impact by affecting several attributes of T. mandavillei, but the plants showed some resistance against drought stress conditions in terms of growth and biomass. In addition to that, we noticed that a combinatorial and individual impact of drought and salinity stress decreased photosynthetic pigments and gas exchange parameters in T. mandavillei. Results also depicted that the combination of the abiotic stress conditions drought and salinity induced reactive oxygen species (ROS), indicating that the plants undergo oxidative damaged. However, due to the active plant defense system, the plant enhanced its performance under abiotic stress conditions, but due to the severe drought condition (40% water field capacity), a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in the activities of antioxidant compounds was caused. Furthermore, osmolytes also increased under both salinity and drought stress conditions in this study. Our results also showed that increased salinity and drought stress in the soil caused a significant increase in sodium (Na ) and chloride (Cl ) ions in roots and shoots of T. mandavillei. In contrast to that, the contents of Calcium (Ca ) and potassium (K ) were decreased in all organs of the plants with increasing levels of salinity and drought stress. Taken together, T. mandavillei can be classified as a facultative halophyte with the ability to tolerate drought stress and using salt accumulation mechanisms to tolerate salinity stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ppl.13273DOI Listing
November 2020

Phosphorus Nutrient Management through Synchronization of Application Methods and Rates in Wheat and Maize Crops.

Plants (Basel) 2020 Oct 19;9(10). Epub 2020 Oct 19.

Department of Botany and Microbiology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 2455, Saudi Arabia.

Management of inorganic fertilizer is very important to obtain maximum crop yield and improved nutrient use efficiency in cereal crops. Fixation of phosphatic fertilizers in alkaline soils due to calcareousness is one of the major hurdles. It induces phosphorus nutritional stress that can decrease the yield of maize and wheat. Selection of a suitable application method and proper stage of crop for phosphorus (P) fertilizer has prime importance in better uptake of P and crop production. Among different application methods, soil and foliar application are widely adopted. In wheat and maize, knee height + tasseling and stem elongation + booting are critical stages towards P deficiency. That is why field trials were conducted to evaluate the supplemental effect of foliar P on maize and wheat yields. For that, 144 mM KHPO was applied as foliar at knee height + tasseling and stem elongation + boot stages in maize and wheat, respectively. Soil application of 0, 20, 40 and 60 kg P ha was done through broadcast and band methods. Results showed that foliar spray of 144 mM KHPO at knee height + tasseling and stem elongation + boot stages in wheat and maize significantly enhanced grains yield and phosphorus use efficiency (PUE) where P was applied as banding or broadcast at the time of sowing. A significant decreasing trend in response to increasing soil P levels validated the efficacious role and suitability of foliar P. In conclusion, the use of P as foliar at knee height + tasseling and stem elongation + boot stages is an efficacious way to manage P fertilizer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants9101389DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7603365PMC
October 2020

Coupling Phosphate-Solubilizing Bacteria with Phosphorus Supplements Improve Maize Phosphorus Acquisition and Growth under Lime Induced Salinity Stress.

Plants (Basel) 2020 Jul 16;9(7). Epub 2020 Jul 16.

Department of Agrochemistry, Soil Science, Microbiology and Plant Nutrition, Faculty of AgriSciences, Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska1, 61300 Brno, Czech Republic.

Global warming promotes soil calcification and salinization processes. As a result, soil phosphorus (P) is becoming deficient in arid and semiarid areas throughout the world. In this pot study, we evaluated the potential of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) for enhancing the growth and P uptake in maize under varying levels of lime (4.8%, 10%, 15% and 20%) and additional P supplements (farmyard manure, poultry manure, single super phosphate and rock phosphate) added at the rate of 45 mg PO kg. Inoculation and application of P as organic manures (Poultry and farm yard manures) improved maize growth and P uptake compared to the control and soils with P applied from mineral sources. Liming adversely affected crop growth, but the use of PSB and organic manure significantly neutralized this harmful effect. Mineral P sources combined with PSB were as effective as the organic sources alone. Furthermore, while single supper phosphate showed better results than Rock phosphate, the latter performed comparably upon PSB inoculation. Thus, PSB plus P application as organic manures is an eco-friendly option to improve crop growth and P nutrition in a calcareous soil under changing climate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants9070900DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7411598PMC
July 2020

Structural insights of catalytic mechanism in mutant pyrazinamidase of .

