Publications by authors named "Shadi Shafaghi"

18 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Effects of an Empowerment Program on Self-Care Behaviors and Readmission of Patients with Heart Failure: a Randomized Clinical Trial.

Tanaffos 2020 Dec;19(4):312-321

Lung Transplantation Research Center, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (NRITLD), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: The prevalence of heart failure, as a serious health problem, is increasing around the world due to underlying factors, such as hypertension and diabetes. Although the patient's cooperation in the treatment process plays a crucial role in treatment, only a few combinations of different approaches have been investigated so far. This study aimed to determine the effects of an empowerment program on the patients' self-care behaviors and hospital readmission.

Materials And Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 120 patients with heart failure were divided into experimental and control groups. In the experimental group, the empowerment program, including face-to-face training, educational booklets, and follow-up via Telegram messaging application, was implemented, while the control group only received standard care. Data were collected before the intervention and six months after the intervention, using a researcher-made questionnaire. The Self-Care of Heart Failure Index (SCHFI) was completed for both groups.

Results: The results indicated that all three self-care scales, namely, self-care maintenance, self-care management, and self-care confidence, significantly improved in the experimental group compared to the baseline (P=0.000), while the scores of these scales decreased in the control group (P=0.000). The frequency of hospital admission and the length of hospital stay also reduced in the experimental group (P=0.000 and P<0.001, respectively). There was no significant difference in terms of the demographic characteristics between the two groups.

Conclusion: The empowerment program significantly improved the patients' self-care behaviors and reduced the frequency and duration of hospitalization. Therefore, implementation of such programs is strongly suggested, especially in heart failure clinics.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8088137PMC
December 2020

Intermediate vs Standard-dose Prophylactic Anticoagulation in Patients with COVID-19 Admitted to ICU: Ninety-day Results from the INSPIRATION Trial.

Thromb Haemost 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Sina hospital, Tehran, Iran (the Islamic Republic of).

Background: Thrombotic complications are considered among the main extrapulmonary manifestations of COVID-19. The optimal type and duration of prophylactic antithrombotic therapy in these patients remain unknown.

Methods: This manuscript reports the final (90-day) results of the Intermediate versus Standard-dose Prophylactic anticoagulation In cRitically-ill pATIents with COVID-19: An opeN label randomized controlled trial (INSPIRATION) study. Patients with COVID-19 admitted to intensive care were randomized to intermediate-dose versus standard-dose prophylactic anticoagulation for 30 days, irrespective of hospital discharge status. The primary efficacy outcome was a composite of adjudicated venous or arterial thrombosis, treatment with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), or all-cause death. The main safety outcome was major bleeding.

Results: Of 600 randomized patients, 562 entered the modified intention-to-treat analysis (median age [Q1, Q3]; 62 (50, 71) years; 237 (42.2%) women), of whom 336 (59.8%) survived to hospital discharge. The primary outcome occurred in 132 (47.8%) of patients assigned to intermediate-dose and 130 (45.4%) patients assigned to standard-dose prophylactic anticoagulation (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.21, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.95-1.55, P=0.11). No significant differences were observed between the two groups for other efficacy outcomes, or in the landmark analysis from days 31-90. Overall, there were 7 (2.5%) major bleeding events in the intermediate-dose group (including 3 fatal events) and 4 (1.4%) major bleeding events in the standard-dose group (none fatal) (HR: 1.82, 95% CI: 0.53-6.24, P=0.33).

Conclusion: Intermediate-dose compared with standard-dose prophylactic anticoagulation did not reduce a composite of death, treatment with ECMO, or venous or arterial thrombosis at 90-day follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1485-2372DOI Listing
April 2021

Effect of Intermediate-Dose vs Standard-Dose Prophylactic Anticoagulation on Thrombotic Events, Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Treatment, or Mortality Among Patients With COVID-19 Admitted to the Intensive Care Unit: The INSPIRATION Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA 2021 04;325(16):1620-1630

Rajaie Cardiovascular Medical and Research Center, Iran university of Medical sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Importance: Thrombotic events are commonly reported in critically ill patients with COVID-19. Limited data exist to guide the intensity of antithrombotic prophylaxis.

Objective: To evaluate the effects of intermediate-dose vs standard-dose prophylactic anticoagulation among patients with COVID-19 admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU).

