Publications by authors named "Shafiei Reza"

26 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Acute eosinophilic appendicitis caused by : A case report.

Ann Med Surg (Lond) 2021 Apr 26;64:102241. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Parasitology and Mycology, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Introduction: The role of parasites in the pathogenesis of appendicitis has been debated for a long time. To date, several gastrointestinal parasites have been reported as the causes of appendicitis in humans. infestation of the appendix is uncommon and few cases have been reported in the literature.

Presentation Of Case: We reported a case of acute eosinophilic appendicitis (AEA) in a 42-year-old woman caused by in northern Iran. The patient was admitted to the emergency department with a 2-day history of acute abdominal pain in her lower right quadrant. Abdominal ultrasonography showed intra-abdominal bleeding and endometrium cysts. Routine hematological tests showed increases in white blood cell (WBC) count of 19.8 × 10 per mcL with 3% eosinophilia. During abdominal laparotomy, peritoneal fluid was bulked with abdominal bleeding due to rupture of the uterine cyst. After investigation of inflammation in the appendix region, patient underwent appendectomy. Histopathological findings showed acute inflammation with eosinophils and a large number of round eggs with flattened segments of the genus . It is impossible to distinguish between and based solely on egg morphology in the specimens. Therefore, based on history of the patient, which included no consumption of pork, the species was identified as . At the three months follow-up, the patient was in good health.

Conclusion: In the current study, a case of AEA by was reported. However, this was not the first case of acute appendicitis by . Further studies are necessary to show roles of parasites in pathogenesis of AEA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amsu.2021.102241DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8040111PMC
April 2021

Potential therapeutic targets shared between leishmaniasis and cancer.

Parasitology 2021 May 4;148(6):655-671. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, IdiSNA (Navarra Institute for Health Research), c/ Irunlarrea 1, University of Navarra, ISTUN Instituto de Salud Tropical, 31008Pamplona, Spain.

The association of leishmaniasis and malignancies in human and animal models has been highlighted in recent years. The misdiagnosis of coexistence of leishmaniasis and cancer and the use of common drugs in the treatment of such diseases prompt us to further survey the molecular biology of Leishmania parasites and cancer cells. The information regarding common expressed proteins, as possible therapeutic targets, in Leishmania parasites and cancer cells is scarce. Therefore, the current study reviews proteins, and investigates the regulation and functions of several key proteins in Leishmania parasites and cancer cells. The up- and down-regulations of such proteins were mostly related to survival, development, pathogenicity, metabolic pathways and vital signalling in Leishmania parasites and cancer cells. The presence of common expressed proteins in Leishmania parasites and cancer cells reveals valuable information regarding the possible shared mechanisms of pathogenicity and opportunities for therapeutic targeting in leishmaniasis and cancers in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0031182021000160DOI Listing
May 2021

The host mTOR pathway and parasitic diseases pathogenesis.

Parasitol Res 2021 Apr 3;120(4):1151-1166. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Proteomics Unit, Cancer Research Centre (IBMCC/CSIC/USAL/IBSAL), 37007, Salamanca, Spain.

The mechanistic (or mammalian) target of rapamycin (mTOR) is considered as a critical regulatory enzyme involved in essential signaling pathways affecting cell growth, cell proliferation, protein translation, regulation of cellular metabolism, and cytoskeletal structure. Also, mTOR signaling has crucial roles in cell homeostasis via processes such as autophagy. Autophagy prevents many pathogen infections and is involved on immunosurveillance and pathogenesis. Immune responses and autophagy are therefore key host responses and both are linked by complex mTOR regulatory mechanisms. In recent years, the mTOR pathway has been highlighted in different diseases such as diabetes, cancer, and infectious and parasitic diseases including leishmaniasis, toxoplasmosis, and malaria. The current review underlines the implications of mTOR signals and intricate networks on pathogen infections and the modulation of this master regulator by parasites. Parasitic infections are able to induce dynamic metabolic reprogramming leading to mTOR alterations in spite of many other ways impacting this regulatory network. Accordingly, the identification of parasite effects and interactions over such a complex modulation might reveal novel information regarding the biology of the abovementioned parasites and might allow the development of therapeutic strategies against parasitic diseases. In this sense, the effects of inhibiting the mTOR pathways are also considered in this context in the light of their potential for the prevention and treatment of parasitic diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-021-07070-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7856335PMC
April 2021

Linkage mapping evidence for a syntenic QTL associated with flowering time in perennial C rhizomatous grasses and switchgrass.

Glob Change Biol Bioenergy 2021 Jan 28;13(1):98-111. Epub 2020 Oct 28.

Institute of Biological, Environmental and Rural Sciences Aberystwyth University Aberystwyth UK.

