Publications by authors named "Seza Özen"

331 Publications

IgG4-related disease in pediatric patients: a single-center experience.

Rheumatol Int 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Pediatric Rheumatology, Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey.

Objective: Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a systemic, immune-mediated, and fibroinflammatory disease that can affect almost any organ system. We aimed to present our single-center experience of pediatric patients with IgG4-RD, a rare disease in children.

Methods: Pediatric patients diagnosed with IgG4-RD at the Hacettepe University between June 2014 and September 2020 were evaluated retrospectively. Patients with definite, probable, or possible diagnosis of IgG4-RD were included.

Results: A total of eight patients with a median age of 13.4 (IQR 9.5-15.0) years were included in the study. Clinical presentations were IgG4-related ophthalmic disease in six patients, IgG4-related lymphadenopathy in one patient, and IgG4-related sialadenitis and lymphadenopathy of several lymph nodes accompanied by pancreatitis, ulcerative colitis, and pulmonary manifestations in one patient. Elevated serum IgG4 was detected in three of eight patients (37.5%). The main histopathological feature was fibrosis and lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates. Corticosteroids were used as first-line treatment in almost all patients with or without steroid-sparing agents. Azathioprine, methotrexate and rituximab were used as steroid-sparing agents. Relapse occurred in two of seven patients. Radiotherapy was used as the last resort in one patient with severe orbital disease.

Conclusion: IgG4 RD mainly presents with orbital manifestations in pediatric population but has wide phenotypic clinical variability. Although rare, early recognition and treatment are essential for a better outcome in these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00296-021-04885-5DOI Listing
May 2021

The pyrin inflammasome aggravates inflammatory cell migration in patients with familial Mediterranean fever.

Pediatr Res 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Medical Biology, Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey.

Background: Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is an autoinflammatory disease caused by pathogenic variants of the MEFV gene, which encodes pyrin. Leukocyte migration to serosal sites is a key event during inflammation in FMF. The pyrin inflammasome is a multiprotein complex involved in inflammation. Here, we aimed to determine the relationship between inflammatory cell migration and the pyrin inflammasome in FMF patients.

Methods: Monocytes were isolated from blood samples collected from patients with FMF, healthy controls, and a patient with cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome (CAPS), which served as a disease control. Inflammasome proteins were analyzed under inflammasome activation and inhibition by western blotting. Cell migration assays were performed with the isolated primary monocytes as well as THP-1 monocytes and THP-1-derived macrophages.

Results: When the pyrin inflammasome was suppressed, migration of monocytes from FMF patients was significantly decreased compared to the migration of monocytes from the CAPS patient and healthy controls. Cell line experiments showed a relationship between pyrin inflammasome activation and cell migration.

Conclusions: These findings suggest that the increased cell migration in FMF is due to the presence of more active pyrin inflammasome. This study contributes to our understanding of the role of pyrin in inflammatory cell migration through inflammasome formation.

Impact: The pyrin inflammasome may play a role in inflammatory cell migration. FMF patients show a pyrin inflammasome-dependent increase in inflammatory cell migration. Correlations between the pyrin inflammasome and cell migration were observed in both THP-1 monocytes and THP-1-derived macrophages.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41390-021-01559-7DOI Listing
May 2021

Hematological involvement in pediatric systemic lupus erythematosus: A multi-center study.

Lupus 2021 May 6:9612033211014271. Epub 2021 May 6.

Division of Rheumatology, Department of Pediatrics, Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey.

Introduction: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) may present with features of several systems, including hematological manifestations. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the characteristics of hematological involvement and assess possible associations and correlations in pediatric SLE patients.

Method: This is a retrospective multi-center study. The medical records of pediatric SLE patients followed between January 2000 and June 2020 were analyzed. All children fulfilled the criteria of the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics.

Results: The study included 215 children with SLE, 118 of whom had hematological manifestations. Concomitant renal involvement and low C3 levels were significantly more frequent in patients with hematological involvement ( = 0.04,  = 0.008, respectively). Also, anti-cardiolipin, anti-beta-2-glycoprotein I (anti-β2 GP1), and anti-Smith (anti-Sm) antibody positivity, and the presence of lupus anticoagulant were more common in the group with hematological findings ( = 0.001 for anti-cardiolipin antibody positivity and  < 0.001 for the positivity of anti-β2 GP1 antibody, anti-Sm antibody, and lupus anticoagulant). The most common hematologic abnormality was anemia ( = 88, 74.5%), with autoimmune hemolytic anemia constituting the majority ( = 40). Corticosteroids followed by IVIG were the mainstay of treatment. In patients resistant to corticosteroid and IVIG treatments, the most preferred drug was rituximab. The presence of antiphospholipid antibodies and high SLEDAI score were independently associated with hematological involvement in multivariate analysis (OR: 0.249; 95%CI: 0.126-0.490;  < 0.001 and OR: 1.136; 95%CI: 1.065-1.212;  < 0.001).

Conclusion: Hematological abnormalities are frequently encountered in pediatric SLE. Positive antiphospholipid antibodies and high SLEDAI scores were associated with hematological involvement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/09612033211014271DOI Listing
May 2021

Systematic review of childhood-onset polyarteritis nodosa and DADA2.

Semin Arthritis Rheum 2021 Apr 19;51(3):559-564. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Division of Rheumatology, Department of Pediatrics, Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, and Hacettepe University Vasculitis Research Center, Ankara, 06100, Turkey. Electronic address:

Background: Diagnosis of childhood polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) has become challenging after the definition of deficiency of adenosine deaminase 2 (DADA2). We aimed to define the differential features of pediatric PAN and DADA2 patients in our center and in the literature.

Methods: The charts of pediatric PAN and DADA2 patients followed at the Pediatric Rheumatology Unit of Hacettepe University between 2010-2020 were analyzed. A systematic literature review was conducted for articles regarding pediatric PAN or DADA2.