Design, Setting, And Participants: Multicenter randomized trial with a 2 × 2 factorial design performed in 10 academic centers in Iran comparing intermediate-dose vs standard-dose prophylactic anticoagulation (first hypothesis) and statin therapy vs matching placebo (second hypothesis; not reported in this article) among adult patients admitted to the ICU with COVID-19. Patients were recruited between July 29, 2020, and November 19, 2020. The final follow-up date for the 30-day primary outcome was December 19, 2020.

Interventions: Intermediate-dose (enoxaparin, 1 mg/kg daily) (n = 276) vs standard prophylactic anticoagulation (enoxaparin, 40 mg daily) (n = 286), with modification according to body weight and creatinine clearance. The assigned treatments were planned to be continued until completion of 30-day follow-up.

Main Outcomes And Measures: The primary efficacy outcome was a composite of venous or arterial thrombosis, treatment with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, or mortality within 30 days, assessed in randomized patients who met the eligibility criteria and received at least 1 dose of the assigned treatment. Prespecified safety outcomes included major bleeding according to the Bleeding Academic Research Consortium (type 3 or 5 definition), powered for noninferiority (a noninferiority margin of 1.8 based on odds ratio), and severe thrombocytopenia (platelet count <20 ×103/µL). All outcomes were blindly adjudicated.

Results: Among 600 randomized patients, 562 (93.7%) were included in the primary analysis (median [interquartile range] age, 62 [50-71] years; 237 [42.2%] women). The primary efficacy outcome occurred in 126 patients (45.7%) in the intermediate-dose group and 126 patients (44.1%) in the standard-dose prophylaxis group (absolute risk difference, 1.5% [95% CI, -6.6% to 9.8%]; odds ratio, 1.06 [95% CI, 0.76-1.48]; P = .70). Major bleeding occurred in 7 patients (2.5%) in the intermediate-dose group and 4 patients (1.4%) in the standard-dose prophylaxis group (risk difference, 1.1% [1-sided 97.5% CI, -∞ to 3.4%]; odds ratio, 1.83 [1-sided 97.5% CI, 0.00-5.93]), not meeting the noninferiority criteria (P for noninferiority >.99). Severe thrombocytopenia occurred only in patients assigned to the intermediate-dose group (6 vs 0 patients; risk difference, 2.2% [95% CI, 0.4%-3.8%]; P = .01).

Conclusions And Relevance: Among patients admitted to the ICU with COVID-19, intermediate-dose prophylactic anticoagulation, compared with standard-dose prophylactic anticoagulation, did not result in a significant difference in the primary outcome of a composite of adjudicated venous or arterial thrombosis, treatment with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, or mortality within 30 days. These results do not support the routine empirical use of intermediate-dose prophylactic anticoagulation in unselected patients admitted to the ICU with COVID-19.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04486508.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2021.4152DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7974835PMC
April 2021

Determining the Level of Importance of Variables in Predicting Kidney Transplant Survival Based on a Novel Ranking Method.

Transplantation 2021 Jan 27. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Faculty member of Computer Engineering, Payam-e-Noor University, Saveh 3919735565, Iran Professor of Healthcare Systems Engineering, Faculty of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran 1411713116, Iran Research Scholar, Center of Excellence in Healthcare Systems Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran 1411713116, Iran Lung Transplantation Research Center, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (NRITLDD), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Kidney transplantation is the best alternative treatment for end-stage renal disease (ESRD). In order to optimal use of donated kidneys, graft predicted survival can be used as a factor to allocate kidneys. The performance of prediction techniques is highly dependent on the correct selection of predictors. Hence, the main objective of this research is to propose a novel method for ranking the effective variables for predicting the kidney transplant survival.

Methods: Five classification models were used to classify kidney recipients in long- and short-term survival classes. Synthetic minority oversampling (SMOTE) and random under sampling (RUS) were used to overcome the imbalanced class problem. In dealing with missing values, 2 approaches are employed (eliminating and imputing them). All variables were categorized into 4 levels. The ranking was evaluated using the sensitivity analysis approach.

Results: 34 out of the 41 variables were identified as important variables, of which, 5 variables were categorized in very important level ("Recipient creatinine at discharge", "Recipient dialysis time", "Donor history of diabetes", "Donor kidney biopsy" and "Donor cause of death"),17 variables in important level, and 12 variables in low important level.