Flowering in perennial species is directed via complex signalling pathways that adjust to developmental regulations and environmental cues. Synchronized flowering in certain environments is a prerequisite to commercial seed production, and so the elucidation of the genetic architecture of flowering time in and switchgrass could aid breeding in these underdeveloped species. In this context, we assessed a mapping population in and two ecologically diverse switchgrass mapping populations over 3 years from planting. Multiple flowering time quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified in both species. Remarkably, the most significant and switchgrass QTL proved to be syntenic, located on linkage groups 4 and 2, with logarithm of odds scores of 17.05 and 21.8 respectively. These QTL regions contained three flowering time transcription factors: , MADS-box and gibberellin-responsive bHLH137. The former is emerging as a key component of the age-related flowering time pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/gcbb.12755DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7756372PMC
January 2021

Genetic diversity analysis of Blastocystis subtypes and their distribution among the domestic animals and pigeons in northwest of Iran.

Infect Genet Evol 2020 12 9;86:104591. Epub 2020 Oct 9.

Department of Laboratory Sciences, Maragheh University of Medical Sciences, Maragheh, Iran. Electronic address:

Blastocystis is a unicellular, anaerobic, eukaryotic protist, a common parasite found in the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. During the last few years, the host fecal DNA analysis by nucleic acid-based method has led to significant advances in Blastocystis diagnostics and enabled subtypes (STs). The zoonotic transmission of Blastocystis to humans is not well understood, therefore the present study was conducted to identify Blastocystis subtypes in Iran from different animal hosts from northwest of Iran. A total of 427 fresh fecal specimens were collected from cattle, sheep, poultry and pigeon (40,150,132,105 respectively). To detect the Blastocystis sp., each fecal specimen was examined microscopically. Total DNA from the samples that were positive for Blastocystis sp. was isolated, and the barcoding region of the small subunit of ribosomal rRNA (18S rRNA) was amplified and sequenced. Subsequently, sequence analyses, genetic diversity indices and evolutionary relationships of Blastocystis subtype populations were carried out. In total, 14.98% of the analyzed samples were positive for Blastocystis sp. and the subtypes detected were ST3,7,10 and 14. Among these, the ST10 was the main subtype that was found only in the cattle, sheep and poultry and the zoonotic subtype ST3 was present only from cattle. Our study shows the presence of Blastocystis subtypes in the sheep in north west of Iran and also demonstrated that the genetic approaches are crucial to understand the host specify of subtypes and the mode of infection. The study suggests that the genetic approaches will help us to understand the host specificity of subtypes and their role in infection if they are obtained from human and animals from the same geographical locations. Therefore, it is important to study the zoonotic aspects of this parasite with large number of samples from different groups of animals and from different geographical locations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2020.104591DOI Listing
December 2020

Status of human toxocariasis, a neglected parasitic zoonosis in Iran: a systematic review from past to current.

Trop Doct 2020 Oct 17;50(4):285-291. Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Infectious and Tropical Disease Research Center, 48432Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Although human toxocariasis can lead to serious complications including neurological, ocular and visceral complications, there is a lack of comprehensive epidemiological information about the seroprevalence of species in humans. In the present study, we analysed and reviewed the overall seroprevalence of human toxocariasis in Iran. The data collection was systematically undertaken on published articles using the PubMed, Google Scholar, ScienceDirect and Scopus databases. A total of 27 studies from the past two decades reporting seroprevalence of human toxocariasis met our eligibility criteria. The pooled proportion of infection was estimated as 6.58% (95% confidence interval = 3.98-9.77). A wide variation between different studies was observed (Q statistic = 799.37, df = 26,  < 0.0001, and I = 96.7%). The seroprevalence rate of toxocariasis in the Iranian population is relatively high; contamination of the environment by eggs from the host as well as from household dogs and cats should be blamed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0049475520931545DOI Listing
October 2020

Cytokine profile and nitric oxide levels in peritoneal macrophages of BALB/c mice exposed to the fucose-mannose ligand of Leishmania infantum combined with glycyrrhizin.

Parasit Vectors 2020 Jul 20;13(1):363. Epub 2020 Jul 20.

Faculty of Medicine and Health Technology, Tampere University, 33014, Tampere, Finland.

Background: The fucose-mannose ligand (FML) of Leishmania infantum is a complex glycoprotein which does not elicit adequate immunogenicity in humans. In recent years, adjuvant compounds derived from plants have been used for improving the immunogenicity of vaccines. Glycyrrhizin (GL) is a natural triterpenoid saponin that has known immunomodulatory activities. In the present study, we investigated the effects of co-treatment with FML and GL on the production of cytokines and nitric oxide (NO) by macrophages, in vitro.

Methods: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated murine peritoneal macrophages were treated with FML (5 μg/ml) of L. infantum and various concentrations of GL (1 μg/ml, 10 μg/ml and 20 μg/ml). After 48 h of treatment, cell culture supernatants were recovered and the levels of TNF-α, IL-10, IL-12p70 and IP-10 were measured by sandwich ELISA and NO concentration by Griess reaction.