J Biomol Struct Dyn 2020 May 12:1-14. Epub 2020 May 12.

College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, The State Key Laboratory of Microbial Metabolism, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China.

Pyrazinamidase (PZase) is a member of Fe-dependent amidohydrolases that activates pyrazinamide (PZA) into active pyrazinoic acid (POA). PZA, a nicotinamide analogue, is an essential first-line drug used in (Mtb) treatment. The active form of PZA, POA, is toxic and potently inhibits the growth of latent Mtb, which makes it possible to shorten the conventional 9-month tuberculosis treatment to 6 months. In this study, an extensive molecular dynamics simulation was carried out to the study the resistance mechanism offered by the three mutations Q10P and D12A and G97D. Our results showed that two regions Gln10-His43, Phe50-Gly75 are profoundly affected by these mutations. Among the three mutations, Q10P and D12A mutations strongly disturb the communication among the catalytic triad (Asp8, Lys98 and Cys138). The oxyanion hole is formed between the backbone nitrogen atoms of A134 and C138 which stabilizes the hydroxyl anion of nicotinamide. The D12A mutation greatly disturbs the oxyanion hole formation followed by the Q10P and G97D. Our results also showed that these mutations destabilize the interaction between Fe ion and Asp49, His51, His57 and His71. The binding pocket analysis showed that these mutations increase the cavity volume, which results in loose binding of PZA. MMGBSA analyzes have shown that these mutations reduce the binding affinity to the PZA drug. Our results may provide useful information for the design of new and effective PZase inhibitors based on structural information of WT and mutant PZases.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07391102.2020.1761879DOI Listing
May 2020

Determining nitrogen isotopes discrimination under drought stress on enzymatic activities, nitrogen isotope abundance and water contents of Kentucky bluegrass.

Sci Rep 2020 04 14;10(1):6415. Epub 2020 Apr 14.

College of Plant Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, Hubei, 430070, China.

Drought stress is the most pervasive threat to plant growth, which predominantly encumbers turf grass growth by causing alterations in plant functions. This study appraised the role of nitrogen isotopes in providing a theoretical basis for developing and improving Kentucky bluegrass cultivar performance under drought stress. Nitrogen isotopes labelled NHCl and KNO were prepared to replace KNO in Hoagland's solution at concentrations of NH and NO at 1.5, 15, and 30 mM; the solutions were imposed on stressed plants under glasshouse conditions. Nitrogenous nutrition reduced oxidative stress by elevating the enzymatic activities and proline contents of all three clonal ramet leaves, particularly under stress conditions. Apart from nitrogen content, nitrogen isotope abundance, relative water content and water potential within controls were enhanced in treated with NH than in with NO in both the roots and leaves of Kentucky bluegrass. Nevertheless, an application of NHCl and KNO at 30 mM had a positive influence to some extent on these attributes under drought stress. Overall, our results suggested that nitrogen isotopes contributed to drought tolerance in all three clonal ramets of Kentucky bluegrass by maintaining a better osmoprotectant and antioxidant defence system, which helped the plants eliminate reactive oxygen species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-63548-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7156527PMC
April 2020

Arsenic in a groundwater environment in Bangladesh: Occurrence and mobilization.

J Environ Manage 2020 May 3;262:110318. Epub 2020 Mar 3.

National Engineering Laboratory for Tree Breeding, College of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing, 100083, China.