Results: Thirty-four pediatric PAN and 18 pediatric DADA2 patients were included. The age at onset was younger, parental consanguinity, livedo reticularis, neurologic involvement (especially strokes), lymphopenia, and hypogammaglobulinemia were more frequent, while thrombocytosis and panniculitis were less frequent in DADA2 patients. The primary treatment was anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) in DADA2. For induction treatment, all systemic PAN patients received corticosteroids, and cyclophosphamide (n=11) or mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) (n = 3). Cyclophosphamide was replaced with MMF in nine once remission was confirmed with PVAS. In the literature, 28 articles describing 613 pediatric PAN patients and 26 articles describing 207 pediatric DADA2 patients were identified. Neurologic, gastrointestinal, and cardiac involvements were more frequent in DADA2, while constitutional symptoms and testis involvement were more common in PAN.

Conclusion: In a child with PAN-like phenotype, DADA2 should be considered in the presence of young age at disease onset, parental consanguinity, strokes, lymphopenia, and lack of thrombocytosis during active disease. Anti-TNF treatment is indicated for vasculitic DADA2. Cyclophosphamide could be switched to MMF when remission is confirmed with PVAS in severe PAN.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.semarthrit.2021.04.009DOI Listing
April 2021

LONG TERM RENAL SURVIVAL OF PEDIATRIC PATIENTS WITH LUPUS NEPHRITIS.

Nephrol Dial Transplant 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Nephrology, Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine Ankara, Turkey.

Background: Childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is more severe than adult-onset disease, including more frequent kidney involvement. This study aimed to investigate baseline clinical features, treatment modalities, short- and long-term renal outcomes of pediatric patients with lupus nephritis (LN).

Materials And Methods: This study enrolled 53 LN patients out of 102 childhood-onset SLE patients followed at Hacettepe University between 2000-2020. The demographic and clinical data were reviewed retrospectively from the medical charts and electronic records. All SLE patients with renal involvement underwent renal biopsy either at the time of diagnosis or during follow-up.

Results: The median age at onset of SLE was 13.3 (IQR : 10.4-15.8) years. The median follow-up duration was 43.1 (IQR : 24.3-69.3) months. Of the 102 SLE patients, 53 patients (52%) had lupus nephritis (LN). The most frequent histopathological class was class IV LN (54.7%), followed by class III LN (22.6%). The proportion of patients who achieved either complete or partial remission were 77.3% and 73% at 6 and 12 months, respectively. In the overall LN cohort, 5- and 10-year renal survival rates were 92% and 85.7%, respectively. The remission rate at 6th month was significantly higher in Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) and Cyclophosphamide (CYC) treated groups than other combination therapies (p = 0.02). Although no difference was found between the CYC and MMF response rates (p = 0.57), in the proliferative LN (Class III and IV), the vast majority of class IV patients (%79) received CYC as induction threapy. There was no difference between the response rates in any treatment regimens at 12th month (p = 0.56). In the multivariate analysis; male gender, requiring dialysis at the time of LN diagnosis, failure to achieve remission at 6th and at 12 th months were found to be associated with poor renal outcome.

Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that male gender, failure to achieve remission at 6th and at 12 th months, and requiring dialysis at the time of diagnosis were the best predictors of poor renal outcome. Therefore, appropriate and agressive management of pediatric LN is essential to achieve and maintain remisson.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfab152DOI Listing
April 2021

Mycophenolate mofetil versus cyclophosphamide for remission induction in childhood polyarteritis nodosa: An open label, randomised, Bayesian, non-inferiority trial.

Arthritis Rheumatol 2021 Mar 24. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Inflammation Immunology and Rheumatology Section, University College London Great Ormond Institute of Child Health, Department of Paediatric Rheumatology, Great Ormond Street Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.

Objective: Cyclophosphamide (CYC) is used in clinical practice off-label for induction of remission of childhood polyarteritis nodosa (cPAN). Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) might offer a less toxic alternative: we explored their relative effectiveness in a randomised controlled trial (RCT).

Methods: International, open-label, Bayesian, RCT investigating the relative effectiveness of MMF and CYC for remission induction in cPAN. Eleven newly-diagnosed patients were randomised (1:1) to MMF or intravenous-CYC; all received the same glucocorticoid regimen. The primary endpoint was remission within 6-months whilst compliant with glucocorticoid taper. Bayesian distributions for remission rates were established a priori for MMF and CYC by experienced clinicians, and updated to posterior distributions on trial completion.

Results: Baseline disease activity/features were similar between groups. The primary remission endpoint occurred in 4/6 patients (67%) in the MMF group and 4/5 patients (80%) in the CYC group. Time to remission was shorter in the MMF group (median 7.4 weeks versus 17.5 weeks for CYC). No relapses occurred in either group within 18-months. Two serious infections were probably related to MMF. Physical and psychosocial quality-of-life scores were superior in the MMF group compared to CYC at 6-and 18-months. Combining the prior expert opinion with results from MYPAN provided posterior estimates of remission of 71% (90% CrI 51-83%) for MMF; and 75% (90% CrI 57-86%) for CYC.

Conclusion: Taking the prior opinion and the study results together, rates of remission induction in cPAN on MMF and CYC are similar, and MMF might be associated with better health-related quality of life than CYC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/art.41730DOI Listing
March 2021

Comparison of IVIG resistance predictive models in Kawasaki disease.

Pediatr Res 2021 Mar 22. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Division of Pediatric Rheumatology, Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey.

Background: We aimed to compare the ten different scores (by Kobayashi, Egami, Harada, Formosa, Sano, Piram et al., Wu et al., Yang et al., Tan et al., and Kanai et al.) to assess their performance in predicting IVIG resistance in Turkish children.

Methods: Complete and incomplete KD patients diagnosed with KD at Hacettepe University between June 2007 and September 2019 were evaluated retrospectively.