Results: Our results indicate that the treatment of activated macrophages with FML plus GL leads to enhanced production of NO, TNF-α and IL-12p70, and reduction of IL-10 levels in comparison with FML treatment alone.

Conclusions: Therefore, we concluded that GL can improve the immunostimulatory effect of FML on macrophages and leads to their polarization towards an M1-like phenotype.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-020-04243-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7370265PMC
July 2020

The use of proteomics for the identification of promising vaccine and diagnostic biomarkers in .

Parasitology 2020 10 19;147(12):1255-1262. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

Department of Parasitology and Mycology, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Plasmodium falciparum is the main cause of severe malaria in humans that can lead to death. There is growing evidence of drug-resistance in P. falciparum treatment, and the design of effective vaccines remains an ongoing strategy to control the disease. On the other hand, the recognition of specific diagnostic markers for P. falciparum can accelerate the diagnosis of this parasite in the early stages of infection. Therefore, the identification of novel antigenic proteins especially by proteomic tools is urgent for vaccination and diagnosis of P. falciparum. The proteome diversity of the life cycle stages of P. falciparum, the altered proteome of P. falciparum-infected human sera and altered proteins in P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes could be proposed as appropriate proteins for the aforementioned aims. Accordingly, this review highlights and proposes different proteins identified using proteomic approaches as promising markers in the diagnosis and vaccination of P. falciparum. It seems that most of the candidates identified in this study were able to elicit immune responses in the P. falciparum-infected hosts and they also played major roles in the life cycle, pathogenicity and key pathways of this parasite.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S003118202000102XDOI Listing
October 2020

Clinico-Hematological Findings of Acute Pediatric Visceral Leishmaniasis Referred to the Northeast of Iran during 2005-2015.

Iran J Parasitol 2020 Apr-Jun;15(2):214-222

Department of Laboratory Sciences, Maragheh University of Medical Sciences, Maragheh, Iran.

Background: To characterize the epidemiological, clinical, hematological and biochemical features of 33 cases hospitalized with pediatric visceral leishmaniasis (PVL) in North Khorasan Province of Iran from 2005 to 2015.

Methods: The serological, hematological and biochemical tests were employed in 33 children between 8 months to 6 yr with a final diagnosis of acute visceral leishmaniasis (VL). The diagnosis of VL was established by microscopic demonstration of spp. amastigotes inactive bone marrow aspiration (BMA).

Results: The most common presenting features were anemia (82.5%), fever (75%), and hepatosplenomegaly (45.4%). Various hematological parameters showed that most patients were suffering from moderate to severe microcytic hypochromic anemia (78.8% had RBC count less than 4 million cells/ul, 67.7% Hb less than 8 fl). 66.7% of them were leukopenic (WBC: less than 5× 10 /μL) and 24.2% had decreased platelet counts. Pancytopenia was observed in 18.2% of cases. MCV, MCH, and MCHC levels were below the reference range in 88%, 90% and 85.1% of the patients respectively. Moreover, aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) levels were increased in 53.33% and 6.66% of the patients respectively. 92.9% of cases were C-reactive protein (CRP) positive. Bone marrow was found hyper-cellular in all of them, and myeloid to erythroid ratio (M/E) was more than 4 in 39.1% of cases. Plasma cells slightly were increased in 60% of patients and megakaryocytes were decreased in thrombocytopenic patients.

Conclusion: Bone marrow/splenic aspiration still remains the gold standard test despite its risk and pain for patients.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7311815PMC
June 2020

Genotyping determination of Acanthamoeba strains: an original study and a systematic review in Iran.

J Water Health 2019 Oct;17(5):717-727

Faculty of Medicine and Health Technology, Tampere University, Tampere, Finland.

This study aimed to detect the presence of Acanthamoeba spp. in different water resources of Zahedan, southeast of Iran, and also systematically reviewed all publications regarding Acanthamoeba in Iran (2005-2018). Fifty water samples were collected from different water resources in Zahedan. The positive samples were identified morphologically and subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using fragments of 18S rRNA. In the systematic review, data collection using particular terms was carried out using the following electronic databases including Science Direct, ISI Web of Science, MEDLINE, EBSCO, Scopus, and Google Scholar. A total of 17 (34%) samples were positive for Acanthamoeba spp., and nucleotide sequencing indicated that 15 samples (88.23%) belonged to the T4 genotype and the rest belonged to the T5 genotype. A total of 39 studies reported genotyping of Acanthamoeba spp. from various geographical areas of Iran and revealed that T4 (35 studies), T5 (19 studies), T3 (11 studies), T11 (8 studies), and T2 (6 studies) genotypes were the most prevalent in Iran. The T4 genotype of Acanthamoeba is a prevalent free-living amoeba and widely distributed not only in Zahedan but also in other provinces of Iran. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that A. castellanii and A. griffini predominantly colocalize with the T4 genotype.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/wh.2019.048DOI Listing
October 2019

Cytokine profile and nitric oxide levels in macrophages exposed to Leishmania infantum FML.