Groundwater with an excessive level of Arsenic (As) is a threat to human health. In Bangladesh, out of 64 districts, the groundwater of 50 and 59 districts contains As exceeding the Bangladesh (50 μg/L) and WHO (10 μg/L) standards for potable water. This review focuses on the occurrence, origin, plausible sources, and mobilization mechanisms of As in the groundwater of Bangladesh to better understand its environmental as well as public health consequences. High As concentrations mainly was mainly occur from the natural origin of the Himalayan orogenic tract. Consequently, sedimentary processes transport the As-loaded sediments from the orogenic tract to the marginal foreland of Bangladesh, and under the favorable biogeochemical circumstances, As is discharged from the sediment to the groundwater. Rock weathering, regular floods, volcanic movement, deposition of hydrochemical ore, and leaching of geological formations in the Himalayan range cause As occurrence in the groundwater of Bangladesh. Redox and desorption processes along with microbe-related reduction are the key geochemical processes for As enrichment. Under reducing conditions, both reductive dissolution of Fe-oxides and desorption of As are the root causes of As mobilization. A medium alkaline and reductive environment, resulting from biochemical reactions, is the major factor mobilizing As in groundwater. An elevated pH value along with decoupling of As and HCO plays a vital role in mobilizing As. The As mobilization process is related to the reductive solution of metal oxides as well as hydroxides that exists in sporadic sediments in Bangladesh. Other mechanisms, such as pyrite oxidation, redox cycling, and competitive ion exchange processes, are also postulated as probable mechanisms of As mobilization. The reductive dissolution of MnOOH adds dissolved As and redox-sensitive components such as SO and oxidized pyrite, which act as the major mechanisms to mobilize As. The reductive suspension of Mn(IV)-oxyhydroxides has also accelerated the As mobilization process in the groundwater of Bangladesh. Infiltration from the irrigation return flow and surface-wash water are also potential factors to remobilize As. Over-exploitation of groundwater and the competitive ion exchange process are also responsible for releasing As into the aquifers of Bangladesh.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2020.110318DOI Listing
May 2020

Morpho-physiological traits, biochemical response and phytoextraction potential of short-term copper stress on kenaf ( L.) seedlings.

PeerJ 2020 30;8:e8321. Epub 2020 Jan 30.

MOA Key Laboratory of Crop Ecophysiology and Farming System in the Middle Reaches of the Yangtze River, College of Plant Science and Technology, Huazhong Agriculture University, Wuhan, Hubei, China.

Kenaf ( L.) is a fibrous crop, grown in tropical climate having huge biomass and can be a good candidate for the phytoremediation of different heavy metals. Consequently, the present study was conducted to explore morpho-physiological traits, photosynthetic pigments, gaseous exchange attributes, antioxidative response and phytoextraction of copper (Cu) in . grown under different levels of Cu i.e. 0 (control), 60, 120 and 180 µmol L in Hoagland nutrient solution (pH 6.2). The results from the present study revealed that Cu toxicity reduced plant height, plant diameter, plant fresh weight, plant dry weight, photosynthetic pigments and gaseous exchange attributes compared to control. Moreover, excess Cu in the nutrient solution ameliorates contents of malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (HO) and electrolyte leakage (EL) which showed that Cu induced oxidative damage in the roots and leaves of . . The oxidative stress which was induced by a high concentration of Cu in the nutrient solution is overcome by enzymatic activities of antioxidants which increased with the increase in Cu concentration, i.e. 60 and 120 µmol L, while the addition of Cu (180 µmol L) caused a reduction in the activities of superoxidase dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) in the roots and leaves of . . The results also demonstrated that an increase in Cu concentration in the nutrient solution causes an increase in Cu accumulation through roots, leaves and stems of . , although the highest Cu concentration was accumulated in roots while only a little transported to the above ground parts (leaves and stems) of the plants. All the values of bioaccumulation factor (BAF) and translocation factor (TF) were less than 1, which also indicated that a small quantity of Cu concentration is transported to the aboveground part of the plants. These findings suggested that phytotoxicity of Cu affected plant growth and biomass and increased ROS production while accumulation of Cu in different parts of plant proved that . is an ideal specie for phytoremediation of Cu when grown under Cu contaminated sites.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.8321DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6995661PMC
January 2020

Integration of poultry manure and phosphate solubilizing bacteria improved availability of Ca bound P in calcareous soils.

3 Biotech 2019 Oct 23;9(10):368. Epub 2019 Sep 23.

7College of Agronomy, Nanjing Agriculture University, Nanjing, Jiangsu China.

A laboratory incubation experiment was executed to examine the role of phosphate solubilizing bacteria (with PSB and without PSB) and poultry manure (4, 8 and 12 t PM ha) in improving P mobilization/mineralization under four different lime regimes (4.78, 10, 15 and 20% CaCO M/M) for 56 days using three factorial complete randomized design (CRD) with triplicates. Phosphorus availability progressively increased over time irrespective of PSB inoculation, PM and lime levels. The PSB and PM (4-12 t ha) addition into soil significantly increased Olsen P at all incubation intervals. Post incubation PSB survival increased by 12 and 9% with inoculation and 12 t PM ha over control and 4 t PM ha, respectively. Liming ominously reduced P mobilization/mineralization by 1.3, 2.6 and 10.5% and PSB population by 6.6, 7.3 and 16.3% at 10, 15 and 20% (lime), respectively, over control at day 56. However, PSB and PM addition (with increasing rate) into soil significantly counterbalanced these ill effects of lime. Thus, the application of PSB and PM is a promising measure to enhance P availability in calcareous soils and shall be practiced.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13205-019-1894-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6757081PMC
October 2019

Alleviation of chromium toxicity in maize by Fe fortification and chromium tolerant ACC deaminase producing plant growth promoting rhizobacteria.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2019 Dec 24;185:109706. Epub 2019 Sep 24.

