Publications by authors named "Sha Chen"

158 Publications

Hierarchical urchin-like amorphous carbon with Co-adding anchored on nickel foam: A free-standing electrode for advanced asymmetrical supercapacitors and adsorbed Pb (II).

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Jun 16;603:58-69. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, Hunan 410082, China; Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha, Hunan 410082, China.

The booming development of carbon materials is of great value for diverse applications, owing to their superior electron conductivity, unique structures, and excellent cycle lifetime. This study presents two hierarchically structured amorphous carbon materials for asymmetric supercapacitor (ASC) device: i) the MOFs-derived urchin-like amorphous carbon anchored on nickel foam ([email protected]) as positive electrode; ii) high temperature activated graphite carbon felt (GF500) as negative electrode. This ASC device achieves a higher energy density of 0.036 mWh cm at a power density of 0.984 mW cm and demonstrates better cycling performance with 91.4% capacitance retention after 10,000 cycles, compared with the other carbon-based supercapacitor. In addition, the [email protected] after 10,000 cycles displays much better adsorption performance for Pb (II) compared with the unused [email protected] We have demonstrated the relationship between carbon materials' structure and performance by combining experiment and theoretical calculation. Predominantly, our work can provide a new direction for the common development of amorphous carbon materials in the field of energy and environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2021.06.080DOI Listing
June 2021

Low-cost smartphone-based LIBS combined with deep learning image processing for accurate lithology recognition.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2021 Jul;57(58):7156-7159

Research Centre of Analytical Instrumentation, School of Mechanical Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China 610065, P. R. China.

A low-cost and multi-channel smartphone-based spectrometer was developed for LIBS. As the CMOS detector is two-dimensional, simultaneous multichannel detection was achieved by coupling a linear array of fibres for light collection. Thus, besides the atomic information, the spectral images containing the propagation and spatial distribution characters of a laser induced plasma plume could be recorded. With these additional features, accurate rock type prediction was achieved by processing the raw data directly through a deep learning model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1cc01844bDOI Listing
July 2021

Low-cost smartphone-based LIBS combined with deep learning image processing for accurate lithology recognition.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2021 Jul;57(58):7156-7159

Research Centre of Analytical Instrumentation, School of Mechanical Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China 610065, P. R. China.

A low-cost and multi-channel smartphone-based spectrometer was developed for LIBS. As the CMOS detector is two-dimensional, simultaneous multichannel detection was achieved by coupling a linear array of fibres for light collection. Thus, besides the atomic information, the spectral images containing the propagation and spatial distribution characters of a laser induced plasma plume could be recorded. With these additional features, accurate rock type prediction was achieved by processing the raw data directly through a deep learning model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1cc01844bDOI Listing
July 2021

Phthalic acid esters degradation by a novel marine bacterial strain Mycolicibacterium phocaicum RL-HY01: Characterization, metabolic pathway and bioaugmentation.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jun 5;791:148303. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Shenzhen Research Institute of Guangdong Ocean University, Shenzhen 518108, China; College of Coastal Agricultural Sciences, School of Chemistry and Environment, Guangdong Ocean University, Zhanjiang 524088, China. Electronic address:

Phthalic acid esters (PAEs) are one of the most widely used plasticizers and the well-studied environmental pollutants with endocrine disrupting properties. Investigation about PAEs in terrestrial ecosystem has been extensively conducted while the fate of PAEs in marine environment remains underexplored. In this study, a novel di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) degrading marine bacterial strain, Mycolicibacterium phocaicum RL-HY01, was isolated and characterized from intertidal sediments. Strain RL-HY01 could utilize a range of PAE plasticizers as sole carbon source for growth. The effects of different environmental factors on the degradation of PAEs were evaluated and the results indicated that strain RL-HY01 could efficiently degrade PAEs under a wide range of pH (5.0 to 9.0), temperature (20 °C to 40 °C) and salinity (below 10%). Specifically, when Tween-80 was added as solubilizing agent, strain RL-HY01 could rapidly degrade DEHP and achieve complete degradation of DEHP (50 mg/L) in 48 h. The kinetics of DEHP degradation by RL-HY01 were well fitted with the modified Gompertz model. The metabolic intermediates of DEHP by strain RL-HY01 were identified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) analysis and then the metabolic pathway of DEHP was deduced. DEHP was transformed into di-ethyl phthalate (DEP) via β-oxidation and then DEP was hydrolyzed into phthalic acid (PA) by de-esterification. PA was further transformed into gentisate via salicylic acid and further utilized for cell growth. Bioaugmentation of strain RL-HY01 with marine samples was performed to evaluate its application potential and the results suggested that strain RL-HY01 could accelerate the elimination of DEHP in marine samples. The results have advanced our understanding of the fate of PAEs in marine ecosystem and identified an efficient bioremediation strategy for PAEs-polluted marine sites.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.148303DOI Listing
June 2021

Long noncoding RNA ANRIL knockdown attenuates neuroinflammation following ischemic stroke via suppressing the expression of NF-κB in vitro and in vivo.

Neurol Res 2021 Jun 3:1-11. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

College of Pharmacology, the Key Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Objective: Increasing evidence suggests that long-noncoding RNAs can exert neuroprotective effects in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. Levels of the long noncoding RNA ANRIL (ANRIL) are reportedly altered in ischemic stroke (IS) patients, but its role in IS requires further clarification. This study was designed to explore the mechanistic function of ANRIL in IS.

Methods: , HT22 cells was treated with an oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R). , brain ischemia/reperfusion was induced by 60-minute transient middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion (MCAO/R) IS model in C57/BL6 mice. Additionally, cells were transfected with si-ANRIL, pcDNA3.1-ANRIL, pcDNA3.1-NF-κB, or appropriate negative controls, and si-ANRIL and pcDNA3.1-NF-κB were administered into the lateral ventricles in MCAO/R model mice. Cell viability and apoptosis were detected via MTT and flow cytometry assays. mRNA and protein expression of NF-κB were detected via qRT-PCR and Western blotting. IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-a, and iNOS levels were detected via ELISA. In addition, infarcted area and neuronal injury were evaluated via TTC, Nissl, and immunofluorescent staining.