Exp Parasitol 2019 Aug 22;203:1-7. Epub 2019 May 22.

Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Yasuj University of Medical Sciences, Yasuj, Iran; Student Research Committee, Yasuj University of Medical Sciences, Yasuj, Iran.

Fucose-mannose ligand (FML) is a soluble antigen purified from Leishmania donovani complex and used for diagnosis, prognosis, and vaccine development against visceral leishmaniasis (VL). We aimed to explore the effects of FML on the production of cytokines, chemokines and nitric oxide (NO) by macrophages in vitro. Peritoneal macrophages from BALB/c mice were treated with various concentrations of FML purified from Leishmania infantum in the absence or presence of LPS Peritoneal macrophages. After 48hr, cell culture supernatants were recovered and the levels of TNF-α, IL-10, IL-12p70 and IP-10 measured by Sandwich ELISA and NO concentration by Griess reaction. We found that FML significantly increase NO, IL-12p70 and IP-10 production in both LPS-treated and untreated macrophages and increase IL-10 levels only in LPS-treated macrophages. However, FML could not alert TNF-α levels in both LPS-treated and untreated macrophages. Further analysis revealed that FML can also increase IL-12p70/IL-10 ratio in LPS-treated macrophages. We concluded that FML can polarize macrophages to an appropriate phenotype similar to M1 phenotype against Leishmania donovani complex, although IL10 and TNF results are controversial.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exppara.2019.05.004DOI Listing
August 2019

Breeding progress and preparedness for mass-scale deployment of perennial lignocellulosic biomass crops switchgrass, miscanthus, willow and poplar.

Glob Change Biol Bioenergy 2019 Jan 23;11(1):118-151. Epub 2018 Oct 23.

Institute of Biological, Environmental and Rural Sciences Aberystwyth University Aberystwyth UK.

Genetic improvement through breeding is one of the key approaches to increasing biomass supply. This paper documents the breeding progress to date for four perennial biomass crops (PBCs) that have high output-input energy ratios: namely (switchgrass), species of the genera (miscanthus), (willow) and (poplar). For each crop, we report on the size of germplasm collections, the efforts to date to phenotype and genotype, the diversity available for breeding and on the scale of breeding work as indicated by number of attempted crosses. We also report on the development of faster and more precise breeding using molecular breeding techniques. Poplar is the model tree for genetic studies and is furthest ahead in terms of biological knowledge and genetic resources. Linkage maps, transgenesis and genome editing methods are now being used in commercially focused poplar breeding. These are in development in switchgrass, miscanthus and willow generating large genetic and phenotypic data sets requiring concomitant efforts in informatics to create summaries that can be accessed and used by practical breeders. Cultivars of switchgrass and miscanthus can be seed-based synthetic populations, semihybrids or clones. Willow and poplar cultivars are commercially deployed as clones. At local and regional level, the most advanced cultivars in each crop are at technology readiness levels which could be scaled to planting rates of thousands of hectares per year in about 5 years with existing commercial developers. Investment in further development of better cultivars is subject to current market failure and the long breeding cycles. We conclude that sustained public investment in breeding plays a key role in delivering future mass-scale deployment of PBCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/gcbb.12566DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6392185PMC
January 2019

Seroepidemiological Study of Infection among Psychiatric Patients in Mashhad, Northeast of Iran.

Iran J Parasitol 2017 Jan-Mar;12(1):117-122

Dept. of Parasitology and Mycology, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Background: Psychiatric patients have an increased risk of some infections like toxoplasmosis. Investigations on infection among psychiatric patients have been limited in Mashhad, Northeast of Iran. In this case-control study, prevalence of T. gondii was investigated by serological method.

Methods: This case-control study was performed among psychiatric patients admitted to Avicenna Hospital in Mashhad, Northeast of Iran. Three hundred and fifty inpatients and 350 controls were examined in 2012-2013 for detection of IgG and IgM antibodies against in their blood sera by ELISA. Socio-demographic and clinical manifestations of the patients were obtained.

Results: Anti- IgG antibodies was found in 164 (46.85%) of 350 psychiatric inpatients and 120 (34.28%) of 350 controls. Seventeen (4.85%) of psychiatric individuals and 3 (0.85%) of control group were IgM+/IgG- indicating acute form of toxoplasmosis. There were no statistically significant differences between the case and control groups. In patient group, schizophrenic patients had the highest positive rate (46.28%) and bipolar mood disorder had the second most prevalent rate (20%). Of 162 schizophrenia patients, 65 (40.1%) had latent infection which was higher than that observed in controls.