Department of Environmental Sciences, COMSATS University Islamabad (CUI), Vehari, 61100, Pakistan; Department of Agronomy, University College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur (IUB), Bahawalpur, Pakistan. Electronic address:

Chromium (Cr) is becoming a potential pollutant with the passage of time. Higher intake of Cr does not only affect the productivity of crops, but also the quality of food produced in Cr polluted soils. In the past, foliar application of Fe is widely studied regarding their potential to alleviate Cr toxicity. However, limited information is documented regarding the combined use of PGPR and foliar Fe. Therefore, the current study was conducted to screen Cr tolerant PGPR and examine effect of foliar Fe with and without Cr tolerant PGPR under Cr toxicity (50 and 100 mg kg) in maize (Zea mays) production. Out of 15, two Cr tolerant PGPR were screened, identified (Agrobacterium fabrum and Leclercia adecarboxylata) and inoculated with 500 μM Fe. Results confirmed that Agrobacterium fabrum + 500 μM Fe performed significantly best in improving dry weight of roots and shoot, plant height, roots and shoot length and plant leaves in maize under Cr toxicity. A significant increase in chlorophyll a (51.5%), b (55.1%) and total (32.5%) validated the effectiveness of A. fabrum + 500 μM Fe to alleviate Cr toxicity. Improvement in intake of N (64.7%), P (70.0 and 183.3%), K (53.8% and 3.40-fold) in leaves and N (25.6 and 122.2%), P (25.6 and 122.2%), K (33.3% and 97.3%) in roots of maize at Cr50 and Cr100 confirmed that combined application of A. fabrum with 500 μM Fe is a more efficacious approach for alleviation of Cr toxicity and fortification of Fe comparative to sole foliar application of 500 μM Fe.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2019.109706DOI Listing
December 2019

Identification of chicken meat quality via rapid array isoelectric focusing with extraction of hemoglobin and myoglobin in meat sample.

J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2019 Oct 9;1128:121790. Epub 2019 Sep 9.

Department of Instrument Science and Engineering, School of Electronic Information and Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China; School of Life Science and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China. Electronic address:

Isoelectric focusing (IEF) has been used for determination of meat quality with high stability analysis. However, it still suffered from time-consuming, laborious and cost-effective performances, e.g., 3 h protein extraction, more than 10 h rehydration time, 5-12 h focusing time, and imaging of protein band. To overcome these issues, a speedy extraction of colorful proteins was developed by controlling extraction and centrifugation of 0.2g sample within 10 min and 15 min respectively; a rapid analytical method was designed by using a quick array IEF with 25 min rehydration, 7 min focusing, 2 min online scanning and imaging of focused proteins. The total analytical time was well controlled within 1 h, significantly less than the traditional IEF time of 24 h. To demonstrate the proposed method, 18 chickens were classified into three groups, e.g., the normal slaughtering, death treatment underwater, and death with infection via the New castle disease (NDV) virus. The experiments demonstrated that two Mb bands with pI 6.8 and 7.4 were present in slaughtered chickens, while four other bands with pI 6.83, 6.95, 7.09, and 7.13 were observed in abnormal chicken. The additional four proteins bands were identified by western blot (WB) as hemoglobin proteins. Furthermore, array Immobilized pH Gradient (IPG) has high sensitivity (absolute LOD of Mb and Hb were 1.3 ng and 5.5 ng), fair stability (RSD values of 2.32%, 2.27%, and 1.69%) for slaughtered, drowned, NDV-infected chickens for intra-day and (2.94%, 1.66%, and 1.07%) for inter-days, and good recovery (100%, 98.25% and 99.75%). Finally, the developed method could be used for the identification of chicken meat quality with less time and small volume reagents consuming.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jchromb.2019.121790DOI Listing
October 2019

Nexus between financial development, energy consumption, income level, and ecological footprint in CEE countries: do human capital and biocapacity matter?