Conclusion: In this study we identify new variables that have not been addressed in any of the previous studies (eg, AGE_DIF and MATCH_GEN). On the other hand, in kidney allocation systems, 2 main criteria are considered: equity and utility. One of the utility subcriteria is the graft survival. Our study findings can be used in the design of systems to predict the graft survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/TP.0000000000003623DOI Listing
January 2021

Preemptive non-selective bronchial artery angioembolization to reduce recurrence rate of hemoptysis.

Multidiscip Respir Med 2020 Jan 30;15(1):723. Epub 2020 Dec 30.

Chronic Respiratory Diseases Research Center, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (NRITLD), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Massive hemoptysis which is presented in advanced lung diseases is a life-threatening condition. Bronchial artery embolization as a minimally invasive procedure is the treatment of choice either in first or recurrent hemoptysis. This study aimed to assess the early and late efficacy of bronchial angioembolization (BAE) without microcatheter.

Methods: In this prospective cohort study, all patients with hemoptysis who had undergone BAE from August 2018 to March 2019 were included. Angiographic patterns including bleeding sources, number of involved vessels, the underlying etiology, and recurrence rate were evaluated in a one-year follow up.

Results: 153 patients were included with mean age of 55 ±16 years. 68% of them were male and 58% had life-threatening massive hemoptysis. Three distinct angiographic patterns were recognized. The culprit bleeding vessel was bronchial in 126 (92%), intercostal in 4 (3%), and both vessels in 7 (5%) of cases (p<0.05). One vessel involvement was seen in 56 patients; however it was observed in 69% of non-cystic fibrosis lobar bronchiectasis patients. In 1, 3 and 12 months follow up, recurrent hemoptysis was reported in 15 (11%), 4 (2.5%), and 24 (15.5%), respectively. In 52% of cases, no abnormal vessels were observed during aorta injection, but culprit bronchial or intercostal arteries were found in selective investigational angiography.

Conclusion: BAE was successful in the control of hemoptysis and resulted in a low rate of recurrence in different types of lung diseases. This could be due to the embolization of all pathological arteries found during angiography which might have prevented recurrent bleeding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4081/mrm.2020.723DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7802011PMC
January 2020

Identification and weighting of kidney allocation criteria: a novel multi-expert fuzzy method.

BMC Med Inform Decis Mak 2019 09 6;19(1):182. Epub 2019 Sep 6.

Faculty of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, 1411713116, Iran.

Background: Kidney allocation is a multi-criteria and complex decision-making problem, which should also consider ethical issues in addition to the medical aspects. Leading countries in this field use a point scoring system to allocate kidneys. Hence, the purpose of this study is to identify and weight the kidney allocation criteria considering the balance between utility and equity.

Methods: To do this, a new fuzzy hybrid approach is proposed, which consists of two steps: In the first step, Fuzzy Delphi Method (FDM) is used to identify the effective criteria in the kidney allocation algorithm. In the second step, Intuitionistic Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (IF-AHP) is employed to determine the weight of the criteria.

Results: The results showed that the highest weight belongs to "Medical emergency" criterion and the lowest weight to "5 HLA mismatches", which is similar to Euro-transplant kidney allocation system (ETKAS). The developed method is evaluated in two steps. First, the proposed model is implemented using a real case study from the Iranian Kidney Allocation System. It was shown that the proposed model has the potential to improve allocation outcome. Second, the proposed model's superiority to the current model is approved by the experts using the results display in the profile matrix. Finally, sensitivity analysis is performed to check the robustness of the proposed model.

Conclusions: This paper contributes to the kidney allocation literature by doing the following: (a) developing a comprehensive framework for identification and weightings of criteria for kidney allocation, (b) using, for the first time, the IF-AHP technique to consider hesitancy of decision makers and uncertainty in organ allocation, and (c) proposing an appropriate framework for the countries that intend to improve or modify their organ allocation system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12911-019-0892-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6729045PMC
September 2019

Traumatic Transection of Descending Thoracic Aorta Presenting as Pseudo- Coarctation.