Results: We found that ANRIL knockdown increased cell viability and reduced apoptosis . Additionally, we found that ANRIL knockdown decreased p-P65, P65, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-a, and iNOS levels, whereas these effects were reversed by NF-κB overexpression both and .

Conclusion: our results suggest that ANRIL knockdown attenuates neuroinflammation by suppressing the expression of NF-κB both and vivo model of IS, sugguesting that ANRIL might be a potentially viable therapeutictarget to diminish neuroinflammation in IS patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01616412.2021.1934317DOI Listing
June 2021

Remediation of Cd-Contaminated Soil by Modified Nanoscale Zero-Valent Iron: Role of Plant Root Exudates and Inner Mechanisms.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 05 30;18(11). Epub 2021 May 30.

College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, China.

In this study, the role of exogenous root exudates and microorganisms was investigated in the application of modified nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) for the remediation of cadmium (Cd)-contaminated soil. In this experiment, citric acid (CA) was used to simulate root exudates, which were then added to water and soil to simulate the pore water and rhizosphere environment. In detail, the experiment in water demonstrated that low concentration of CA facilitated Cd removal by nZVI, while the high concentration achieved the opposite. Among them, CA can promote the adsorption of Cd not only by direct complexation with heavy metal ions, but also by indirect effect to promote the production of iron hydroxyl oxides which has excellent heavy metal adsorption properties. Additionally, the H dissociated from CA posed a great influence on Cd removal. The situation in soil was similar to that in water, where low concentrations of CA contributed to the immobilization of Cd by nZVI, while high concentrations promoted the desorption of Cd and the generation of CA-Cd complexes which facilitated the uptake of Cd by plants. As the reaction progressed, the soil pH and cation exchange capacity (CEC) increased, while organic matter (OM) decreased. Meanwhile, the soil microbial community structure and diversity were investigated by high-throughput sequencing after incubation with CA and nZVI. It was found that a high concentration of CA was not conducive to the growth of microorganisms, while CMC had the effect of alleviating the biological toxicity of nZVI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18115887DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8197846PMC
May 2021

[Structural Characteristics of Zooplankton and Phytoplankton Communities and Its Relationship with Environmental Factors in a Typical Tributary Reservoir in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region].

Huan Jing Ke Xue 2021 May;42(5):2303-2312

College of Resources and Environment, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China.

Based on the data of zooplankton, phytoplankton, and water environmental factors in different seasons in a typical tributary reservoir in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region (Changshou Lake), this study explored the relationships between the structures of the zooplankton and phytoplankton communities and environmental factors using Pearson correlation analysis. The results showed that there were a total of 107 species of 8 phyla of phytoplankton, and cyanobacteria was the most critical constituent with a relative abundance of 61%. The dominant populations included , , and . A total of 82 species of 4 phyla of zooplankton were identified, and rotifers was the most abundant with a relative abundance of 88%. The dominant populations included six species, such as , , and . The spatial differences in the abundances, biomass, and biodiversity indexes of zooplankton and phytoplankton were not significant, whereas the seasonal differences in all the other indexes were significant, except for the zooplankton biodiversity indexes. The abundance of phytoplankton was the highest in summer, followed by spring, and it was the lowest in winter. The maximum abundance of zooplankton occurred in spring, and the biomass of zooplankton and phytoplankton in spring was significantly higher than that in winter. The number of phytoplankton species and the Shannon-Wiener index, Pielou's uniformity index, and Margalef richness index in summer were significantly lower than those in winter and spring. The water quality evaluation showed that Changshou Lake was in a clean to oligo-pollution state in winter and spring and a moderate-pollution state in summer, thereby suggesting that Changshou Lake was in an overall eutrophic state. The environmental factors, including Chla, DOC, nutrients (TP, NO-N, NO-N, and NH-N), DO, Eh, and , influenced the structures of the zooplankton and phytoplankton communities in Changshou Lake, and there were seasonal differences in the environmental factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13227/j.hjkx.202008263DOI Listing
May 2021

miR-671-5p Attenuates Neuroinflammation via Suppressing NF-κB Expression in an Acute Ischemic Stroke Model.

Neurochem Res 2021 Jul 19;46(7):1801-1813. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

College of Pharmacology, The Key Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016, China.

This study was designed to investigate the role of miR-671-5p in in vitro and in vivo models of ischemic stroke (IS). Middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion (MCAO/R) in C57BL/6 mice as well as oxygen-glucose deprivation and reoxygenation (OGD/R) in a mouse hippocampal HT22 neuron line were used as in vivo and in vitro models of IS injury, respectively. miR-671-5p agomir, miR-671-5p antagomir, pcDNA3.1-NF-κB, and negative controls were transfected into cells using riboFECT CP reagent. miR-671-5p agomir, pcDNA3.1-NF-κB, and negative vectors were administered into MCAO/R mice via intracerebroventricular injection. The results showed that miR-671-5p was significantly downregulated and that miR-671-5p agomir alleviated injury and neuroinflammation induced by ischemic reperfusion. A dual-luciferase reporter assay confirmed that NF-κB is a direct target of miR-671-5p. Reverse experiments showed that miR-671-5p agomir reduced neuroinflammation via suppression of NF-κB expression in both in vitro and in vivo models of IS. Our data suggest that miR-671-5p may be a viable therapeutic target for diminishing neuroinflammation in patients with IS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11064-021-03321-1DOI Listing
July 2021

Jointed Synchronous Photocatalytic Oxidation and Chromate Reduction Enabled by the Defect Distribution upon BiVO: Mechanism Insight and Toxicity Assessment.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Apr 13;13(15):17586-17598. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

College of Environmental Science and Engineering and Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control, Ministry of Education, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, China.