Conclusion: The prevalence of infection among psychiatric patients suffering from schizophrenia was more in Mashhad, compared with control group.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5522687PMC
August 2017

Seroprevalence of Anti-Toxoplasma Gondii Antibodies in Healthy Voluntary Blood Donors from Mashhad City, Iran.

Arch Iran Med 2017 07;20(7):441-445

Student Research Committee, Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Gorgan, Iran.

Objective: The present investigation aims to evaluate the prevalence of IgM and IgG anti-T. gondii antibodies and the associated risk factors among healthy blood donors in Mashhad city, Razavi Khorasan province, Iran.

Methods: We screened a total of 500 serum samples by census method from apparently healthy blood donors of the Mashhad Blood Transfusion Organization (MBTO) for IgG and IgM anti-T. gondii antibodies by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

Results: We found that 29.6%, 25%, 1.4%, and 3.2% of tested donors were positive for anti-T. gondii antibodies, only IgG antibody, both IgM and IgG, and IgM antibody alone, respectively. Several risk factors which were significantly related to T. gondii seropositivity in the univariate analysis at P < 0.05 included female gender (OR = 3.222, P < 0.001), age more than 40 years (P = 0.026), and sausage/hot dog consumption (OR = 4.472, P < 0.001).

Conclusions: The results of this study can be a warning for blood transfusion organizations to pay special attention to toxoplasmosis among blood donors and also design screening programs for prevention of transfusion-transmitted toxoplasmosis.
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July 2017

The Seroprevalence of Human Cystic Echinococcosis in Iran: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Study.

J Parasitol Res 2016 17;2016:1425147. Epub 2016 Oct 17.

School of Nursing and Midwifery, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, Iran.

Human cystic echinococcosis (HCE), a zoonotic infection of the larval stage of , has high effect on public health in human population all around the world. Iran is one of the most important endemic areas in the Middle East. This systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the seroprevalence of HCE in Iranian population. An electronic search for articles from 1985 until April 2015 was performed using data bases PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, Magiran, IranMedex, Iran Doc, and Scientific Information Database (SID) both in English and in Persian. A random-effects meta-analysis was used to combine results from individual studies. The information was analyzed by STATA version 11.1. A total of 33 articles met our eligibility criteria and were included in a meta-analysis. The pooled estimate of the prevalence of HCE based on random-effects model was estimated 6.0% (95% CI: 4.0%, 7.0%). The prevalence of the disease significantly increased with age and prevalence rate in males was significantly lower than females ( < 0.001). The using of CIE or CCIEP method was also significantly greater than the other methods ( < 0.001). There was a publication bias in prevalence of studies. HCE is highly prevalent in Iran. Public education for preventive strategies and finally reducing transmission of the parasite and infection in population is needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/1425147DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5086504PMC
October 2016

Severe Diarrhea Due To Cystoisospora belli Infection in an HTLV-1 Woman.

Iran J Parasitol 2016 Jan-Mar;11(1):121-5

Basic Sciences in Infectious Diseases Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Cystoisospora belli, formerly Isospora belli, as an opportunistic infection agent, is seen in immunocompromised patients like HTLV-1. We describe here cystoisosporiasis in an HTLV1 Iranian female in Mashhad, northwestern Iran in 2012 who presented with a debilitating diarrheal illness and great weight loss. C. belli was detected in her stool by modified acid-fast staining and then by molecular detection. Serologic testing was negative for HIV but she showed positivity for HTLV-1 infection. Treatment with TMP/SMX led to improvement of her diarrhea but she died after one year due to malabsorption syndrome. Adequate detection of C. belli diarrhea in immunocompromise patients of HTLV1 in endemic area can be cured by TMP/SMX.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4835462PMC
April 2016

Performance of a 27 kDa Fasciola hepatica Antigen in the Diagnosis of Human Fascioliasis.

J Lab Physicians 2015 Jan-Jun;7(1):17-20

Department of Parasitology and Mycology, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Background: Serological diagnosis, based on antigenic fractions of the parasite can be used for the early diagnosis of human fascioliasis. The current study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a 27 kDa immunodominant antigen of Fasciola hepatica adult worms, in an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) system for serological diagnosis of human fascioliasis.

Materials And Methods: The immunodiagnosis of human fascioliasis, using a 27 kDa immunodominant antigen, purified from F. hepatica somatic antigens (SAs), was evaluated by Western blotting and ELISA with sera samples of human fascioliasis patients, healthy controls and patients with other parasitic infections.

Results: Using western blotting, from 12 sera of fascioliasis patients, 11 sera (91.6%) detected the 27 kDa subunit. None of 30 samples from healthy controls or 32 sera from nonfascioliasis patients reacted with the 27 kDa antigen. Accordingly, sensitivity and specificity of the system was found to be 91.6% and 100%, respectively. The 27 kDa antigen was purified from the SAs and was used in an indirect ELISA system. Of 15 sera of fascioliasis patients, all (100%) were found to be positive by ELISA whereas only 4 cases (6.25%) of nonfascioliasis patients or healthy controls were false-positive by this system. Accordingly, the sensitivity and specificity of the test were 100% and 93.6%, respectively.