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2019 Nov 5;26(31):31856-31872. Epub 2019 Sep 5.

Lyallpur Business School, Government College University, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

In recent decades, climate change and environmental pollution have been at the center of global environmental debates. Nowadays, researchers have turned their attention to the linkage between real output and environmental quality and test the environmental Kuznets curve. Majority of the studies focus on a single pollutant aspect and measure the deterioration of the environment through carbon emission (CO) only. In contrary, the current study uses a comprehensive proxy, ecological footprint, to measure the environmental quality of the sixteen Central and Eastern European Countries (CEECs). The aim of this paper is to discover the impact of financial development, economic growth, and energy consumption (renewable and non-renewable) on the environment. In addition, for the first time, the current study includes biocapacity and human capital in the growth-energy-environment nexus in the case of CEECs. In doing so, we used annual data of sixteen CEE countries in perspective of the One Belt One Road (OBOR) initiative and cover the period of 1991-2014. For reliable findings, this study focuses on second-generation econometric approaches to check stationarity, cross-sectional dependency, and co-integration among the model parameters. The long-run estimations of the "Dynamic Seemingly Unrelated-co-integration Regression" (DSUR) signify that the effect of economic growth on ecological footprint is not stable and validate N-shaped relationship for cubic functional form between per capita income and ecological footprint (environmental quality). Empirical evidence divulges that financial development and energy use significantly contribute to environmental degradation while renewable energy improves environmental quality by declining ecological footprint significantly. Moreover, the significant effects of biocapacity and human capital are positive and negative on the ecological footprint, respectively. In robustness check through the "Feasible Generalized Least Square" (FGLS) and "Generalized Method of Moment" (GMM) models, we found consistent result. Lastly, the "Dumitrescu-Hurlin (D-H) Panel Causality Test" demonstrates that two-way causal relationship exists between EF and GDP, EF and FD, EF and EU, EF and BC, and EF and HC, while one-way causality is running from RE to EF. This study puts the present scenario of CEE economies in front of the policymakers and suggests that they should consider the vital role of renewable energy and human capital to get sustainability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-019-06343-zDOI Listing
November 2019

Developing the first halophytic turfgrasses for the urban landscape from native Arabian desert grass.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2020 Nov 22;27(32):39702-39716. Epub 2019 Aug 22.

Department of Environmental Sciences, COMSATS University Islamabad, Vehari Campus, Islamabad, 61100, Pakistan.

Climate change is occurring and is influencing biological systems through augmented temperatures, more inconstant precipitation, and rising CO in the atmosphere. For sustainable landscaping, it was essential to assess the diversity of native/wild grasses and their suitability for turf and to combat the salinity problem in the region. For this purpose, a native halophytic grass, Aeluropus lagopoides, was investigated by conducting mowing tests on its ecotypes during the year 2014-2016 under desert climatic conditions. The research was carried out in two phases, i.e. Phase-I was for collection and establishment of ecotypes from various parts of UAE, while in Phase-II, mowing tests were conducted. During mowing tests, 50 ecotypes of A. lagopoides were given various mowing treatments (i.e. they were cut back at 1-, 2-, 3-, 4- and 5-cm heights) in field conditions. Significant differences were found among various ecotypes for different agronomic parameters such as ground cover, canopy stiffness, leaf number, clippings fresh and dry weights and internode length. Overall, the grass exhibited better performance at mowing heights of 3 and 4 cm, which are the standard mowing heights for turfgrasses. Ecotypes FA5, RA3, RUDA2, RUDA7 and RUADA1 of A. lagopoides showed the best performance against mowing shock and became the candidates for the turfgrass varieties from the native Arabian flora.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-019-06218-3DOI Listing
November 2020

The nexus between financial development, globalization, and environmental degradation: Fresh evidence from Central and Eastern European Countries.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2019 Aug 25;26(24):24733-24747. Epub 2019 Jun 25.

School of Management and Economics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, 100081, China.