Tanaffos 2018 Oct;17(4):295-298

Lung Transplantation Research Center, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (NRITLD), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Thoracic Aortic Injury (TAI) due to penetrating or blunt chest trauma is a critical life-threatening aortic injury. Its diagnosis and treatment always is challenging. An 18-year-old male was admitted due to blunt chest trauma after a high-impact road traffic collision. According to presenting dyspnea, an emergency chest-x-ray revealed left hemothorax for which chest tube was inserted. Hemodynamic monitoring demonstrated uncontrolled hypertension with systolic blood pressure of 200-220 despite multiple anti-hypertensive drugs. Trans-Thoracic Echocardiography (TTE) revealed abnormal Doppler flow pattern in proximal descending thoracic aorta suggestive for probable coarctation of aorta. Chest CT scan revealed pseudoaneurysm of the descending thoracic aorta just below the isthmus. Due to uncontrolled hypertension, persistent hemothorax and probable aortic pseudoaneurysm presenting as aortic luminal narrowing, surgical resection of the aneurysm was planned. The postoperative course was uneventful and blood pressure normalized without any drugs. Patient is normotensive after 8 years follow up.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6534805PMC
October 2018

Bronchiolitis Obliterans Syndrome and Death in Iranian Lung Transplant Recipients: A Bayesian Competing Risks Analysis.

Tanaffos 2016 ;15(3):141-146

Lung Transplant Research Center, Masih Daneshvari Hospital, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) is delayed allograft deterioration after lung transplant (LTX) that is clinically characterized by ≥ 20% decline from the baseline value of forced expiratory volume during the first second (FEV1). BOS is still a major obstacle limiting long-term survival post-LTX. The main aim of this study was to determine the predictors of BOS and death in Iranian LTX recipients.

Materials And Methods: This retrospective cohort study included 44 LTX recipients who survived ≥ 3 months post-LTX at the Masih Daneshvari Hospital, Tehran, Iran from 2000 to 2014. The outcome was time from lung transplantation to BOS and/or death (due to all causes except BOS). We used competing risks analysis to assess the effect of other factors on the cumulative incidence function of BOS and death. We applied a Fine and Gray model with Bayesian approach.

Results: The recipients' age (Mean ± SD) was 36.7 ± 14.5 yr. 11 (25%) recipients developed BOS as the first event within the first five years post-LTX and 13 (30%) died due to all causes except for BOS. Our results showed that CMV infection was associated with a significant increase in risk of developing BOS [hazard ratio (HR) 1.22 (95% credible set: (1.01, 3.2)] controlling for other variables. Bilateral transplantation [HR (95% credible set): 2.4(1.51, 4.05)] and CMV infection [HR (95% credible set): 2.02 (1.67, 2.55)] were predictors of the mortality risk.

Conclusion: CMV infection was a predictor of BOS risk in the studied patients. Moreover, bilateral transplantation and CMV infection were significant predictors of mortality in the present sample. Multi-center studies with larger sample sizes are required to better study the other risk factors, and the pathophysiologic mechanisms of BOS.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5304957PMC
January 2016

Normothermic Ex Vivo Lung Perfusion in Brain-dead Donors Reduces Inflammatory Cytokines and Toll-like Receptor Expression.

Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol 2016 Oct;15(5):340-354

Lung Transplant Research Center, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (NRITLD), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran AND Directors of Organ Transplantation and Special Diseases Office, Ministry of Health and Medical Education, Tehran, Iran.

Inflammatory responses and innate immunologic reactions play an important role in the respiratory system. Ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) is considered a novel method in the evaluation and reconditioning of donor lungs prior to transplantation. However, EVLP's effect on inflammatory and metabolic markers of human lung tissue is unknown.  This study investigated how the performance of EVLP on brain-dead (BD) donor lungs affects the production and release of inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-a), inflammatory cells and toll-like receptors (TLR) -2, 4. This study was conducted with an animal subject for qualification of EVLP team and then EVLP was performed on 4 human cases referred to Masih Daneshvari Hospital (Tehran,Iran), from May 2013 to July 2015. Two of these cases, who had acceptable lung function parameters, were enrolled in this study for immunologic investigations. Bronchoalveolar lavages (BAL) were taken before and after EVLP. Cytokines were quantitatively measured before lung retrieval, at the end of the lung removal, at the start of EVLP, and at the end of the each hour of EVLP. TLR expression was measured on the cells obtained by flow cytometry. TNF-a, IL-6 and IL-8 decreased in each stage of washing perfusate in both cases, and the level of cytokines in serum was in the normal range. Flow cytometry analysis revealed a decreasing expression of CD3, CD4/8, CD19, and CD16+56, as well as TLR-2 and TLR-4 in both cases. Intra-capillary pools of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-a) were determined to contribute to the lung injury during prolonged lung perfusion. This raises the possibility that EVLP donor lungs could be less immunogenic than standard lungs. However, to assess EVLP's effects on lung grafts and optimize recipient outcomes, further studies with a sufficient number of lungs are required.
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October 2016

Ex Vivo Lung Perfusion: Establishment and Operationalization in Iran.