Exploring active and ecological materials for the restoration of complex pollution system is highly desired. This study presents a facile defect-tailoring strategy for combined pollutants purification with BiVO photocatalysis in which the jointed synchronous reaction of oxidation and reduction is integrated instead of the sequential reaction in two individual systems. XPS and EPR reveal that BiVO with a suitable oxygen vacancies (OVs) concentration and distribution exhibits superior photocatalytic activity under the coexistence of TC-HCl and Cr(VI) with Cr(VI) reduction efficiency increased by 71 times compared with the individual Cr(VI) system along with TC-HCl removal efficiency comparable to a single TC-HCl system. The mechanism of synchronous redox reactions mediated by surface OVs is revealed by comprehensive characterization together with reaction kinetic analysis, and the electronic band structure adjustment induced by the OVs variation is confirmed. Active species identification tests and intermediate product analysis confirm that singlet oxygen (O) accounts for the selective oxidation of TC-HCl, while electrons dominate the reduction of Cr(VI), under a coexistent environment. The influence of water quality parameters (e.g., pH, cations, anions, and organic substances) on the photocatalytic activity is investigated considering the complexity of the real aquatic environment. Importantly, toxicity assessment with Gram-negative strain as a model bacterium validates that the toxicity of the intermediates can be reduced to low or even ultralow levels. This work is dedicated to the mechanistic study of defect photocatalysis over BiVO and provides a jointed synchronous reaction system for combined pollutant purification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c01998DOI Listing
April 2021

Prebiotics enhance the biotransformation and bioavailability of ginsenosides in rats by modulating gut microbiota.

J Ginseng Res 2021 Mar 7;45(2):334-343. Epub 2020 Aug 7.

Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing, 100700, China.

Background: Gut microbiota mainly function in the biotransformation of primary ginsenosides into bioactive metabolites. Herein, we investigated the effects of three prebiotic fibers by targeting gut microbiota on the metabolism of ginsenoside Rb1 .

Methods: Sprague Dawley rats were administered with ginsenoside Rb1 after a two-week prebiotic intervention of fructooligosaccharide, galactooligosaccharide, and fibersol-2, respectively. Pharmacokinetic analysis of ginsenoside Rb1 and its metabolites was performed, whilst the microbial composition and metabolic function of gut microbiota were examined by 16S rRNA gene amplicon and metagenomic shotgun sequencing.

Results: The results showed that peak plasma concentration and area under concentration time curve of ginsenoside Rb1 and its intermediate metabolites, ginsenoside Rd, F2, and compound K (CK), in the prebiotic intervention groups were increased at various degrees compared with those in the control group. Gut microbiota dramatically responded to the prebiotic treatment at both taxonomical and functional levels. The abundance of , which possesses potential function to hydrolyze ginsenoside Rb1 into CK, was significantly elevated in the three prebiotic groups (P < 0.05). The gut metagenomic analysis also revealed the functional gene enrichment for terpenoid/polyketide metabolism, glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, propanoate metabolism, etc.

Conclusion: These findings imply that prebiotics may selectively promote the proliferation of certain bacterial stains with glycoside hydrolysis capacity, thereby, subsequently improving the biotransformation and bioavailability of primary ginsenosides .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jgr.2020.08.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8020290PMC
March 2021

A novel multifunctional platform based on ITO/APTES/ErGO/AuNPs for long-term cell culture and real-time biomolecule monitoring.

Talanta 2021 Jun 1;228:122232. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Key Laboratory for Biorheological Science and Technology (Chongqing University), Ministry of Education, College of Bioengineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing, 400044, PR China; Chongqing Key Laboratory of Bio-perception & Intelligent Information Processing, School of Microelectronics and Communication Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing, 400044, PR China. Electronic address:

Integrating long-term cell culture with real-time electrochemical monitoring is a promising strategy for future studies of physiological and pathological processes. However, great challenges still remain in fabricating such a platform with satisfactory electrochemical performance as well as desirable biocompatibility. Herein, we proposed a novel multifunctional platform based on gold nanoparticles/electrochemically reduced graphene oxide/3-aminopropyl-triethoxysilane modified indium tin oxide plate (ITO/APTES/ErGO/AuNPs). The unique biological and electrical properties of AuNPs and ErGO endow the platform with superior electrocatalytic activity and desirable biocompatibility. As a proof of concept, the present platform showed satisfactory electrochemical performance for sensitive and selective detection of hydrogen peroxide (HO) with a sensitivity about 0.25 μA μM cm and a detection limit of 0.38 μM in a linear range of 0.5-1461 μM. And the principle of catalytic reduction was clarified through density functional calculations (DFT). Furthermore, cells grew on the platform exhibited excellent proliferation ability and considerable viability after a long-term cultivation. Based on those desirable performances, in-situ and real-time monitoring of endogenously produced HO released from cancer cells cultured on the platform has been successfully realized, which will be of great significance in pathophysiology research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2021.122232DOI Listing
June 2021

Stabilization of lead in polluted sediment based on an eco-friendly amendment strategy: Microenvironment response mechanism.

J Hazard Mater 2021 08 25;415:125534. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, Hunan 410082, China; Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha, Hunan 410082, China.

Stabilization is the most important remediation mechanisms for sediment polluted heavy metals. However, little research has been done on the identification of microenvironmental response and internal correlation, as well as synergistic mechanisms during heavy metal remediation. This study aims to investigate the inner response mechanisms of microenvironment after the lead (Pb) are gradually stabilized in sediment. An eco-friendly amendment strategy which firstly used 100% biodegradable sophorolipids (SOP) to modify chlorapatite (ClAP) for the fabrication of [email protected] was applied in this study. The stabilization efficiency of Pb was significantly improved by [email protected] compared with ClAP. Most importantly, the high-throughput sequencing showed that the dominant species in the sediment changed with the stabilization of Pb. The decrease of Proteobacteria and increase of Firmicutes, especially the Sedimentibacter within the phylum Firmicute directly suggested that large amounts of Pb were stabilized. This research is not only devoted to stabilize Pb in sediment by eco-friendly amendment strategy, but also keep a watchful eye on microenvironment response mechanisms during the Pb stabilization in sediment. Therefore, this study lays a foundation for the future application of more heavy metal amendment strategies in the sediment environment and improves the possibility of large-scale site amendment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.125534DOI Listing
August 2021

A simple strategy to monitor the temporal and spatial distribution of alkaloids in sacred lotus leaves.

Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2021 May;85(6):1332-1340

Key Laboratory of Beijing for Identification and Safety Evaluation of Chinese Medicine, Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Dongzhimennei, Beijing, China.

Owing to the high degree of diversity of metabolite pools and complexity of spatial and temporal distributions within biological tissues, currently available methods for metabolite characterization face large challenges. In this study, the temporal and spatial distributions of the alkaloid components of the medicinal plant lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) were investigated over various growth phases. The results showed that alkaloid biosynthesis in lotus leaf is regulated by development and that there is maximum accumulation of alkaloids when the lotus leaf was completely expanded. Furthermore, alkaloid content tended to be stable in mature lotus leaves. However, there was significant variation in the alkaloid content of lotus leaves with different genotypes, suggesting that genetic background is an important factor that affects the temporal and spatial distributions of alkaloids in sacred lotus leaves. The dynamic contents of alkaloids during the growth and development of lotus leaves provide insight into basic biological differences when sampling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bbb/zbab038DOI Listing
May 2021

Differentially expressed genes induced by β-caryophyllene in a rat model of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury.

Life Sci 2021 May 8;273:119293. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Chongqing Key Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016, China. Electronic address:

Experimental studies have shown that β-caryophyllene (BCP) improved neurological deficits of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury (CIRI) rats resulting from Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion (MCAO). However, research on targets of BCP on CIRI has not been completed. In this study, the mRNA sequencing was used to distinguish various therapeutic multiple targets of BCP on CIRI. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified from RNA-seq analysis. CIRI induced up-regulated genes (CIRI vs. Sham) and BCP -induced down-regulated genes (BCP vs CIRI) were identified. Significant DEGs were identified only that expressed in each of all samples. Gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis of significant DEGs were determined by cluster Profiler. Protein interactive network (PPI) was analyzed using the String tool and Hub genes was identified by cytoHubba. Transcription factor (TF) regulatory network for the potential Hub genes was constructed. Western blot and ELISA were used to verified hub genes and relative inflammatory cytokines. After mRNA sequencing, a total of 411 DEGs were filtered based on the 2 series (CIRI vs. Sham and CIRI vs. BCP), with Pax1, Cxcl3 and Ccl20 are the most remarkable ones reversed by BCP. GO analysis was represented by DEGs involved in multiple biological process such as extra-cellular matrix organization, leukocyte migration, regulation of angiogenesis, reactive oxygen species metabolic process, etc. KEGG analysis showed that DEGs participated several signaling pathways including MAPK signaling pathway (rno04010), Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction (rno04060), JAK-STAT signaling pathway (rno04630), and others. The protein-protein interaction (PPI) network consisted of 339 nodes and 1945 connections, and top ten Hub genes were identified by cytoHubba such as TIMP1, MMP-9, and STAT3. Subsequently, a TFs-miRNAs-targets regulatory network was established, involving 6 TFs, 5 miRNAs, and 10 hub genes, consisting of several regulated models such as Brd4 - rno-let-7e - Mmp9, Brd4 - rno-let-7i - Stat3, and Hnf4a- rno-let-7b -Timp1. Finally, western blot demonstrated that BCP could inhibit the increased TIMP1, MMP-9 and STAT3 expression in rat brains after I/R. ELISA represented that BCP could suppress inflammatory cytokines caused by CIRI and present anti-oxidative property. In conclusion, this study shows that the intervention of BCP can significantly reduce neurologic deficit, improve the cerebral ischemia, and a total of ten hub genes were found closely related to the treatment of BCP on CIRI. Prudent experimental validation suggests that the BCP might have the neuro-protective effects in CIRI by decreasing the expression of MMP-9 and TIMP-1, STAT3. In a sense, this study reveals that the MMP-9/TIMP-1 signaling pathway may be involved in the injury after CIRI and thus provides a new treatment strategy as well as a researching method for stroke.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2021.119293DOI Listing
May 2021

Synthesis of Mitochondria-Anchored Nitroimidazoles with a Versatile NIR Fluorophore for Hypoxic Tumor-Targeting Imaging and Chemoradiotherapy.

J Med Chem 2021 03 10;64(6):3381-3391. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

State Key Laboratory of Trauma, Burns and Combined Injury, Institute of Combined Injury, Chongqing Engineering Research Center for Nanomedicine, College of Preventive Medicine, Third Military Medical University (Army Medical University), 30 Gaotanyan Street, Shapingba District, Chongqing 400038, People's Republic of China.

Nitroimidazoles are one of the most common radiosensitizers investigated to combat hypoxia-induced resistance to cancer radiotherapy. However, due to poor selectivity distinguishing cancer cells from normal cells, effective doses of radiosensitization are much closer to the doses of toxicity induced by nitroimidazoles, limiting their clinical application. In this work, a tumor-targeting near-infrared (NIR) cyanine dye (IR-808) was utilized as a targeting ligand and an NIR fluorophore tracer to chemically conjugate with different structures of hypoxia-affinic nitroimidazoles. One of the NIR fluorophore-conjugated nitroimidazoles (808-NM2) was identified to preferentially accumulate in hypoxic tumor cells, sensitively outline the tumor contour, and effectively inhibit tumor growth synergistically by chemotherapy and radiotherapy. More importantly, nitroimidazoles were successfully taken into cancer cell mitochondria via 808-NM2 conjugate to exert the synergistic effect of chemoradiotherapy. Regarding the important roles of mitochondria on cancer cell survival and metastasis under hypoxia, 808-NM2 may be hopeful to fight against hypoxic tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.0c02250DOI Listing
March 2021

Oxygen vacancy-rich doped [email protected] felt-600 heterostructures for high-performance supercapacitor electrodes.