Results: A total of 129 patients, 79 boys (61.2%), with a median age 36 (IQR 19.5-57.0) months were evaluated. Sixteen patients (12.4%) had IVIG resistance. Sensitivity was low for all the ten scores. Tan, Sano, and Egami predictive models had the highest specificity (97.3, 89.4, 86.7%, respectively). Almost all scoring systems distinguished the group of patients with low risk for IVIG resistance but could not differentiate IVIG-resistant patients. Multivariate analysis for the laboratory features showed that platelet count <300 × 10/L and GGT serum levels were independent risk factors for IVIG resistance (OR: 3.896; 95% CI: 1.054-14.404; p = 0.042 and OR: 1.008; 95% CI: 1.001-1.015; p = 0.050).

Conclusions: The current scoring systems had a low sensitivity for predicting the risk for IVIG resistance in Turkish children. On the other hand, increased serum GGT levels and low platelet count were risk factors for predicting IVIG resistance.

Impact: Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) resistance may be observed in 10-20% of patients diagnosed with Kawasaki disease. Coronary artery involvement is more frequent in IVIG-resistant patients. It is important to predict the patients who might develop IVIG resistance to improve prognosis. The performance of the IVIG resistance predictive models in Kawasaki disease in our population is limited due to the low sensitivity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41390-021-01459-wDOI Listing
March 2021

Biological classification of childhood arthritis: roadmap to a molecular nomenclature.

Nat Rev Rheumatol 2021 May 17;17(5):257-269. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

IRCCS Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Genova, Italy.

Chronic inflammatory arthritis in childhood is heterogeneous in presentation and course. Most forms exhibit clinical and genetic similarity to arthritis of adult onset, although at least one phenotype might be restricted to children. Nevertheless, paediatric and adult rheumatologists have historically addressed disease classification separately, yielding a juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) nomenclature that exhibits no terminological overlap with adult-onset arthritis. Accumulating clinical, genetic and mechanistic data reveal the critical limitations of this strategy, necessitating a new approach to defining biological categories within JIA. In this Review, we provide an overview of the current evidence for biological subgroups of arthritis in children, delineate forms that seem contiguous with adult-onset arthritis, and consider integrative genetic and bioinformatic strategies to identify discrete entities within inflammatory arthritis across all ages.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41584-021-00590-6DOI Listing
May 2021

Galectin-3: a new biomarker for differentiating periodic fever, adenitis, pharyngitis, aphthous stomatitis (PFAPA) syndrome from familial Mediterranean fever?

Rheumatol Int 2021 Mar 11. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Division of Rheumatology, Department of Pediatrics, Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, 06100, Ankara, Turkey.

Differentiating PFAPA (periodic fever, aphthosis, pharyngitis, and adenitis) syndrome from familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) could be challenging in some cases. Galectin-3 is a lectin with regulatory functions in apoptosis and inflammation. We aimed to test whether galectin-3 could be a biomarker for differentiating PFAPA syndrome from FMF. Patients with PFAPA syndrome, FMF, cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome (CAPS), and streptococcal pharyngitis, and healthy controls were included in this study. Serum galectin-3 levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Eighty-seven patients (36 with PFAPA, 39 with FMF, 8 with CAPS, 4 with streptococcal pharyngitis), and 17 healthy controls were included. Blood samples were drawn during attacks from 20 PFAPA and 7 FMF patients and attack-free periods from 22 PFAPA, 35 FMF, and 8 CAPS patients. The median serum galectin-3 level in the PFAPA-attack group (1.025 ng/ml) was significantly lower than the levels in healthy control (2.367 ng/ml), streptococcal pharyngitis (3.021 ng/ml), FMF attack (2.402 ng/ml), and FMF-attack-free groups (2.797 ng/ml) (p = 0.006, 0.03, 0.01, and < 0.001, respectively). PFAPA-attack-free group had lower galectin-3 levels than the FMF-attack-free group (1.794 vs. 2.797 ng/ml, respectively; p = 0.01). Galectin-3 levels did not differ significantly between CAPS and attack-free PFAPA patients (1.439 ng/ml vs. 1.794 ng/ml, respectively; p = 0.63). In our study, for the first time, we defined galectin-3 as a promising biomarker that differs between PFAPA and FMF patients during both disease flares and attack-free periods. Further studies with high number of patients could validate its role as a biomarker.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00296-021-04827-1DOI Listing
March 2021

Plasma checkpoint protein levels and galectin-9 in juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus.

Lupus 2021 May 10;30(6):998-1004. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Division of Pediatric Rheumatology, Department of Pediatrics, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey.

SLE is a disease of the adaptive immune system where T lymphocyte dysfunction has an important role as well. We assessed the plasma levels of checkpoint receptors expressed on T cells, along with Galectin-9 to reflect type-1 IFN activity and IL-2Rα in childhood SLE patients. Forty-nine children with SLE and15 healthy controls were included. SLEDAI scores were evaluated at the time of sampling. CD25 (IL-2Rα), 4-1BB, B7.2 (CD86), TGF-β1, CTLA-4, PD-L1, PD-1, Tim-3, LAG- 3, Galectin-9 levels were studied by cytometric bead-based multiplex assay panel. Galectin-9 and PD-L1 were significantly higher in SLE patients. Other checkpoint proteins and IL-2Rα were also higher but did not reach statistical significance. There were significant correlations between SLEDAI and IL-2Rα, Galectin-9 and PDL1. There were three clinical clusters: Cluster 1 included patients with no major organ involvement, cluster 2 had predominantly haematological involvement(n=16) and cluster 3 (n=11) had predominantly renal involvement. Checkpoint proteins were not different among these three clusters. Our data supports that Galectin 9 and IL-2Rα are good markers for disease activity in childhood SLE. We need larger series to evaluate differences between disease clusters in SLE. We failed to show a significant correlation with checkpoint proteins and SLEDAI except for PDL1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/09612033211002275DOI Listing
May 2021

Genetic disorders with symptoms mimicking rheumatologic diseases: A single-center retrospective study.

