Publications by authors named "Seyed Reza Mohebbi"

94 Publications

Detection of SARS-CoV-2 Genome in Stool and Plasma Samples of Laboratory Confirmed Iranian COVID-19 Patients.

Front Mol Biosci 2022 28;9:865129. Epub 2022 Jun 28.

Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases Research Center, Research Institute for Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARSCoV2), was first discovered in China in late 2019 and quickly spread worldwide. Although nasopharyngeal swab sampling is still the most popular approach identify SARS-CoV-2 carriers, other body samples may reveal the virus genome, indicating the potential for virus transmission non-respiratory samples. In this study, researchers looked at the presence and degree of SARS-CoV-2 genome in stool and plasma samples from 191 Iranian COVID-19 patients, and looked for a link between these results and the severity of their disease. SARS-CoV-2 RNA shedding in feces and plasma of COVID-19 patients was assessed by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Medical data were collected and evaluated, including Clinical features, demographics, radiological, and laboratory findings of the patients. Plasma samples from 117 confirmed laboratory patients were evaluated and 24 out of 117 patients (20.51%) tested positive for SARS-COV-2 RNA. Besides, 20 out of 74 patients (27.03%) tested positive for SARS-COV-2 RNA in stool samples. There seems to be no relationship between the presence of SARS-CoV-2 genome in fecal and plasma samples of Covid-19 patients and the severity of illness. We provide evidence of the SARS-CoV-2 genome presence in stool and plasma samples of Iranian COVID-19 patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmolb.2022.865129DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9274456PMC
June 2022

Enhanced synergistic antitumor effect of a DNA vaccine with anticancer cytokine, MDA-7/IL-24, and immune checkpoint blockade.

Virol J 2022 06 25;19(1):106. Epub 2022 Jun 25.

Department of Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses, Pasteur Institute of Iran, P.O. Box: 1316943551, Tehran, Iran.

Background: MDA-7/IL-24 cytokine has shown potent antitumor properties in various types of cancer without exerting any significant toxicity on healthy cells. It has also been proved to encompass pro-immune Th1 cytokine-like behavior. Several E7 DNA vaccines have developed against human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cervical cancer. However, the restricted immunogenicity has limited their clinical applications individually. To address this deficiency, we investigated whether combining the E7 DNA vaccine with MDA-7/IL-24 as an adjuvant would elicit efficient antitumor responses in tumor-bearing mouse models. Next, we evaluated how suppression of immunosuppressive IL-10 cytokine would enhance the outcome of our candidate adjuvant vaccine.

Methods: For this purpose, tumor-bearing mice received either E7 DNA vaccine, MDA-7/IL-24 cytokine or combination of E7 vaccine with MDA-7/IL-24 adjuvant one week after tumor challenge and boosted two times with one-week interval. IL-10 blockade was performed by injection of anti-IL-10 mAb before each immunization. One week after the last immunization, mice were sacrificed and the treatment efficacy was evaluated through immunological and immunohistochemical analysis. Moreover, the condition of tumors was monitored every two days for six weeks intervals from week 2 on, and the tumor volume was measured and compared within different groups.

Results: A highly significant synergistic relationship was observed between the E7 DNA vaccine and the MDA-7/IL-24 cytokine against HPV-16+ cervical cancer models. An increase in proliferation of lymphocytes, cytotoxicity of CD8+ T cells, the level of Th1 cytokines (IFN-γ, TNF-α) and IL-4, the level of apoptotic markers (TRAIL and caspase-9), and a decrease in the level of immunosuppressive IL-10 cytokine, together with the control of tumor growth and the induction of tumor regression, all prove the efficacy of adjuvant E7&IL-24 vaccine when compared to their individual administration. Surprisingly, vaccination with the DNA E7&IL-24 significantly reduced the population of Regulatory T cells (Treg) in the spleen of immunized mice compared to sole administration and control groups. Moreover, IL-10 blockade enhanced the effect of the co-administration by eliciting higher levels of IFN-γ and caspase-9, reducing Il-10 secretion and provoking the regression of tumor size.

Conclusion: The synergy between the E7 DNA vaccine and MDA-7/IL-24 suggests that DNA vaccines' low immunogenicity can be effectively addressed by coupling them with an immunoregulatory agent. Moreover, IL-10 blockade can be considered a complementary treatment to improve the outcome of conventional or novel cancer therapies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12985-022-01842-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9233788PMC
June 2022

Detection and quantification of Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, and human herpesvirus-6 in stomach frozen tissue of chronic gastritis and gastric cancer patients.

Microbiol Immunol 2022 Aug 29;66(8):379-385. Epub 2022 Jun 29.

Research Center for Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, Research Institute for Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Siences, Tehran, Iran.