Nanoscale 2021 Mar;13(9):4995-5005

College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, Hunan 410082, China. and Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha, Hunan 410082, China.

Carbon dots (CDs) have attracted much attention owing to their distinctive 0D chemical structure, ultra-small size, and intrinsic surface/edge defects, and have been widely used in many kinds of research fields. In this work, a facile method to synthesize an oxygen vacancy-rich doped [email protected] felt-600 heterostructure with outstanding electrochemical properties is presented. The electron spin resonance (ESR) provides clear evidence for the existence of abundant oxygen vacancies in the [email protected] felt-600 heterostructure. The as-synthesized [email protected] felt-600 shows superior areal specific capacitance (5.99 F cm-2), due to abundant oxygen vacancies and extensive surface/edge defects in the heterostructure. In addition, a home-made coin cell supercapacitor (SC) with [email protected] felt-600 as the electrode delivers a large areal energy density of 20.7 μW h cm-2 at a power density of 150.0 μW cm-2. To determine the charge storage mechanism at the interface of [email protected] felt-600, the binding energies between the CDs and graphite felt are calculated by density functional theory (DFT).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0nr08251aDOI Listing
March 2021

[Effects of Apelin-13 on barrier injury of human umbilical vein endothelial cells induced by LPS].

Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi 2020 Sep;36(5):390-393

The Second Affiliated Hospital and Yuying Children's Hospital, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325035.

To investigate the effects of Apelin-13 on barrier function injury of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) induced by LPS. The HUVECs cultured were divided into 4 groups: Control group, LPS group, Apelin-13+LPS group, Apelin-13 group. HUVECs were treated by 5 μg/ml LPS for 24 h to replicate the model with endothelial barrier impaired. Apelin-13 at the concentration of 1 μmol/L was given 30 min before LPS treatment. The cell viabillity of HUVECs was measured by CCK-8 assay. Protein expressions of VE-cadherin and F-actin were measured by Western blot and immunofluorescence. Nuclear factor κB p65(NF-κB p65) was detected by immunofluorescence. Compared with the control group, the cell viabillity of HUVECs and protein expression of VE-cadherin were decreased by LPS, but the protein expression of F-actin and activation of NF-κB p65 were increased by LPS. These effects were attenuated by Apelin-13 administration. Apelin-13 ameliorates LPS-induced barrier function injury of HUVECs, which may be related to the inhibition of inflammation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12047/j.cjap.5896.2020.083DOI Listing
September 2020

Efficacy and Safety of Long-Term Corticosteroid Monotherapy in 26 Cases of Nephrotic Syndrome with Biopsy-Proven Membranous Nephropathy Induced by Seronegative Hepatitis B Virus-Associated Glomerulonephritis.

Nephron 2021 9;145(2):113-122. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Tianjin Hospital, Tianjin, China,

Background: Hepatitis B virus-associated glomerulonephritis (HBV-GN) can occur in patients with negative HBV serological antigens. Little is known about the treatment of seronegative HBV-GN (sn HBV-GN). The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of corticosteroids in the treatment of sn HBV-GN.

Methods: Twenty-six patients with nephrotic syndrome induced by seronegative HBV-associated membranous nephropathy were enrolled. The patients were given methylprednisolone (0.8 mg/kg/day) for 12-24 weeks, tapered by a 2-mg reduction every 1-3 months. Patients were followed up for 6-36 months. Complete remission (CR) was defined as proteinuria <0.3 g/24 h. Partial remission (PR) was defined as proteinuria of 0.3-3.5 g/24 h that was reduced ≥50% of the baseline level.

Results: The effective remission (including CR and PR) rates of nephrotic syndrome were 23.1%, 61.5%, 73.1%, 76.2%, 90.5%, and 81.0%, respectively, after 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 36 months. Nineteen patients achieved effective remission after 11.68 ± 7.15 months. The level of serum albumin improved from 24.34 ± 6.71 g/L at baseline to 39.61 ± 7.45 g/L at the 36th month significantly. After treatment, the level of serum Cr was similar to the baseline. Only 2 patients relapsed. The primary adverse reaction was infection. None of the patients showed evidence of HBV replication.

Conclusion: The long-term middle-dose corticosteroid therapy without antiviral drugs is effective and safe for membranous sn HBV-GN patients. For sn HBV-GN patients, the monitoring of HBV DNA and HBV markers in the serum is necessary during the corticosteroid monotherapy.

Trial Registration: The Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR1900022518).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000511467DOI Listing
February 2021

Association between relationship characteristics and willingness to use PrEP among same-sex male couples: a cross-sectional actor-partner analysis in Guangzhou, China.

Int J STD AIDS 2021 Mar 8;32(3):228-238. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Department of Medical Statistics & Sun Yat-sen Global Health Institute, School of Public Health and Institute of State Governance, 26469Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

The association between relationship characteristics and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) acceptability among same-sex male couples has been limitedly examined. Dyadic survey data of 139 concordant HIV-negative same-sex male couples in Guangzhou, China were collected. The willingness to use PrEP was measured assuming that the participant's partner was HIV-positive. The actor-partner interdependence model was used to examine how one's relationship characteristics affected the PrEP willingness of the subject and his partner. Most participants (79.5%) were willing to use PrEP. The two individuals of the couple were distinguished by sex role in relationship, namely one usually playing the insertive role and the other usually playing the receptive role in anal intercourse. The former was labeled as "top" and the latter labeled as "bottom". The PrEP willingness of the top partner increased when he would think his partner is having sex with other people if the partner requests condom use in relationship (AOR: 5.74, 95% CI: 1.10-29.87), and decreased when his partner would get violent upon condom use requests in relationship (AOR: 0.19, 95% CI: 0.04-0.88). The PrEP willingness of the bottom partner increased when he trusted his partner (AOR: 1.13, 95% CI: 1.02-1.25) and when he or his partner disclosed the relationship to parents (AOR: 10.57, 95% CI: 1.91-58.61). Considering the sex role and relationship characteristics in couple-based interventions are important to optimize PrEP uptake among HIV-discordant same-sex male couples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956462420953007DOI Listing
March 2021

Nanospace Engineering of Metal-Organic Frameworks through Dynamic Spacer Installation of Multifunctionalities for Efficient Separation of Ethane from Ethane/Ethylene Mixtures.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 Apr 10;60(17):9680-9685. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Department of Chemistry, University of North Texas CHEM 305D, 1508 W Mulberry St, Denton, TX, 76201, USA.