Global warming and greenhouse gas emissions have become a severe threat to our ecosystem. Prior studies on environment posit that ample exhaustion of fossil fuels for energy is one of the fundamental causes of environmental degradation and naturally replenished energy sources are affordable over fossil fuels. This study set out to examine the role of financial sectors and globalization (in the presence of energy and renewable energy consumption) for a sustainable environment in the panel of Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries in One Belt and One Road initiative perspective. The current study uses annual data of 16 CEE countries covering the period of 1980 to 2016. After confirmation of cross-sectional dependency and co-integration among variables, we applied the Dynamic Seemingly Unrelated Regression and Dumitrescu-Hurlin causality approach for long-run estimations and to check the causal relationship, respectively. The empirical findings of the study certify the existence of an environmental Kuznets curve for the selected panel countries. Globalization is enhancing the environmental quality of the CEE economies. It is important to note that energy consumption and renewable energy consumption have a positive and statistically significant whack on carbon emission. In addition, we do not find a significant link between financial development and carbon emission. Granger casualty test confirms a two-way causal relationship between economic growth and carbon emission, globalization and environmental degradation, globalization and renewable energy consumption, economic growth and renewable energy consumption, and between financial development and energy consumption. Moreover, we found one-way causality from energy consumption (renewable and non-renewable) to carbon emissions. Based on the findings, a number of appropriate policy suggestions are presented in the perspective of Central and Eastern European Countries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-019-05714-wDOI Listing
August 2019

A facile isoelectric focusing of myoglobin and hemoglobin used as markers for screening of chicken meat quality in China.

Electrophoresis 2019 10 13;40(20):2767-2774. Epub 2019 Jun 13.

Department of Instrument Science and Engineering, School of Electronic Information and Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, P. R. China.

A novel analytical protocol was developed for general quality screening of chicken meat based on IEF and protein extraction. To demonstrate the developed protocol, 24 chickens were divided into three groups; each had eight chickens. The chickens in Group 1 were slaughtered by exsanguination, Group 2 asphyxiated in water, and that in Group 3 were infected by new castle disease virus. Proteins were extracted from the meat samples by using pure water as an extractant, separated by IEF, verified by western blot, and quantified via imaging analysis. The relevant experiments demonstrated that two myoglobin (Mb) bands were detected at pI 6.8 and 7.04 for all samples of Groups 1, 2, and 3, but there were additional hemoglobin (Hb) bands at pI 7.09 and 7.13 (P < 0.05) for the samples of Groups 2 and 3. The results implied that Hb bands might be a potential biomarker for the screening of chicken meat quality. The RSD values of two Mb bands (pI 6.8 and 7.04) in Group 1 were respectively 4.08 and 3.63%, the ones of two Hb bands (pI 7.09 and 7.13) in Group 2 were 3.66 and 2.10%, and those in Group 3 were 2.17% and 2.77%, respectively. All the RSD values indicated high stability and reliability of the developed protocol. Additionally, the protocol had a direct readout of protein bands in IEF without staining. However, it was time-consuming and had high cost. Even so, the relevant general method and finding have potential for screening of chicken meat quality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/elps.201900157DOI Listing
October 2019

The nexus between financial development, income level, and environment in Central and Eastern European Countries: a perspective on Belt and Road Initiative.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2019 Jun 9;26(16):16053-16075. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

School of Finance and Economics, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, 212013, People's Republic of China.

A plethora of empirical work explored finance-income-environment nexus, aims to investigate high CO emissions determinants, over the last few couples of decades. The prior empirical work assist the idea that finance and income have diverse impacts on the environment. The lack of consensus on finance-income-environment nexus in the Central and Eastern European Countries in the perspective of Belt and Road Initiative need to be examined. Therefore, the present study explores the nexus between financial development, income level, and environmental quality for a panel of eighteen Central and Eastern European Countries, over the period of 1980-2016. The Dynamic Seemingly Unrelated Regression, the Fully Modified Ordinary Least Squares, and the Dumitrescu-Hurlin panel casualty approaches are employed. The environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis also investigated for both time series panel and country-wise. The Dynamic Seemingly Unrelated Regression long-run panel results reveal that (i) financial development index and income negatively impact on environmental quality; (ii) energy consumption is the key determinant of CO emissions and reduces environmental quality; (iii) urbanization and trade both enhance environmental quality via reduction of carbon emissions; and (iv) the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis supported for the selected panel countries. The country-wise results depict that increase in environmental quality occurs due to increase in financial development (in four countries), income level (in five countries), trade (in five countries), and urbanization (in eight countries). However, the environmental quality decreases due to the increase in financial development (in six countries), income level (in eight countries), energy consumption (in twelve countries), trade (in six countries), and urbanization (in five countries). The environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis supported for five Central and Eastern European Countries. Additionally, the causality results confirmed the presence of feedback relationships among income and environmental quality, and financial development and energy consumption. Thus, we conclude that income level and financial development are the main drivers behind high carbon dioxide emissions in CEECs. The finding of the study opens up new insight for appropriate policymaking.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-019-05004-5DOI Listing
June 2019

Isoelectric focusing array with immobilized pH gradient and dynamic scanning imaging for diabetes diagnosis.