Exp Clin Transplant 2017 Feb 14;15(1):82-88. Epub 2016 Oct 14.

From the Lung Transplant Research Center, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (NRITLD), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Objectives: Although the number of lung transplants is limited because of general shortage of organ donors, ex vivo lung perfusion is a novel method with 2 main benefits, including better evaluation of lung potential and recovery of injured lungs. The main aim of this study was to establish and operationalize ex vivo lung perfusion as the first experience in Iran.

Materials And Methods: This was a prospective operational research study on 5 cases, including 1 pig from Vienna Medical University and 4 patients from Masih Daneshvari Hospital. All organ donations from brain dead donors were evaluated according to lung transplant or ex vivo lung perfusion criteria from May 2013 to July 2015 in Tehran, Iran. If a donor did not have any sign of severe chest trauma or pneumonia but had poor oxygenation due to possible atelectasis or neurogenic pulmonary edema, their lungs were included for ex vivo lung perfusion.

Results: A successful trend in the difference between the pulmonary arterial Po2 and the left atrial Po2 was observed, as well as an increasing pattern in other functional parameters, including dynamic lung compliance and a decreasing trend in pulmonary vascular resistance.

Conclusions: These initial trials indicate that ex vivo lung perfusion can lead to remarkable progress in lung transplant in Iran. They also provide several important pieces of guidance for successful ex vivo lung perfusion, including the necessity of following standard lung retrieval procedures and monitoring temperature and pressure precisely. The development of novel methods can provide opportunities for further research studies on lungs of deceased donors and lead to undiscovered findings. By keeping this science up to date in Iran and developing such new and creative methods, we can reveal effective strategies to promote the quality of donor lungs to support patients on transplant wait lists.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.6002/ect.2015.0354DOI Listing
February 2017

Home spirometry: Assessment of patient compliance and satisfaction and its impact on early diagnosis of pulmonary symptoms in post-lung transplantation patients.

J Telemed Telecare 2016 Mar 29;22(2):127-31. Epub 2015 May 29.

Tobacco Prevention and Control Research Center, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (NRITLD), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Telemedicine is useful in monitoring patients, and in particular those, such as lung transplant recipients, suffering from chronic illnesses. This prospective cohort study was conducted on 15 lung transplant recipients. The patients provided physicians with data from spirometry as well as their clinical respiratory symptoms via SMS messages. In cases where spirometry results or clinical symptoms required follow-up, the monitoring physician contacted the patient according to guidelines and gave appropriate instructions. Qualitative assessment of satisfaction showed that the sense of increased support from medical staff was rated highest (92.9%). Telespirometry is an efficient method of monitoring lung transplant recipients which leads to patient satisfaction, compliance, adherence to study and sense of security. Nevertheless, for optimal implementation of this method, thorough training of both medical staff and patients is required.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1357633X15587435DOI Listing
March 2016

Performance of QuantiFERON TB Gold test in detecting latent tuberculosis infection in brain-dead organ donors in Iran: a brief report.

Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl 2014 Nov;25(6):1240-3

Clinical Tuberculosis and Epidemiology Research Center, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

With regard to the significant morbidity and mortality due to tuberculosis in lung transplant recipients, the identification of brain-dead organ donors with latent tuberculosis by use of the QuantiFERON TB Gold (QFT-G) test may be of help to reduce the risk of TB reactivation and mortality in lung recipients. This study was conducted in the National Research Institute of Tuber-culosis and Lung Diseases (NRITLD) in Iran, from January to March 2013. A total of 38 conse-cutive brain-dead donors, not currently infected with active tuberculosis, were recruited. The medi-cal records of all the study enrollees were reviewed. A whole-blood IFN- release assay (IGRA) in reaction to early secreted antigenic target 6 (ESAT-6), culture filtrate protein 10 (CFP-10), and TB7.7 antigens, was performed and the released Interferon- was measured via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The data was analyzed with QFT-G software which was provided by the company. The demographic, characteristics and other variables were entered into SPSS version 11.5. The QFT-G test results of three donors (7.9%) turned out to be positive, negative for 24 donors (63.1%), and indeterminate for 11 cases (28.9%). Our study revealed the potential advantages of QFT-G in lowering the incidence of donor-derived post-transplant tuberculosis among lung recipients. However, a high rate of indeterminate results restricted the performance of QFT-G in this study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/1319-2442.144258DOI Listing
November 2014

Risk factors associated with survival after lung transplant in iran.