Eur J Med Genet 2021 Apr 2;64(4):104185. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Department of Pediatric Rheumatology, Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey. Electronic address:

Musculoskeletal symptoms may be due to noninflammatory causes, including genetic disorders. We aimed to examine the final genetic diagnosis in patients who presented with musculoskeletal complaints to the rheumatology department. Patients who presented to the Department of Pediatric Rheumatology and were referred to the pediatric genetic department between January 2015 and May 2019 were evaluated retrospectively. A total of 60 patients, 19 boys (31.66%), with a mean age of 12.46 ± 1.41 years were included in the study. The total consanguinity rate was 25%. The most common (29.5%) cause of referral to the pediatric genetic department was the presence of skeletal anomalies (such as camptodactyly, clinodactyly, and short stature) with accompanying joint findings. Approximately one-third of the patients (n: 19) were diagnosed and followed up by the pediatric genetics department. The diagnoses of patients were as follows: camptodactyly, arthropathy, coxa vara, and pericarditis (CACP) syndrome (n: 3); trichorhinophalangeal syndrome (n: 1); progressive pseudorheumatoid dysplasia (n: 2); LIG4 syndrome (n: 1); H syndrome (n: 1); spondyloenchondrodysplasia (SPENCD) (n: 3); and nonspecific connective tissue disorders (n: 8). In the differential diagnosis of patients who are referred to the Department of Pediatric Rheumatology with complaints of the musculoskeletal system, genetic disorders should also be considered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmg.2021.104185DOI Listing
April 2021

Hemophagocytosis in bone marrow aspirates in multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2021 Jun 22;68(6):e28931. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Department of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pbc.28931DOI Listing
June 2021

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children during the COVID-19 pandemic in Turkey: first report from the Eastern Mediterranean.

Clin Rheumatol 2021 Feb 12. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Rheumatology, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey.

Objective: We aimed to describe the typical clinical and laboratory features and treatment of children diagnosed with multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) and to understand the differences as compared to severe/critical pediatric cases with COVID-19 in an eastern Mediterranean country.

Methods: Children (aged <18 years) who diagnosed with MIS-C and severe/critical pediatric cases with COVID-19 and were admitted to hospital between March 26 and November 3, 2020 were enrolled in the study.

Results: A total of 52 patients, 22 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 with severe/critical disease course and 30 patients diagnosed with MIS-C, were included in the study. Although severe COVID-19 cases and cases with MIS-C share many clinical and laboratory features, MIS-C cases had longer fever duration and higher rate of the existence of rash, conjunctival injection, peripheral edema, abdominal pain, altered mental status, and myalgia than in severe cases (p<0.001 for each). Of all, 53.3% of MIS-C cases had the evidence of myocardial involvement as compared to severe cases (27.2%). Additionally, C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cell (WBC) are the independent predictors for the diagnosis of MIS-C, particularly in the existence of conjunctival injection and rash. Corticosteroids, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), and biologic immunomodulatory treatments were mainly used in MIS-C cases rather than cases with severe disease course. There were only three deaths among 52 patients, one of whom had Burkitt lymphoma and the two cases with severe COVID-19 of late referral.

Conclusion: Differences between clinical presentations, acute phase responses, organ involvements, and management strategies indicate that MIS-C might be a distinct immunopathogenic disease as compared to pediatric COVID-19. Conjunctival injection and higher CRP and low WBC count are reliable diagnostic parameters for MIS-C cases. Key Points • MIS-C cases had longer fever duration and higher rate of the existence of rash, conjunctival injection, peripheral edema, abdominal pain, altered mental status, and myalgia than in severe/critical pediatric cases with COVID-19. • Higher CRP and low total WBC count are the independent predictors for the diagnosis of MIS-C. • MIS-C might be a distinct immunopathogenic disease as compared to pediatric COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10067-021-05631-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7879406PMC
February 2021

Penile involvement of immunoglobulin a vasculitis/Henoch-Schönlein purpura.

J Pediatr Urol 2021 Jan 22. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Rheumatology, Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey. Electronic address:

Background: Immunoglobulin A vasculitis/Henoch-Schönlein purpura (IgAV/HSP) is a leukocytoclasia vasculitis of childhood, predominantly affecting the skin, joints, gastrointestinal tract, and kidneys. The involvement of the penis is rare.

Objective: We aimed to describe this rare manifestation of IgAV/HSP and to review the previous studies, including similar cases.

Methods: Clinical data were reviewed for two children of penile involvement of IgAV/HSP in our hospital. More clinical cases were retrieved from the databases of PubMed/MEDLINE and Scopus from database inception to February 1, 2020.

Results: We presented two boys aged three and five years both of whom had penile lesions after presenting with the typical rash of IgAV/HSP on lower extremities. The penile lesions improved entirely in a few days without treatment in one and with corticosteroid treatment in the other. The literature review revealed 12 articles describing 20 patients with penile involvement of IgAV/HSP. The penile findings were edema, erythema, ecchymosis, purpuric rash, edema, color change, stiffness of the shaft or prepuce, and tenderness. Penile lesions appeared before the purpuric rash of IgAV/HSP in three of 22 patients. The penile involvement could make the diagnosis challenging especially if the penile lesions appear before the typical rash of the disease. The lesions improved entirely in the short term in all patients; in five without treatment in fifteen after corticosteroid or immunosuppressive drug treatment.

Conclusions: It is important to raise awareness about this rare manifestation among health care providers. It is not clear whether corticosteroid treatment should be initiated for treatment since it seems as a self-limited feature. Treatment with corticosteroids could be considered in the treatment of selected cases especially with systemic involvement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpurol.2021.01.012DOI Listing
January 2021

Familial Mediterranean fever-related miR-197-3p targets IL1R1 gene and modulates inflammation in monocytes and synovial fibroblasts.

Sci Rep 2021 Jan 12;11(1):685. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Department of Medical Biology, Hacettepe University, Faculty of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey.

Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF); is an autosomal recessively inherited autoinflammatory disease caused by the mutations in the Mediterranean Fever (MEFV) gene. Recent studies have shown that epigenetic control mechanisms, particularly non-coding RNAs, may play a role in the pathogenesis of autoinflammation. microRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that play critical roles in regulating host gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. The phenotypic heterogeneity of FMF disease suggests that FMF may not be a monogenic disease, suggesting that epigenetic factors may affect phenotypic presentation. Here we examined the potential anti-inflammatory effect of miR-197-3p, which is a differentially expressed miRNA in FMF patients, by using inflammation related functional assays. We monitored gene expression levels of important cytokines, as well as performed functional studies on IL-1β secretion, caspase-1 activation, apoptosis assay, and cell migration assay. These experiments were used to evaluate the different stages of inflammation following pre-miR-197 transfection. Anti-miR-197 transfections were performed to test the opposite effect. 3'UTR luciferase activity assay was used for target gene studies. Our results obtained by inflammation-related functional assays demonstrated an anti-inflammatory effect of miR-197-3p in different cell types (synovial fibroblasts, monocytes, macrophages). 3'UTR luciferase activity assay showed that miR-197-3p directly binds to the interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) receptor, type I (IL1R1) gene, which is one of the key molecules of the inflammatory pathways. This study may contribute to understand the role of miR-197-3p in autoinflammation process. Defining the critical miRNAs may guide the medical community in a more personalized medicine in autoinflammatory diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-80097-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7803773PMC
January 2021

Clinical features, muscle biopsy scores, myositis specific antibody profiles and outcome in juvenile dermatomyositis.

Semin Arthritis Rheum 2021 Feb 22;51(1):95-100. Epub 2020 Dec 22.

Division of Pediatric Rheumatology, Department of Pediatrics, Hacettepe University, Ankara 06100, Turkey. Electronic address:

Introduction: Juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) is the most common inflammatory myopathy of childhood.

Objective: To analyze clinical features, paraclinical examinations, MSAs, treatment response and long-term outcome in a JDM cohort METHODS: 58 patients (35F, 23 M) from a tertiary referral center in the last two decades are included.

Results: Mean age at onset was 8.1 ± 4.3, with a mean follow-up period of 5.66±3.59 years. Dermatological manifestations (91%) and muscle weakness (76%) were the key diagnostic elements. Elevated serum creatine kinase levels (86%), electromyography (23/25), muscle MRI (12/15), and muscle biopsy (n = 35) were compatible with the diagnosis. Out of 46 patients tested, 34 (76%) had autoantibodies, with NXP2 (21.7%), followed by TIF1g (17.4%), MDA5 (8.7%), and Mi-2 (8.7%). Presence of TIF1g and NXP2 indicated a severe course; and Ku a much severe course compared to previous studies. Corticosteroids (100%) combined with methotrexate (93%) was the initial treatment. Biological disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) were used in 22% of the cohort. Calcinosis (36%) was the most common long-term complication, associated with disease onset ≤6 years, higher muscle biopsy scores and MDA5 positivity. Complete remission was achieved in 65.5% of the patients in a median 24 (IQR 11.8-42.5) months with a relapse rate of 26.3%. 43.9% of NXP2 and 33.3% of TIF-1 g positive patients had a relapse. Course was monophasic (31%), polyphasic (17.2%), chronic (51.8%) without mortality.

Conclusion: Integration of clinical features with laboratory and biopsy findings may help to predict prognosis and guide treatment in JDM. In our cohort calcinosis was associated with age, MDA5 autoantibodies, and muscle biopsy scores.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.semarthrit.2020.10.007DOI Listing
February 2021

Validation of the EULAR/ACR 2017 idiopathic inflammatory myopathy classification criteria in juvenile dermatomyositis patients.

Clin Exp Rheumatol 2020 Dec 4. Epub 2020 Dec 4.

Division of Paediatric Rheumatology, Department of Paediatrics, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey.

Objectives: In 2017, a new set of criteria was proposed by EULAR/ACR to classify idiopathic inflammatory myopathies. Our aim was to validate the EULAR/ACR 2017 classification criteria in juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) patients.

Methods: This study was carried out at Hacettepe University Children's Hospital Department of Paediatrics, Divisions of Rheumatology, Neurology and Paediatric Pathology Unit. Control patients included inborn errors of metabolism presenting with myopathy and/or rhabdomyolysis, idiopathic rhabdomyolysis, dystrophinopathies, neuromyotonia and systemic rheumatic disorders. Patients' data were collected retrospectively from patient files.

Results: Fifty-eight JDM patients (60.3% female) and 40 controls (32.5% female) were included in this study. When the probability cut-off was set at 55% as recommended, the sensitivity/specificity of the new criteria to diagnose JDM were 96.5%/85% in the total cohort, 95.8%/84.6% without the muscle biopsy data and 97%/85.7% with biopsy data. With the ROC curve analysis, the optimal probability cut-off for the whole cohort was found to be >62%; providing a sensitivity/specificity of 96.6% (95% CI: 88.1% to 99.6)/90% (95% CI: 76.3% to 97.2%), and >68.5% for the patients with muscle biopsy providing sensitivity/specificity of 97% (84.7-99.9%)/100% (76.8-100%), respectively. The new EULAR/ACR criteria were the most sensitive, however, the least specific compared to the Tanimoto criteria (sensitivity/specificity 64%/97.5%) and Bohan-Peter criteria (sensitivity/ specificity 74.1%/92.5%).

Conclusions: The new EULAR/ACR criteria performed favourably in our JDM cohort especially with the probability cut-off of >62%.
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December 2020

Defining colchicine resistance/intolerance in patients with familial Mediterranean fever: a modified-Delphi consensus approach.

Rheumatology (Oxford) 2020 Dec 17. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

Division of Paediatric Rheumatology, Department of Paediatrics and Autoinflammation Reference Center Tuebingen, University Hospital Tuebingen, Tuebingen, Germany.

Objectives: Colchicine is the main treatment for familial Mediterranean fever (FMF). Although a number of individuals with FMF are intolerant/resistant to colchicine, there is no standard definition of colchicine resistance/intolerance. We developed a set of evidence-based core statements defining colchicine resistance/intolerance in patients with FMF that may serve as a guide for clinicians and health authorities.