Herein, a dynamic spacer installation (DSI) strategy has been implemented to construct a series of multifunctional metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), LIFM-61/31/62/63, with optimized pore space and pore environment for ethane/ethylene separation. In this respect, a series of linear dicarboxylic acids were deliberately installed in the prototype MOF, LIFM-28, leading to a dramatically increased pore volume (from 0.41 to 0.82 cm  g ) and reduced pore size (from 11.1×11.1 Å to 5.6×5.6 Å ). The increased pore volume endows the multifunctional MOFs with much higher ethane adsorption capacity, especially for LIFM-63 (4.8 mmol g ), representing nearly three times as much ethane as the prototypical counterpart (1.7 mmol g ) at 273 K and 1 bar. Meanwhile, the reduced pore size imparts enhanced ethane/ethylene selectivity of the multifunctional MOFs. Theoretical calculations and dynamic breakthrough experiments confirm that the DSI is a promising approach for the rational design of multifunctional MOFs for this challenging task.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202100114DOI Listing
April 2021

[Study on quality evaluation method of classical prescription Mahuang Decoction primary standard substances].

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2020 Dec;45(23):5589-5598

Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences Beijing 100700, China.

This study aimed to establish the HPLC characteristic chromatogram and content determination method for index components with the primary standard substances of the classical prescription Mahuang Decoction, and to provide data basis for the establishment of its quality standard and the development and utilization of compound preparations. First, HPLC was used to establish the material reference chromatograms of Mahuang Decoction, and 15 batches of standard samples of Mahuang Decoction were determined. Their similarity was calculated by the median method. Secondly, the content of the standard substances was determined and a simplecontent determination method was established by HPLC. Relevant methodology was investigated, and the extraction ratio, index component transfer rate and moisture content of 15 batches of primary standard samples were calculated. The results showed that the two sets of HPLC methods had their own characteristics. The six chromatographic peaks identified from the 10 common peaks in the former characteristic chromatogram covered all the herbal medicines in the standard substances, which can better indicate the quality characteristics of the standard substances of Mahuang Decoction. The latter method(content determination method) was simple and practical, so it was suitable for establishing the quality standard of its compound preparation. Two sets of methods were jointly used to evaluate the quality of 15 batches of Mahuang Decoction. The results were as follows: the similarity of 15 batches of samples was greater than 0.90; the average extraction ratio was 18.1%; the average moisture content was 9.7%; the average content and transfer rate of the standard ingredients ephedrine hydrochloride and total pseudoephedrine hydrochloride were 2.3% and 26.7% respectively, and the average content and transfer rate of amygdalin were 2.2% and 48.3% respectively. None of the data showed dispersion(beyond 70%-130% of the mean value), which met the application data requirements for the substance standards of ancient classical Chinese herbal compound preparations(draft for comments). Based on the above research, the primary substance quality standard of Mahuang Decoction was established in order to provide reference for the development and research of the compound preparation of Mahuang Decoction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.20200908.301DOI Listing
December 2020

PKA-Dependent Membrane Surface Recruitment of CI-AMPARs Is Crucial for BCP-Mediated Protection Against Post-acute Ischemic Stroke Cognitive Impairment.

Front Neurol 2020 16;11:566067. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

Key Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, College of Pharmacology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Post-acute ischemic stroke cognitive impairment frequently occurs and seriously affects patients daily activities. Recruitment of GluA2-containing Ca-impermeable AMPA receptors (CI-AMPARs) to hippocampal synaptic membrane surfaces was shown to trigger synaptic plasticity. Currently, the effect of CI-AMPAR trafficking on acute ischemic stroke remains poorly understood. β-Caryophyllene (BCP) has been shown to ameliorate cognitive impairment. However, the mechanism has not been characterized. In this study, a 60-min temporary middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model was established to simulate the pathology of acute ischemic stroke. BCP reduced neurologic deficits, cerebral infarct volume, and pathological damage in MCAO mice and caused CI-AMPARs to translocate to synaptic membranes in the hippocampus; surface expression of CI-AMPARs was also decreased in MCAO mice. Furthermore, this study also showed that BCP treatment significantly activated the cAMP/PKA pathway, which is consistent with the synaptic membrane expression of CI-AMPARs. To better understand the underlying mechanisms, the PKA inhibitor H-89 was used to study the role of BCP in MCAO mice. Interestingly, H-89 treatment significantly disrupted the BCP-mediated facilitation of CI-AMPAR translocation to the synaptic membrane surface and substantially attenuated BCP-induced protection against acute ischemic stroke. Additionally, inhibition the cAMP/PKA pathway not only reduced BCP-induced inhibition of AMPAR-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents in the hippocampal CA1 region but also decreased the effect of BCP-mediated protection against post-acute ischemic stroke cognitive impairment. Taken together, these data indicate that PKA-dependent synaptic membrane surface recruitment of CI-AMPARs is crucial for the neuroprotective effect of BCP against acute ischemic stroke and protection against post-acute ischemic stroke cognitive impairment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2020.566067DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7772322PMC
December 2020

The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Buch.-Ham. (Ranunculaceae) and its phylogenetic analysis.