Conclusion: Findings of this study demonstrated that both Western blotting and the indirect ELISA, based on the 27 kDa subunit of F. hepatica SA, are reliable methods for serodiagnosis of human fascioliasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0974-2727.154781DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4411804PMC
May 2015

Molecular and Morphological Characterization of Fasciola spp. Isolated from Different Host Species in a Newly Emerging Focus of Human Fascioliasis in Iran.

Vet Med Int 2014 11;2014:405740. Epub 2014 Jun 11.

Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Yasuj University of Medical Sciences, Yasuj, Iran.

The current study aimed to find out the morphometric and genotypic divergences of the flukes isolated from different hosts in a newly emerging focus of human fascioliasis in Iran. Adult Fasciola spp. were collected from 34 cattle, 13 sheep, and 11 goats from Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad province, southwest of Iran. Genomic DNA was extracted from the flukes and PCR-RFLP was used to characterize the isolates. The ITS1, ITS2, and mitochondrial genes (mtDNA) of NDI and COI from individual liver flukes were amplified and the amplicons were sequenced. Genetic variation within and between the species was evaluated by comparing the sequences. Moreover, morphometric characteristics of flukes were measured through a computer image analysis system. Based on RFLP profile, from the total of 58 isolates, 41 isolates (from cattle, sheep, and goat) were identified as Fasciola hepatica, while 17 isolates from cattle were identified as Fasciola gigantica. Comparison of the ITS1 and ITS2 sequences showed six and seven single-base substitutions, resulting in segregation of the specimens into two different genotypes. The sequences of COI markers showed seven DNA polymorphic sites for F. hepatica and 35 DNA polymorphic sites for F. gigantica. Morphological diversity of the two species was observed in linear, ratios, and areas measurements. The findings have implications for studying the population genetics, epidemiology, and control of the disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/405740DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4075087PMC
July 2014

Nosocomial myiasis with Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in an ICU patient in Mashhad, Northeastern of Iran.

Arch Iran Med 2014 Jul;17(7):523-5

Department of Medical Entomology, Research Centre for Health Sciences, School of Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Myiasis is the invasion of larvae to human or animal live tissues by flies belonging to the order Diptera and families like Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae, Oesteridae, etc. Although rare, nosocomial myiasis must be noted carefully, especially in case of hospitalized patients. A 63-year old man admitted to an ICU ward in Mashhad is investigated and presented in this research. On the 35(th) day of hospitalization, about 100 larvae 6-7 mm in length, yellow to cream and fusiform were observed around the tracheotomy site. They were identified as second instar larvae of Lucilia genus of the family Calliphoridae based on morphological characters of the larvae. However, for exact identification of the species, the emerging adults must also be tested. According to the standard key of adult flies, they were identified as Lucilia sericata.
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http://dx.doi.org/0141707/AIM.0015DOI Listing
July 2014

Seroprevalence and molecular diagnosis of Toxoplasma gondii infection among blood donors in southern Iran.

J Infect Dev Ctries 2014 Apr 15;8(4):543-7. Epub 2014 Apr 15.

Basic Sciences in Infectious Diseases Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Introduction: Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite which can be transmitted to human through a variety of routes including blood transfusion. This cross sectional study aimed to evaluate the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma infection and related epidemiological features among healthy blood donors.

Methodology: A total of 1,480 healthy blood donors from five blood service centers in Fars province were analyzed for anti-Toxoplasma antibodies. Blood samples were tested for anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies by enzyme immunoassay. IgM-positive samples were also tested for the presence of Toxoplasma DNA by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Demographic characteristics of participants were also recorded during samples collection.

Results: Anti T. gondii antibodies were detected in sera of 286 out of 1,480 blood donors corresponding to an overall seroprevalence of 19.3% in this population.  From these, 182 (12.3%) were seropositive only for IgG, 81 (5.47%) were seropositive only for IgM and 23 (1.6%) were positive for both IgG and IgM. PCR detected active parasitemia in two (1.9%) of the IgM-positive subjects. Age, place of residence and level of education were statistically significant (p < 0.05) with seropositivity to Toxoplasma.

Conclusions: Our results highlighted that asymptomatic blood donors, especially those with active parasitemia, may constitute a significant risk of transmitting toxoplasmosis to susceptible recipients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3855/jidc.3831DOI Listing
April 2014

A Consistent PCR-RFLP Assay Based on ITS-2 Ribosomal DNA for Differentiation of Fasciola Species.

Iran J Basic Med Sci 2013 Dec;16(12):1266-9

Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Yasuj University of Medical Sciences, Yasuj, Iran.