Anal Chim Acta 2019 Jul 12;1063:178-186. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

Department of Instrument Science and Engineering, Shanghai Engineering Research Center for Intelligent Diagnosis and Treatment Instrument, School of Electronic Information and Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200240, China; School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, State Key Laboratory of Microbial Metabolism, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200240, China. Electronic address:

A traditional immobilized pH gradient (IPG) has a high stability for isoelectric focusing (IEF) but suffers from time-consuming rehydration, focusing and staining-imaging as well as complex performance. To address these issues, an IEF system with an array of 24 IPG columns (10 mm × 600 μm × 50 μm) and dynamic scanning imaging (DSI) was firstly designed for protein focusing. Moreover, two IPG columns (pH 4-9 and pH 6.7-7.7 of 10 mm in length) were firstly synthesized for IEF. A series of experiments were carried out based on the IEF array. In contrast to a traditional IPG IEF with more than 10 h rehydration, 5-14 h IEF and ca 10 h stain-imaging, the IEF array had the following merits: 25 min rehydration for sample loading, 4 min IEF, and 2 min dynamics scanning of 24 columns, well addressing the issues of traditional IEF. Furthermore, the IEF array had fair sensitivity (LOD of 60 ng), good recovery (95%), and high stability (1.02% RSD for intra-day and 2.16% for inter-day). Finally, the developed array was successfully used for separation and determination of HbA (a key biomarker for diabetes diagnosis) in blood samples. All these results indicated the applicability of the developed IEF array to diabetes diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2019.03.014DOI Listing
July 2019

The impact of globalization and financial development on environmental quality: evidence from selected countries in the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2019 May 21;26(13):13246-13262. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

School of Management and Economics, Beijing Institute of Technology, South-Zhongguancun Street, Beijing, 100081, People's Republic of China.

This study investigates the impacts of globalization and financial development on environmental quality by incorporating energy consumption in the framework of the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis for selected countries in the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) over the 1990-2014 time spans. The cross-sectional dependence is determined by using the cross-sectional dependence and Lagrange Multiplier (LM) methods. This study employs second-generation panel unit root tests to check the unit root properties and the Westerlund panel cointegration test to examine the long-run equilibrium relationship among the variables. The results confirm the presence of cointegration in the long run. The Continuously Updated Fully Modified Ordinary Least Square (CUP-FM) and Continuously Updated Bias-Corrected (CUP-BC) approaches are applied to investigate long-term output elasticities of the variables. The results show the stimulating role of energy consumption on Carbon dioxide (CO) emissions. This study finds support for the EKC hypothesis as it relates to selected OECD countries. Globalization and financial development increase environmental quality by reducing CO emissions. The causal relationship reveals the presence of a bidirectional relationship between energy consumption and CO emissions. The feedback causal effect runs between economic growth and CO emissions and between globalization and economic growth, while unidirectional causality runs from CO emissions to financial development, from economic growth to energy consumption, from energy consumption to financial development, from globalization to energy consumption, and from globalization to financial development. Policies that support green technology transfer among OECD countries, foreign direct investment in the renewable energy sector, financial development to support green infrastructure, and energy generation using renewable energy sources are recommended.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-019-04761-7DOI Listing
May 2019

Suppressing photorespiration for the improvement in photosynthesis and crop yields: A review on the role of S-allantoin as a nitrogen source.

J Environ Manage 2019 May 11;237:644-651. Epub 2019 Mar 11.