Methods: A set of statements was identified using a modified-Delphi consensus-based approach. The process involved development of an initial colchicine resistance/intolerance-related questionnaire derived from a systematic literature review. The questionnaire, which was completed by an international panel of 11 adult and pediatric rheumatologists with expertise in FMF, was analysed anonymously. The results informed draft consensus statements that were discussed by a round-table expert panel, using a nominal group technique to agree on the selection and wording of the final statements.

Results: Consensus among the panel was achieved on 8 core statements defining colchicine resistance/intolerance in patients with FMF. A definition of resistance was agreed upon that included recurrent clinical attacks (average one or more attacks per month over a 3-month period), or persistent laboratory inflammation in between attacks. Other core statements recognize the importance of assessing treatment adherence, and the impact of active disease and intolerance to colchicine on quality of life.

Conclusion: Based on expert opinion, a set of evidence-based core statements defining colchicine resistance/intolerance in patients with FMF were identified to help guide clinicians and health authorities in the management of patients with FMF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/rheumatology/keaa863DOI Listing
December 2020

Pulmonary Manifestations of Systemic Vasculitis in Children.

Pediatr Clin North Am 2021 02;68(1):167-176

Department of Pediatric Rheumatology, Hacettepe University, Sihhiye Campus, Ankara 06100, Turkey. Electronic address:

Vasculitides are defined according to the vessel size involved, and they tend to affect certain organ systems. Pulmonary involvement is rare in the common childhood vasculitides, such as Kawasaki disease, IgA vasculitis (Henoch Schonlein purpura). On the other hand, lung involvement is common in a rare pediatric vasculitis, granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) (Wegener granulomatosis), where respiratory system findings are common. A criterion in the Ankara 2008 classification criteria for GPA is the presence of nodules, cavities, or fixed infiltrates. The adult data suggest that rituximab may be an alternative to cyclophosphamide in induction treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pcl.2020.09.014DOI Listing
February 2021

Performances of the "MS-score" And "HScore" in the diagnosis of macrophage activation syndrome in systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis patients.

Rheumatol Int 2021 Jan 19;41(1):87-93. Epub 2020 Nov 19.

Department of Pediatric Rheumatology, Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey.

Macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) is a devastating complication of systemic JIA (sJIA), seen in approximately 10-25% of the sJIA patients. A number of criteria have been proposed to differentiate between activation of sJIA and MAS, including HScore and the recently proposed MS-score. This is the first study comparing the performances of MS-score and HScore for the diagnosis of MAS in sJIA patients. Systemic JIA patients followed at Hacettepe University Pediatric Rheumatology Unit were included in the study. Clinical features and laboratory findings at the time when the disease was most active or patients were diagnosed with MAS were recorded retrospectively. HScore and MS-score were calculated and the diagnostic performance for MAS was compared by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Seventy-one sJIA patients were included (23 MAS, 48 activation). There was no difference in age of onset (median 4.7 vs. 5.0 years) and gender (73.9% vs. 54.2%) between patients who had MAS and sJIA activation. Median MS-score and HScore were higher in the MAS group. ROC curve analysis revealed that the HScore performed slightly better in diagnosing MAS, compared with the MS-score (AUC = 0.965 and 0.901 for HScore and MS-score respectively, P < 0.001). In our cohort, the optimal cut-off for the MS score was ≥ - 1.64 (sensitivity: 91.3%; specificity: 83.8%) and for the HScore it was ≥ 162.5 (sensitivity: 91.3%; specificity: 90.2%). HScore performed slightly better than MS-score for the diagnosis of MAS in our cohort.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00296-020-04750-xDOI Listing
January 2021

Vasculitis as a Major Morbidity Factor in Patients With Partial RAG Deficiency.

Front Immunol 2020 21;11:574738. Epub 2020 Oct 21.

University of South Florida at Johns Hopkins All Children's Hospital, Saint Petersburg, FL, United States.

Vasculitis can be a life-threatening complication associated with high mortality and morbidity among patients with primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs), including variants of severe and combined immunodeficiencies ((S)CID). Our understanding of vasculitis in partial defects in recombination activating gene (RAG) deficiency, a prototype of (S)CIDs, is limited with no published systematic evaluation of diagnostic and therapeutic modalities. In this report, we sought to establish the clinical, laboratory features, and treatment outcome of patients with vasculitis due to partial RAG deficiency. Vasculitis was a major complication in eight (13%) of 62 patients in our cohort with partial RAG deficiency with features of infections and immune dysregulation. Vasculitis occurred early in life, often as first sign of disease (50%) and was complicated by significant end organ damage. Viral infections often preceded the onset of predominately non-granulomatous-small vessel vasculitis. Autoantibodies against cytokines (IFN-α, -ω, and IL-12) were detected in a large fraction of the cases tested (80%), whereas the majority of patients were anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) negative (>80%). Genetic diagnosis of RAG deficiency was delayed up to 2 years from the onset of vasculitis. Clinical cases with sole skin manifestation responded well to first-line steroid treatment, whereas systemic vasculitis with severe end-organ complications required second-line immunosuppression and/or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) for definitive management. In conclusion, our data suggest that vasculitis in partial RAG deficiency is prevalent among patients with partial RAG deficiency and is associated with high morbidity. Therefore, partial RAG deficiency should be included in the differential diagnosis of patients with early-onset systemic vasculitis. Diagnostic serology may be misleading with ANCA negative findings, and search for conventional autoantibodies should be extended to include those targeting cytokines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.574738DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7609967PMC
October 2020

The Performances of the ACR 1997, SLICC 2012, and EULAR/ACR 2019 Classification Criteria in Pediatric Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

J Rheumatol 2020 Nov 15. Epub 2020 Nov 15.