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2020 1;5(3):2246-2247. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Dongzhimennei, Beijing, China.

is a medicinal plant commonly used in southwest of China. The complete chloroplast (cp) genome sequence of was sequenced using the Illumina Hiseq 4000 platform. The cp genome of was 159,523 bp in length with 37.98% overall GC content. This circular molecule had a typical quadripartite structure containing a large single-copy (LSC) region of 79,385 bp, a small single-copy (SSC) region of 18,092 bp, and two inverted repeat (IR) regions of 31,023 bp. The cp genome contained 135 genes, including 91 protein-coding genes, 36 tRNA genes, and 8 rRNA genes. Phylogenetic analysis based on whole cp genome sequences showed that was closest to
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2020.1771225DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7510611PMC
June 2020

The bioavailability and excretion of an antitussive compound IAsp-N-Glc in rats by validated UPLC-MS/MS methods.

Pak J Pharm Sci 2020 May;33(3(Special)):1403-1411

Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing, China.

IAsp-N-Glc is a potential antitussive agent that is first reported to be isolated from Ginkgo Semen, but the bioavailability and excretion of IAsp-N-Glc are unknown. Therefore, we carried out our study to obtain the bioavailability and excretion profiles of IAsp-N-Glc in rats. Rapid, specific, and reliable quantification methods for the measurement of IAsp-N-Glc in rat plasma and fecal samples by using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry were developed and validated. A C18 column was used for the separation of IAsp-N-Glc and internal standards, and water (containing 0.1% formic acid) and acetonitrile were chosen as the mobile phase for the separation in the flow-gradient mode. In the ranges of 37.5-7500 ng/mL and 120-30000 ng/mL, the calibration curves of IAsp-N-Glc exhibited satisfactory linearity for plasma and fecal samples with each linear correlation coefficient higher than 0.99, respectively. The methods were reproducible and reliable. The analytes were stable, and no apparent matrix effects were observed. The bioanalytical methods were successfully used to study the pharmacokinetics and excretion of IAsp-N-Glc in rats. Oral administration of IAsp-N-Glc exhibited a low absolute oral bioavailability (1.83±0.09%), and 59.63±6.29% of IAsp-N-Glc was excreted in feces. This report is the first to describe the bioavailability and excretion of IAsp-N-Glc in rats and will lay the foundation for the in-depth study and drug development of IAsp-N-Glc.
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May 2020

Carbon Dots-Decorated Carbon-Based Metal-Free Catalysts for Electrochemical Energy Storage.

Small 2021 Jan 23;17(4):e2002998. Epub 2020 Dec 23.

College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, Hunan, 410082, China.

In the past ten years, carbon dots-decorated, carbon-based, metal-free catalysts (CDs-C-MFCs) have become the fastest-growing branch in the metal-free materials for energy storage field. However, the further development of CDs-C-MFCs needs to clear up the electronic transmission mechanism rather than primarily relying on trial-and-error approaches. This review presents systematically and comprehensively for the first time the latest advances of CDs-C-MFCs in supercapacitors and metal-air batteries. The structure-performance relationship of these materials is carefully discussed. It is indicated that carbon dots (CDs) can act as the electron-rich regions in CDs-C-MFCs owing to their unique properties, such as quantum confinement effects, abundant defects, countless functional groups, etc. More importantly, specific doping can effectively modify the charge/spin distribution and then facilitate electron transfer. In addition, present challenges and future prospects of the CDs-C-MFCs are also given.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202002998DOI Listing
January 2021

Empagliflozin Decreases Lactate Generation in an NHE-1 Dependent Fashion and Increases α-Ketoglutarate Synthesis From Palmitate in Type II Diabetic Mouse Hearts.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2020 4;7:592233. Epub 2020 Dec 4.

Laboratory of Experimental Intensive Care and Anesthesiology, Department of Anesthesiology, Amsterdam Cardiovascular Sciences, Amsterdam Universitair Medische Centra, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

Changes in cardiac metabolism and ion homeostasis precede and drive cardiac remodeling and heart failure development. We previously demonstrated that sodium/glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i's) have direct cardiac effects on ion homeostasis, possibly through inhibition of the cardiac sodium/hydrogen exchanger (NHE-1). Here, we hypothesize that Empagliflozin (EMPA) also possesses direct and acute cardiac effects on glucose and fatty acid metabolism of isolated type II diabetes mellitus () mouse hearts. In addition, we explore whether direct effects on glucose metabolism are nullified in the presence of an NHE-1 inhibitor. Langendorff-perfused type II diabetic db/db mouse hearts were examined in three different series: : C glucose perfusions ( = 32); : C palmitate perfusions ( = 13); and : C glucose + 10 μM Cariporide (specific NHE-1 inhibitor) perfusions ( = 17). Within each series, EMPA treated hearts (1 μM EMPA) were compared with vehicle-perfused hearts (0.02% DMSO). Afterwards, hearts were snap frozen and lysed for stable isotope analysis and metabolomics using LC-MS techniques. Hearts from series 1 were also analyzed for phosphorylation status of AKT, STAT3, AMPK, ERK, and eNOS ( = 8 per group). Cardiac mechanical performance, oxygen consumption and protein phosphorylation were not altered by 35 min EMPA treatment. EMPA was without an overall acute and direct effect on glucose or fatty acid metabolism. However, EMPA did specifically decrease cardiac lactate labeling in the C glucose perfusions (C labeling of lactate: 58 ± 2% vs. 50 ± 3%, for vehicle and EMPA, respectively; = 0.02), without changes in other glucose metabolic pathways. In contrast, EMPA increased cardiac labeling in α-ketoglutarate derived from C palmitate perfusions (C labeling of α-KG: 79 ± 1% vs. 86 ± 1% for vehicle and EMPA, respectively; = 0.01). Inhibition of the NHE by Cariporide abolished EMPA effects on lactate labeling from C glucose. The present study shows for the first time that the SGLT2 inhibitor Empagliflozin has acute specific metabolic effects in isolated diabetic hearts, i.e., decreased lactate generation from labeled glucose and increased α-ketoglutarate synthesis from labeled palmitate. The decreased lactate generation by EMPA seems to be mediated through NHE-1 inhibition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcvm.2020.592233DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7746656PMC
December 2020

Flavonoids and caffeoylquinic acids in Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat flowers: A potentially rich source of bioactive compounds.