College of Plant Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, Hubei, 430070, China; Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Grain Industry, Yangtze University, Hubei, China. Electronic address:

Environmental variations resulting in biotic and abiotic stresses demand adaptive changes in the photosynthetic machinery. To cope with these challenges, plant scientists are constantly striving to enhance photosynthetic activity. The photorespiration pathway, which fixes O and releases CO in C plants, competes with photosynthesis. One method to increase yield would be to enhance photosynthesis by engineering the photorespiratory pathway. To date, three engineered photorespiratory pathways have been produced, of which two have been proven experimentally in the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana. These approaches might be helpful in enhancing crop resilience to future environmental challenges. In partially photorespiratory suppressed plants, it is hypothesized that a gene cluster may have formed between bacterial glycolate dehydrogenase (GDH), glyoxylate carboligase (GCL), and tartronic semi aldehyde (TSR) genes with Arabidopsis allantoin degradation genes like Arabidopsis allantoinase (AtALN) to utilize S-allantoin as a source of nitrogen. Observations of the use of allantoin as an exclusive source of nitrogen or energy by Arabidopsis and Escherichia coli led us to propose a genetic switch control model between nitrogen assimilation and energy producing pathways in partially photorespiratory suppressed plants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2019.02.082DOI Listing
May 2019

Does information and communication technologies improve environmental quality in the era of globalization? An empirical analysis.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2019 Mar 1;26(9):8594-8608. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

Department of Management, Lingnan University, Tuen Mun, Hong Kong.

This study intends to examine the impact of ICTs (i.e., internet usage and mobile cellular subscriptions), globalization, electricity consumption, financial development, and economic growth on environmental quality by using 1994-2014 panel data of BRICS economies. This study employed a second-generation panel unit root test accounting for the presence of cross-sectional dependence and indicated that carbon dioxide emissions, electricity consumption, financial development, internet usage, mobile usage, globalization, and economic growth have integration of order one. The results from Westerlund panel co-integration test confirms that the variables are co-integrated and revealed that ICT-finance-globalization-electricity-GDP-CO nexus has long-run equilibrium relationship. The results from dynamic seemingly unrelated regression (DSUR) indicate that internet usage and mobile cellular subscriptions (ICTs) have significant, adverse impact on carbon dioxide emissions. To put it simply, ICT positively contributes towards environmental quality. Similarly, economic growth also has an adverse effect on carbon dioxide emissions. On the other hand, electricity consumption, globalization, and financial development have a significant positive effect on carbon emissions. In addition, Granger causality test results show the presence of a bidirectional causal relationship between internet usage and environmental quality, financial development and electricity consumption, ICT and financial development, mobile cellular subscription and globalization, economic growth and environmental quality, and internet usage and economic growth. A unidirectional causal link is detected running from mobile cellular subscriptions towards environmental quality, ICT towards electricity consumption, financial development towards environmental quality, globalization towards environmental quality, and globalization towards economic growth. Moreover, time series analysis has also been done in this study to analyze the findings for each of BRICS countries which are directed towards important policy implications. For instance, ICT policy can play an integral part in improving environmental quality policy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-019-04296-xDOI Listing
March 2019

Morphological acclimation to agronomic manipulation in leaf dispersion and orientation to promote "Ideotype" breeding: Evidence from 3D visual modeling of "super" rice (Oryza sativa L.).

Plant Physiol Biochem 2019 Feb 12;135:499-510. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

Department of Environmental Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Vehari 61100, Pakistan.

Food security is confronted by major threats from crop yield stagnation and global climate change. The benefits of phenotypic plasticity across environments for given crop genotypes are thought to be imperative for high-yielding cropping systems. Given that 3D modeling is increasingly recognized for dissecting crop phenotypic plasticity, it requires an assessment of the potential benefits of architectural adaptation of super rice to different agronomic practices. In this study, we focused on a comprehensive evaluation of the phenotypic plasticity of super rice on the aspects of 3D architectural "reoptimization," photosynthetic productivity, nitrogen economy, and grain yield. A super rice phenotype in superhigh-yielding practice (SH) displays a "reoptimized" morphogenesis in the leaf vertical dispersion and orientation in comparison to that in Farmer's practice (FP). Specifically, a super rice phenotype in SH is provided with a high cumulative rate and peaks of leaf area, increasing the distribution of high leaf inclination angles in comparison to that in FP, particularly in the upper parts of the canopy. These "reoptimizations" sustained profits in light environment within a canopy, leaf area duration, photosynthetic light harvest, and light utilization efficiency and were coordinated with improving nitrogen uptake and assimilation. The current literature indicates that the agronomic plasticity of super rice in architectural "reoptimization" is a promising perspective for high yield formation. Our results suggest that more emphasis should be placed upon agronomic adaptation strategies for super rice across diverse genotypes and environments to further improve crop establishment and photosynthetic productivity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2018.11.010DOI Listing
February 2019