Exp Clin Transplant 2014 Aug 19;12(4):290-4. Epub 2014 May 19.

From the Department of Biostatistics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.

Objectives: Limited information is available about risk factors associated with survival after lung transplant in Iranian recipients. This study evaluated the effect of recipient and donor characteristics on survival after lung transplant.

Materials And Methods: This retrospective study included 69 lung transplants (single, 31 patients [45%]; bilateral, 38 patients [55%]), from 2000 to 2013, at the National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases, Masih Daneshvari Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate survival, and variables were evaluated with multivariate analysis.

Results: There were 54 male recipients (78%), and the most frequent indications for transplant included pulmonary fibrosis in 31 patients (45%) and bronchiectasis in 23 patients (33%). Recipient mean age was 36 ± 13 years and body mass index was 20 ± 4 kg/m2. Mean half-life (all recipients) was 2 ± 1 years and survival was 73% at 1 month, 67% at 1 year, and 40% at 5 years after transplant. For recipients who survived > 2 weeks after transplant half-life and survival were similar to previously international reported results. Recipient age, sex, type of transplant, body mass index, and pulmonary artery pressure were not associated with survival. Survival was significantly higher with recipient bronchiectasis, younger donors, and female donors.

Conclusions: Survival after lung transplant was better with recipients who had bronchiectasis and donors that were younger or female. Patient selection, invasive monitoring, and supportive techniques such as extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for unstable patients during surgery may be helpful.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.6002/ect.2014.0029DOI Listing
August 2014

Efficacy of Halotherapy for Improvement of Pulmonary function Tests and Quality of Life of Non-Cystic Fibrosis Bronchiectatic Patients.

Tanaffos 2013 ;12(2):22-7

Mycobacteriology Research Center, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (NRITLD), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Halotherapy is a treatment modality suggested for patients with chronic pulmonary diseases. In this technique, inhalation of crystal salt stones extracted from mines improves patients' pulmonary function tests and symptoms by facilitating the secretion or expulsion of phlegm and mucus and reducing the risk of bacterial infections. Bronchiectasis is chronic disease of the airways characterized by irreversible dilation of airways. It has a progressive course and despite the available treatments, many of these patients eventually enter the advanced phase of disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of halotherapy on pulmonary function tests and quality of life of non-CF bronchiectatic patients.

Materials And Methods: This clinical trial evaluated the results of spirometry and 6-minute walk test as well as the quality of life (according to SF-36 questionnaire) of stable non-CF bronchiectatic patients presenting to the pulmonary clinic before and after the use of salt spray for 2 months.

Results: Of 40 study patients, 20 were excluded due to various reasons and 20 were evaluated. The mean age of patients was 35±11 years and the underlying cause of disease was chronic pulmonary infection in 65% of cases. Comparison of the results of pulmonary function tests and 6-minute walk test and quality of life indices in SF-36 questionnaire before and after the intervention showed no significant difference (P > 0.05). However, 65% of patients were satisfied with halotherapy and requested to receive the medication again.

Conclusion: Our study results indicated that 2-month halotherapy with Salitair inhaler containing salt crystals extracted from the Klodawa mine in Poland could not improve the pulmonary function tests or quality of life of non-CF bronchiectatic patients. No significant side effects were noted in understudy patients. Future studies with larger sample size and longer duration of treatment are recommended to better determine the efficacy of this treatment modality.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4153239PMC
September 2014

Using Home Spirometry for Follow up of Lung Transplant Recipients: "A Pilot Study".

Tanaffos 2013 ;12(1):64-9

Telemedicine Research Center, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (NRITLD), Shahid Beheshti University of medical Sciences.

Background: Lung transplantation is considered the ultimate treatment for some patients, but due to the specific condition of patients undergoing it, follow up is a major concern. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of home spirometry in follow up of lung transplant recipients and early detection of complications in these patients.