Food Chem 2021 May 27;344:128733. Epub 2020 Nov 27.

Key Laboratory of Beijing for Identification and Safety Evaluation of Chinese Medicine, Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, No. 16, Nanxiaojie, Dongzhimennei, Beijing 100700, China. Electronic address:

Varieties of chrysanthemums are among the world's most valuable edible ornamental crops. However, the availability and relationship between the bio-chemicals of chrysanthemums and their morphological variations remain unclear. We developed liquid chromatography mass spectrometry to construct a spectral tag library to identify and quantify chemicals of 7 caffeoylquinic acids, 21 flavones and flavonols, 4 carotenoids, and 13 other compounds in 27 cultivars and representative tea of Chrysanthemum morifolium. A correlation analysis found that more acacetin 7-O-galactoside (23) resulted in lighter colored flowers and less acacetin (43) and kaempferol (44) was associated with yellow flowers. Hot-HO extraction of C. morifolium tea showed that most flavonoids and caffeoylquinic acids dissolved out at 30 min, with 20.977 and 8.958 mg/g GW indicated that C. morifolium, which is used in food and tea, is rich in flavonoids and carotenoids. The results improve our understanding of flavonoid biosynthesis and the mechanisms responsible for flower color.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.128733DOI Listing
May 2021

Identification and quantification of target metabolites combined with transcriptome of two rheum species focused on anthraquinone and flavonoids biosynthesis.

Sci Rep 2020 11 20;10(1):20241. Epub 2020 Nov 20.

Key Laboratory of Beijing for Identification and Safety Evaluation of Chinese Medicine, Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, No. 16, Nanxiaojie, Dongzhimennei, Beijing, 100700, China.

Rheum emodi is a perennial herb and an important medicinal plant, with anthraquinones and flavonoids as its main bioactive compounds. However, there is little knowledge about the biosynthetic pathway of anthraquinones in rhubarbs. In this study, we qualitatively and quantitatively assessed 62 pharmacological metabolites in rhubarb using dynamic multiple reaction monitoring (dMRM) of triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry (QqQ-MS), including 21 anthraquinones, 17 flavonoids, 6 stilbenes, 12 gallate esters, 3 tannins, and 3 others. Besides, the metabolomics results showed significant differences among all the 60 metabolites, except for gallic acid and piceatannol-O-β-glucoside. The combined transcriptome data of R. palmatum L. (RPL) and R. officinale Baill. (ROB) showed that 21,691 unigenes were annotated in the metabolic pathways. Taken together, 17 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were associated with the anthraquinone biosynthetic pathway. Additionally, a significant correlation between anthraquinone peak intensity and DEG expression level existed, validating that DEGs contribute to the anthraquinone biosynthetic pathway. RT-qPCR results showed that the cluster-14354.38156 gene may catalyze the O-methylation of emodin to produce physcion. This study provides a useful resource for further studies on secondary metabolism in rhubarb and the combination analysis of transcriptome and metabolome, which can help with the discovery of enzyme genes involved in metabolite biosynthesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-77356-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7679448PMC
November 2020

Microplastics and nanoplastics in the environment: Macroscopic transport and effects on creatures.

J Hazard Mater 2021 04 29;407:124399. Epub 2020 Oct 29.

College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, PR China; Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control, Hunan University, Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082, PR China.

Industrial progress has brought us an important polymer material, i.e. plastic. Because of mass production and use, and improper management and disposal, plastic pollution has become one of the most pivotal environmental issues in the world today. However, the current researches on microplastics/nanoplastics are mainly focused on individual aquatic, terrestrial and atmospheric environments, ignoring the fact that the natural environment is a whole. In this regard, the transport of microplastics/nanoplastics among the three environment compartments, including reciprocal contributions and inherent connections, and the impact of microplastics/nanoplastics on organisms living in multiple environments are research problems that we pay special attention to. Furthermore, this paper comprehensively reviews the transport and distribution of microplastics/nanoplastics in individual compartments and the toxicity of organisms, either alone or in combination with other pollutants. The properties of microplastics/nanoplastics, environment condition and the growth habit of organisms are critical to the transport, distribution and toxicity of microplastics/nanoplastics. These knowledge gaps need to be addressed urgently to improve cognition of the degree of plastic pollution and enhance our ability to deal with pollution. Meanwhile, it is hoped that the paper can provide a relatively complete theoretical knowledge system and multiple "leads" for future innovative ideas in this field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.124399DOI Listing
April 2021

Generating broad-spectrum tolerance to ALS-inhibiting herbicides in rice by base editing.

Sci China Life Sci 2020 Nov 3. Epub 2020 Nov 3.

State Key Laboratory of Plant Cell and Chromosome Engineering, Center for Genome Editing, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Innovation Academy for Seed Design, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101, China.

Herbicide-tolerant rice varieties generated by genome editing are highly desirable for weed control. We have used a cytosine base editor to create a series of missense mutations in the P171 and/or G628 codons of the acetolactate synthase (ALS) gene to confer herbicide tolerance in rice. The four different missense mutations in the P171 codon, P171S, P171A, P171Y and P171F, exhibited different patterns of tolerance towards five representative herbicides from five chemical families of ALS inhibitors. For example, P171S and P171A had lower levels of tolerance than P171Y and P171F to bispyribac but not to the other herbicides. Interestingly, a novel triple mutant (P171F/G628E/G629S) had the highest tolerance to all five tested herbicides. Field trials showed that both P171F and P171F/G628E/G629S could potentially be used with nicosulfuron. Our work illustrates an effective way of using base editing to generate herbicide tolerance in elite rice varieties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11427-020-1800-5DOI Listing
November 2020