Objective(s): Fascioliasis is a zoonotic parasitic disease caused by liver fluke species of Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica. Differentiation of these two species, based on their morphological characteristics, is difficult. The current study aimed to use PCR-RFLP assay to distinguish between F. hepatica and F. gigantica, based on profiles of RFLP, produced by effect of endonucleases on ITS2 of the ribosomal DNA genes from these two species.

Materials And Methods: Adult Fasciola spp. were isolated from bile duct of naturally infected animals. The species of Fasciola were confirmed by sequencing the 505 bp region of the ITS2 gene in the isolates. By running the sequences of the samples in NEBcutter, suitable restriction enzymes (MspI and KpnI) were selected. Eight F. gigantica and eighteen F. hepatica samples were evaluated.

Results: While RFLP pattern with MspI produced a profile by which it was difficult to differentiate these two species, KpnI along with MspI, produced a consistent pattern of a 231, 212 and 93 bp fragments in F. hepatica. This pattern was not seen in F. gigantica.

Conclusion: Findings of this study demonstrated that RFLP with KpnI and MspI produce a suitable pattern which simply differentiates F. hepatica from F. gigantica.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3933804PMC
December 2013

Identification of crop cultivars with consistently high lignocellulosic sugar release requires the use of appropriate statistical design and modelling.

Biotechnol Biofuels 2013 Dec 21;6(1):185. Epub 2013 Dec 21.

Division of Plant Sciences, College of Life Sciences, University of Dundee at The James Hutton Institute, Invergowrie, Dundee DD2 5DA, UK.

Background: In this study, a multi-parent population of barley cultivars was grown in the field for two consecutive years and then straw saccharification (sugar release by enzymes) was subsequently analysed in the laboratory to identify the cultivars with the highest consistent sugar yield. This experiment was used to assess the benefit of accounting for both the multi-phase and multi-environment aspects of large-scale phenotyping experiments with field-grown germplasm through sound statistical design and analysis.

Results: Complementary designs at both the field and laboratory phases of the experiment ensured that non-genetic sources of variation could be separated from the genetic variation of cultivars, which was the main target of the study. The field phase included biological replication and plot randomisation. The laboratory phase employed re-randomisation and technical replication of samples within a batch, with a subset of cultivars chosen as duplicates that were randomly allocated across batches. The resulting data was analysed using a linear mixed model that incorporated field and laboratory variation and a cultivar by trial interaction, and ensured that the cultivar means were more accurately represented than if the non-genetic variation was ignored. The heritability detected was more than doubled in each year of the trial by accounting for the non-genetic variation in the analysis, clearly showing the benefit of this design and approach.

Conclusions: The importance of accounting for both field and laboratory variation, as well as the cultivar by trial interaction, by fitting a single statistical model (multi-environment trial, MET, model), was evidenced by the changes in list of the top 40 cultivars showing the highest sugar yields. Failure to account for this interaction resulted in only eight cultivars that were consistently in the top 40 in different years. The correspondence between the rankings of cultivars was much higher at 25 in the MET model. This approach is suited to any multi-phase and multi-environment population-based genetic experiment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1754-6834-6-185DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3878416PMC
December 2013

Emergence of co-infection of visceral leishmaniasis in HIV-positive patients in northeast Iran: a preliminary study.

Travel Med Infect Dis 2014 Mar-Apr;12(2):173-8. Epub 2013 Sep 26.

Department of Parasitology and Mycology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) serosurvey was carried out on 49 HIV/AIDS patients among 500 asymptomatic HIV/infected patients who registered in the Khorasan Razavi Province during the last 14 years. HIV infections were detected by ELISA and confirmed using western blot assay at the AIDS centre of the Khorasan Razavi Province. All collected sera were screened using the direct agglutination test (DAT). The sera with anti-Leishmania infantum antibodies at a titre of 1:100 were considered positive for VL infection and serum titration was performed from 1:100 to 1:102,400. Nine (18.4%) patients were sero-positive according to DAT. The distribution of sera titrations were as follows: 1:100 (n = 6) 1:1600 (n = 1); 1:25,600 (n = 1) and 1:102,400 (n = 1). All sero-positive cases showed clinical signs and symptoms. The most predominant signs and symptoms of co-infection of visceral leishmaniasis in HIV-positive patients were pneumonia (n = 2), hepatosplenomegaly (n = 2), lymphadenopathy (n = 2), anaemia (n = 1), prolonged fever (n = 1) and cachexia (n = 1). Our finding shows that VL (or kala-azar) is an opportunistic disease in HIV-positive patients that may be occurred in VL endemic areas of Iran.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tmaid.2013.09.001DOI Listing
December 2014

S-nitrosylation of AtSABP3 antagonizes the expression of plant immunity.

J Biol Chem 2009 Jan 18;284(4):2131-7. Epub 2008 Nov 18.

Institute of Molecular Plant Sciences, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.