Materials And Methods: A PC-based portable spirometry set was used to evaluate the well being of two lung transplant recipients on a regular daily basis for a 6-month period. Patient satisfaction and compliance, and device sensitivity in detecting complications were evaluated. Results of follow up were compared with 2 matched control patients.

Results: Patient adherence to home spirometry was 80% in one and 61% in the other patient and both patients were satisfied with the method, although this satisfaction declined towards the end of the study period. The main reason for low adherence was insufficient internet access. This method succeeded in early detection of infectious complications.

Conclusion: Home spirometry seems to be a reliable method for follow up of lung transplant recipients, but further studies in a larger group of patients is recommended.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4153232PMC
September 2014

Postlung transplant rehospitalization: a study of causes, health care burden, and outcomes.

Exp Clin Transplant 2009 Sep;7(3):192-6

Lung Transplantation Research Center, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, Shaheed Beheshti Medical University, Tehran, Iran.

Objectives: Rehospitalization is a significant burden for transplant systems, which use data on hospitalization to monitor practice outcomes. In this study, all rehospitalizations after successful lung transplant performed in our medical center during an 8-year period were assessed for cause, health care resource use, cost, and outcome.

Materials And Methods: We performed a retrospective chart review of all rehospitalizations of lung transplant recipients in Masih Daneshvari Hospital in Darabad, Tehran, between 2000 and 2008. Baseline data (each patient's age at transplant and rehospitalization, sex, primary lung disease, medications used), cause of rehospitalization (infection, graft rejection, surgical complications, type of infection), health care resources use (length of hospital stay, intensive care unit stay, physician visits, imaging), rehospitalization costs (accommodations, personnel, drugs, paraclinical [ie, laboratory] tests, supplies, procedures) and outcome (death, survival) were noted.

Results: In 69% of patients who were rehospitalized after having received a lung transplant, the cause was infection. Other causes were acute rejection in 31% and surgical complications in 6.9%. In 10.3% of those patients, the primary cause for rehospitalization could not be specified. The mean (SD) duration of rehospitalization was 12.8 -/+ 10.4 days. Treatment in the intensive care unit was necessary for 93.1% of the study subjects. The mean (SD) number of physician visits was 27.8 -/+ 27.7, and the fatality rate in the patients studied was 13.8%.

Conclusions: These data may guide the monitoring of the causes, burden, and outcomes of lung transplants performed in our medical center in Iran and in other medical centers.
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September 2009

Pulmonary artery stenosis shortly after lung transplantation: successful balloon dilation and stent insertion in one case.

Ann Transplant 2009 Jan-Mar;14(1):52-5

Lung transplantation Research Center, National Research Institute of Tuberclosis and lung Disease, Shaheed Beheshti Medical Sciences University, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Pulmonary artery stenosis after lung transplantation is a rare complication. It usually requires surgical correction but even after that the outcome is not favorable.


Case Report: The patient was a 53-years-old woman who was candidate for lung transplantation surgery due to pulmonary fibrosis. After 7 months on waiting list, with severe limitations in daily living activities, she received a single lung transplant in 2007. The surgery was performed without any complication. One day after surgery and after extubation, the patient needed oxygen supplementation through mask with reservoir bag. In bronchoscopy, black-and-white exudate and black membrane that blocked the main bronchus in the transplanted lung was observed. By bronchial lavage the membrane and exudate were successfully removed and patient received antibiotics for documented Aspergillus infection and methylprednisolone pulse therapy for evidences of graft rejection. Despite success in treatments of the mentioned complications, the condition of the patient deteriorated and she became totally dependent to supplemental oxygen. Oxygen consumption level had increase and pulmonary artery pressure was increasing gradually. With suspicion to pulmonary artery stenosis, bronchial CT-Scan with contrast was performed 13 days after transplantation surgery which showed a 50% stenosis. Trans-esophageal echocardiography also showed a stenosis with 40 mmHg gradient. 18 days after transplantation surgery, percutaneous balloon angioplasty was performed which was initially successful but re-stenosis occurred. Seven days later, another balloon angioplasty with stent insertion was performed. After the procedure, the gradient has been removed. Patient was discharged 30 days after transplantation. Follow-up after 10 months revealed no stenosis and the stent was working properly.


Conclusions: Stent angioplasty can be performed with no problem or complication if pulmonary artery stenosis is seen after lung transplantation.

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June 2009