E.D. Batu, MD, MSc, U. Kaya Akca, MD, E. Sağ, MD, S. Demir, MD, Y. Bilginer, MD, MSc, S. Ozen, MD, MSc, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Rheumatology, Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, Ankara; A. Pac Kısaarslan, MD, S. Özdemir Çiçek, MD, H. Poyrazoglu, MD, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Rheumatology, Erciyes University Faculty of Medicine, Kayseri; F. Demir, MD, B. Sozeri, MD, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Rheumatology, Ümraniye Training and Research Center, University of Health Sciences, Istanbul, Turkey. The authors declare no conflict of interest. Address correspondence to Dr. S Özen, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Rheumatology, Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, Ankara 06100, Turkey. Email: Accepted for publication November 5, 2020.

Objective: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease. The American College of Rheumatology (ACR) 1997, Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) 2012, and European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR)/ACR 2019 SLE classification criteria are formed based on data mainly from adult patients. We aimed to test the performances of the SLE classification criteria among pediatric patients with SLE.

Methods: Pediatric patients with SLE (n = 262; 80.9% female) were included from 3 different centers in Turkey. As controls, 174 children (60.9% female) with other diseases who had ANA (antinuclear antibody) test results were included. The gold standard for SLE diagnosis was expert opinion.

Results: The sensitivities of the ACR 1997, SLICC 2012, and EULAR/ACR 2019 criteria were 68.7%, 95.4%, and 91.6%, respectively. The specificities of the ACR 1997, SLICC 2012, and EULAR/ACR 2019 criteria were 94.8%, 89.7%, and 88.5%, respectively. Eighteen patients with SLE met the SLICC 2012 but not the EULAR/ACR 2019 criteria. Among these, hematologic involvement was prominent (n = 13; 72.2%). Eight patients with SLE fulfilled the EULAR/ACR 2019 but not the SLICC 2012 criteria. Among these, joint involvement was prominent (n = 6; 75%).

Conclusion: To our knowledge, this is the largest cohort study of pediatric SLE to test the performances of all 3 classification criteria. The SLICC 2012 criteria yielded the best sensitivity, whereas the ACR 1997 criteria had the best specificity. SLICC 2012 criteria performed better than EULAR/ACR 2019 criteria. Separation of different hematological manifestations in the SLICC 2012 criteria might have contributed to the higher performance of this criteria set.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3899/jrheum.200871DOI Listing
November 2020

Analysis of polymorphisms in the colchicine binding site of tubulin in colchicine-resistant familial Mediterranean fever patients.

Mol Biol Rep 2020 Nov 7;47(11):9005-9011. Epub 2020 Nov 7.

Department of Medical Biology, Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey.

Familial Mediterranean fever is a hereditary autoinflammatory syndrome. The typical treatment for the disease is colchicine. However, a subset of patients are not responsive to colchicine. In this study, polymorphisms in the colchicine-binding site of the TUBB1 gene, which encodes a tubulin isoform specific to leukocytes, were investigated in patients with colchicine-resistant disease. FMF patients who were followed in the Department of Pediatric Rheumatology at Hacettepe University were included in this study. Colchicine resistance was defined as ongoing disease activity (≥ 1 attack/month over 3 months or persistently elevated CRP) while taking the maximum tolerated dose of colchicine. A total of 62 Turkish FMF patients (42 colchicine-responsive and 20 colchicine-resistant) and a control group of healthy children were included in the study. DNA was extracted for analysis of TUBB1, and the colchicine binding site was sequenced. We did not observe A248T (rs148237574) or M257V (rs759579888), two variations that were previously associated with colchicine resistance in an in silico analysis. We did detect T274M (rs35565630), R306H (rs772479017), and R307H (rs6070697) variants in the FMF patients, but there was no statistically significant difference between the colchicine-responsive and colchicine-resistant groups. This is the first study to evaluate TUBB1 gene polymorphisms in the colchicine binding site in patients with FMF. Our data do not support the hypothesis that these polymorphisms are a possible cause of colchicine resistance in FMF patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11033-020-05957-8DOI Listing
November 2020

Takayasu arteritis presenting with spontaneous pneumothorax.

Turk J Pediatr 2020 ;62(5):879-883

Divisions of Pediatric Pulmonology, Department of Pediatrics, Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey.

Background: Takayasu arteritis (TA) is an idiopathic chronic inflammatory arteritis that affects the large blood vessels. Pulmonary involvement was considered an uncommon manifestation of the disease and spontaneous pneumothorax has not been previously described in association with TA.

Case: We report a 13-year-old female who had TA complicated by spontaneous pneumothorax during treatment. She was admitted to the hospital reporting difficulty standing from a squatting position and inability to walk without support. She had been diagnosed with dilate cardiomyopathy four years ago and cardiac functions had deteriorated over time. Catheter angiography revealed diffuse narrowing of the abdominal aorta. In magnetic resonance angiography, total-subtotal occlusion of the infrarenal abdominal aorta in a 2 cm area and subtotal occlusion of the left renal artery were detected without pulmonary artery involvement. Methotrexate, azathioprine, and prednisolone were administered. Tension pneumothorax developed on the left side while she was on prednisolone treatment.

Conclusion: To our knowledge, this is the first case of spontaneous pneumothorax associated with TA to be reported in the literature.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.24953/turkjped.2020.05.024DOI Listing
January 2020

Inflammatory milieu of muscle biopsies in juvenile dermatomyositis.

Rheumatol Int 2021 Jan 26;41(1):77-85. Epub 2020 Oct 26.

Pediatric Pathology Unit, Department of Pediatrics, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey.

Juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) is an inflammatory myopathy which causes severe morbidity and high mortality if untreated. In this study, we aimed to define the T-helper cell profile in the muscle biopsies of JDM patients. Muscle biopsies of twenty-six patients (50% female) were included in the study. Immunohistochemical expression of CD3, CD20, CD138, CD68, IL-17, Foxp3, IFN-ɣ, IFN-alpha and IL-4 was studied and muscle biopsies were scored using the JDM muscle biopsy scoring tool. Inflammatory cells were in small clusters in perimysium and perivascular area or scattered throughout the endomysium in most biopsies; however in 2 biopsies, lymphoid follicle-like big clusters were observed, and in one, there was a very dense and diffuse inflammatory infiltration nearly destroying all the muscle architecture. Seventy-three per cent of the biopsies had T cells, 88% had B cells, 57% had plasma cells, and all had macrophages. As for T-helper cell subtypes, 80% of the biopsies were Th1 positive, 92% Th17 positive and 30% Treg positive. No IL-4 positive inflammatory cell was detected, and only 2 biopsies showed IFN-alpha positivity. The mean JDM biopsy score was 17.6, meaning moderate to severe muscular involvement. Visual analogue score of the pathologist was strongly correlated with histopathological features. B cells, macrophages, plasma cells and T cells constitute the inflammatory milieu of the JDM muscle biopsies. As for T cells, JDM is a disease mainly related with Th1 and Th17 T-helper cell subtypes and to some extend Treg. Th2 cells are not involved in the pathogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00296-020-04735-wDOI Listing
January 2021

How the COVID-19 pandemic has influenced pediatric rheumatology practice: Results of a global, cross-sectional, online survey.

Semin Arthritis Rheum 2020 12 28;50(6):1262-1268. Epub 2020 Sep 28.

Pediatric Rheumatology Unit, Meir Medical Center, Kfar Saba, Israel; Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel. Electronic address:

Objectives: The COVID-19 pandemic is a global health problem. We, as the EMERGE (EMErging RheumatoloGists and rEsearchers) group of PReS (Pediatric Rheumatology European Society) analyzed how the pandemic has affected pediatric rheumatology practice.

Methods: An online survey was developed to assess changes in pediatric rheumatology practice due to the pandemic. Results were analyzed using descriptive statistics.

Results: From 70 countries, 493 pediatric rheumatologists (80.3% in pediatric rheumatology practice for ≥5 years) responded to the survey. Around 70% disagreed that the pandemic led to reduced prescription of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, conventional synthetic and biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs. Almost half were more likely to taper corticosteroids faster. One-fifth hesitated to switch the major immunosuppressant during a flare. Patients encountering difficulties obtaining hydroxychloroquine and tocilizumab due to shortages were noted by 192 (38.9%) and 44 (8.9%), respectively. Twenty to 30% indicated that their patients had experienced a flare or delay in diagnosis/intervention due to postponed appointments.53% mentioned use of phone calls/smartphone applications while 47% shifted towards video consultations for patient care. Respondents indicated an increased number of patients with Kawasaki disease (30%), macrophage activation syndrome (15.6%), unusual vasculitic rashes (31.4%), and hyperinflammation (33.5%) during the pandemic.

Conclusion: This is the largest survey to date addressing changes in pediatric rheumatology practice due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Primary changes were due to delays in clinic appointments, increase in use of virtual technologies, and concerns about the use of immunosuppressive therapies. An increased number of patients with Kawasaki disease/hyperinflammation mentioned by the respondents is noteworthy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.semarthrit.2020.09.008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7833192PMC
December 2020

Predictive biomarkers of IgA vasculitis with nephritis by metabolomic analysis.

Semin Arthritis Rheum 2020 12 19;50(6):1238-1244. Epub 2020 Sep 19.

Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pediatric Rheumatology, Ankara, Turkey. Electronic address:

Background: IgA vasculitis (IgAV) is the most common vasculitis of childhood. Renal involvement defines late morbidity of the disease. A better understanding of the pathophysiology of the progression to kidney disease and predictive biomarkers are required for better management of IgAV and its nephritis (IgAVN).

Objectives: An untargeted metabolomics approach was performed to reveal the underlying molecular mechanism of disease pathogenesis and to define potential biomarkers from plasma samples from IgAV and IgAVN patients.

Methods: Forty-five active IgAV patients (H) and six healthy controls (C) were enrolled in the study. Plasma samples were collected on the same day of diagnosis and before any immunosuppressive treatment was initiated. At the time of diagnosis and sample collection, none of the patients had renal involvement. We used Quadrupole Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (Q-TOF LC/MS) to investigate the alterations in plasma metabolomic profiles. Three separate pools were created: healthy controls (group C), active IgAV patients who did not develop renal involvement (group H), and patients who developed IgAVN at follow up (group N). Peak picking, grouping, and comparison parts were performed via XCMS (https://xcmsonline.scripps.edu/) software.

Results: At follow-up, IgAVN developed in 6 out of 45 IgAV patients. The median time of renal involvement development is 23 days (range 5-45 days). Of these, 3 had nephritic proteinuria, one had nephrotic proteinuria, and 2 had microscopic hematuria. There were no significant differences in gender, age, clinical manifestations, and laboratory findings between the six patients who developed renal involvement and those who did not. In multivariate analysis, there was no significant association between any of the defined demographic and clinical characteristics (male sex, gastrointestinal system involvement, joint involvement, CRP, WBC, PLT) and the occurrence of renal involvement. Totally 2618 peaks were detected for group H, N, and C. Among them, 355 peaks were found to be statistically significant and reliable (p<0.05), and 155 of these peaks were found to be changed (fold change >1.5) between the groups C and H, and 66 peaks were found to be changed (fold change >1.5) between the groups H and N. The number of the peaks on the intersection of the peaks found to be different between the groups (C and H) and (H and N) was 39. Based on putative identification results, 15 putatively identified metabolites matched with 11 peaks were presented as biomarker candidates after careful evaluation with a clinical perspective.

Conclusion: We suggest that DHAP (18:0), prostaglandin D2/I2, porphobilinogen, 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid, and N-Acetyl-4-O-acetylneuraminic acid/N-Acetyl-7-O-acetylneuraminic acid may serve as biomarkers for predicting kidney disease. Future studies with larger groups of IgAV patients are needed to validate the identified metabolic profile.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.semarthrit.2020.09.006DOI Listing
December 2020