Changes in cellular redox status are a well established response across phyla following pathogen challenge. In this context, the synthesis of nitric oxide (NO) is a conspicuous feature of plants responding to attempted microbial infection and this redox-based regulator underpins the development of plant immunity. However, the associated molecular mechanism(s) have not been defined. Here we show that NO accretion during the nitrosative burst promotes increasing S-nitrosylation of the Arabidopsis thaliana salicylic acid-binding protein 3 (AtSABP3) at cysteine (Cys) 280, suppressing both binding of the immune activator, salicylic acid (SA), and the carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity of this protein. The CA function of AtSABP3 is required for the expression of resistance in the host against attempted pathogen infection. Therefore, inhibition of AtSBAP3 CA function by S-nitrosylation could contribute to a negative feedback loop that modulates the plant defense response. Thus, AtSABP3 is one of the first targets for S-nitrosylation in plants for which the biological function of this redox-based post-translational modification has been uncovered. These data provide a molecular connection between the changes in NO levels triggered by attempted pathogen infection and the expression of disease resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M806782200DOI Listing
January 2009

The developmental selector AS1 is an evolutionarily conserved regulator of the plant immune response.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2007 Nov 14;104(47):18795-800. Epub 2007 Nov 14.

Institute of Molecular Plant Sciences, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, King's Buildings, Edinburgh EH9 3JR, United Kingdom.

The MYB-related gene ASYMMETRIC LEAVES 1 (AS1) and its orthologs have an evolutionarily conserved role in specification of leaf cell identity. AS1 is expressed in leaf founder cells, where it functions as a heterodimer with the structurally unrelated AS2 proteins to repress activity of KNOTTED 1-like homeobox (KNOX) genes. AS1 therefore confines KNOX activity to the shoot apical meristem, where it promotes stem cell function through the regulation of phytohormone activities. Here, we show that loss-of-function mutations in AS1 unexpectedly convey heightened protection against necrotrophic fungi. AS1 operates as a negative regulator of inducible resistance against these pathogens by selectively binding to the promoters of genes controlled by the immune activator, jasmonic acid (JA), damping the defense response. In contrast, AS1 is a positive regulator of salicylic acid (SA)-independent extracellular defenses against bacterial pathogens. Neither the absence of AS2 nor ERECTA function, which enhances the morphological phenotype of as1, nor the conditional or constitutive expression of KNOX genes impacted disease resistance. Thus, the function of AS1 in responses to phytopathogens is independent of its AS2-associated role in development. Loss of function in the AS1 orthologs PHAN in Antirrhinum majus and NSPHAN in Nicotiana sylvestris produced pathogen-response phenotypes similar to as1 plants, and therefore the defense function of AS1 is evolutionarily conserved in plant species with a divergence time of approximately 125 million years.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0705586104DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2141856PMC
November 2007

Identification of loci controlling non-host disease resistance in Arabidopsis against the leaf rust pathogen Puccinia triticina.

Mol Plant Pathol 2007 Nov;8(6):773-84

Institute of Molecular Plant Sciences, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, King's Buildings, Edinburgh EH9 3JR, UK.

SUMMARY Plant immunity against the majority of microbial pathogens is conveyed by a phenomenon termed non-host resistance (NHR). This multifactorial trait provides durable protection against a given pathogen species. We investigated the molecular basis of NHR in Arabidopsis against the wheat leaf rust pathogen, Puccinia triticina (Ptr). Urediospores germinated with high efficiency and grew randomly over the Arabidopsis leaf surface. However, only 12% of urediospores produced a germ tube that successfully located a stoma and just 0.2% of urediospores went on to produce a haustorium within a penetrated mesophyll cell. Attempted Ptr infection induced the production of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs), nitric oxide (NO), salicylic acid (SA) and camalexin. The expression of SA, jasmonic acid (JA) and ROI-dependent genes was also detected. A series of well-characterized defence-related mutants were challenged with Ptr, but none of these lines exhibited significantly increased susceptibility to this fungus. Our findings also suggest that attempted Ptr infection triggers transient stomatal closure in Arabidopsis. We assessed the response of a collection of 79 geographically diverse Arabidopsis accessions to Ptr. Wa-1 plants supported a striking increase in Ptr substomatal vesicle frequency relative to all other tested accessions. Furthermore, SA and camalexin levels became elevated in Wa-1 plants relative to the Col reference line, in response to attempted Ptr infection. Additionally, the kinetics of SA-dependent gene expression was expedited in this accession relative to Col plants. To uncover the genetic architecture of NHR against Ptr, we assayed the response of the Arabidopsis Landsberg erecta (Ler) x Columbia (Col) recombinant inbred population to this fungus. Multiple small-to-medium effect quantitative trait loci were identified that govern the expression of NHR in Arabidopsis against Ptr.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1364-3703.2007.00431.xDOI Listing
November 2007