Human herpes viruses (HHVs) are among the most common infectious agents detected in the gastrointestinal tract that might be involved in oncogenesis and other gastrointestinal disorders. Although the link between the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and gastric cancer (GC) has been established, the role of the viruses in various stomach diseases remains unknown. The frequencies and viral copy number of EBV, cytomegalovirus (CMV), and human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) among 50 gastric cancer tumors and 105 chronic gastritis tissues were measured by quantitative real-time PCR. In the tumor specimens and the adjacent normal tissues EBV was found in 60% and 30.9%, CMV in 14% and 4.7%, and HHV-6 in 18%, and 14.2%, respectively. The detection rate of EBV and CMV was found to be significantly higher in tumor tissues relative to the adjacent normal tissues. Also, in chronic gastritis, the frequency of EBV, CMV, and HHV-6 was 19%, 12.3%, and 15.2%, respectively, compared with 16.4%, 1.1%, and 8.2% in their corresponding normal tissues. Here, the CMV frequency was found to be significantly higher in gastritis tissues relative to the adjacent normal tissues. Furthermore, viral load in both gastric cancer and gastritis groups was higher in either tumor or gastritis lesion compared with matched adjacent normal tissue. This study showed a clear association between gastric cancer with both EBV and CMV. Meanwhile, analyses revealed a strong association between the EBV, CMV, and HHV-6 viral loads with gastritis (P = 0.0026, P < 0.0001, and P = 0.0405, respectively). Our results suggest that these three viruses might contribute to the induction and development the gastritis and gastric cancer.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1348-0421.13013DOI Listing
August 2022

High prevalence of SARS-Coronavirus-2 in patients with inflammatory bowel disease and the role of soluble angiotensin converting Enzyme2.

Arch Physiol Biochem 2022 May 26:1-8. Epub 2022 May 26.

Basic and Molecular Epidemiology of Gastrointestinal Disorders Research Center, Research Institute for Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) were found to have the higher intestinal expression of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme2 (ACE2) that could consequently increase susceptibility to COVID-19 infection. This study reports the outcomes of COVID-19 infection in a large cohort of IBD patients. We compare levels of serum ACE and IFN-α between COVID19 patients with and without IBD. We performed a cross-sectional retrospective multicenter study. We enrolled patients with IBD screened for SARS-COV-2 in six medical centres in Iran from June to November 2020. The blood samples were drawn to measure COVID-19 IgM and IgG, and serum levels of sACE2, sACE1, and interferon-α, regardless of suspicious symptoms have done the molecular test. A total of 534 IBD patients were included in the study. Of these, 109 (20.0%) cases had detectable IgG and IgM against SARS-CoV-2. sACE2 levels were higher in IBD patients than controls, whereas ACE1and IFN-α levels were similar among groups.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13813455.2022.2080228DOI Listing
May 2022

Clinical and molecular aspects of human pegiviruses in the interaction host and infectious agent.

Virol J 2022 03 9;19(1):41. Epub 2022 Mar 9.

Department of Virology, Pasteur Institute of Iran, P.O. Box: 1316943551, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Human pegivirus 1 (HPgV-1) is a Positive-sense single-stranded RNA (+ ssRNA) virus, discovered in 1995 as a Flaviviridae member, and the closest human virus linked to HCV. In comparison to HCV, HPgV-1 seems to be lymphotropic and connected to the viral group that infects T and B lymphocytes. HPgV-1 infection is not persuasively correlated to any known human disease; nevertheless, multiple studies have reported a connection between chronic HPgV-1 infection and improved survival in HPgV-1/HIV co-infected patients with a delayed and favorable impact on HIV infection development. While the process has not been thoroughly clarified, different mechanisms for these observations have been proposed. HPgV-1 is categorized into seven genotypes and various subtypes. Infection with HPgV-1 is relatively common globally. It can be transferred parenterally, sexually, and through vertical ways, and thereby its co-infection with HIV and HCV is common. In most cases, the clearance of HPgV-1 from the body can be achieved by developing E2 antibodies after infection.

Main Body: In this review, we thoroughly discuss the current knowledge and recent advances in understanding distinct epidemiological, molecular, and clinical aspects of HPgV-1.

Conclusion: Due to the unique characteristics of the HPgV-1, so advanced research on HPgV-1, particularly in light of HIV co-infection and other diseases, should be conducted to explore the essential mechanisms of HIV clearance and other viruses and thereby suggest novel strategies for viral therapy in the future.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12985-022-01769-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8905790PMC
March 2022

Association of IL-22 and IL-22RA1 gene variants in Iranian patients with colorectal cancer.

Gastroenterol Hepatol Bed Bench 2021 ;14(Suppl1):S58-S65

Proteomics Research Center, Faculty of Paramedical Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Aim: In the current study, it was hypothesized that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the regulatory region of the IL-22 signaling pathway genes, including IL-22 and IL-22RA1 variants, may be associated with CRC susceptibility.

Background: The important role of pro-inflammatory cytokines during tumorigenesis is well-established. In recent years, IL-22 has been linked with colorectal cancer (CRC) through a number of mechanistic and observational studies.

Methods: The association of four polymorphisms in the IL-22 (rs1179251 and rs1179246) and IL-22RA1 (rs4648936 and rs10794665) genes with CRC risk were studied using a case-control design with 304 cases and 345 controls from the Iranian population. All 649 subjects were evaluated by PCR-RFLP method.

Results: No significant difference was found in genotype and allele frequencies between the cases and controls for either IL-22 and IL-22RA1 gene variants or CRC risk before or after adjusting for confounders.

Conclusion: The current findings do not present any significant evidence for associations between variants in IL-22 signaling pathway genes and CRC. Complementary studies with greater sample sizes may be necessary to fully elucidate the nature of these associations.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8817752PMC
January 2021

Circulating non-coding RNAs as potential diagnostic biomarkers in liver diseases.

Gastroenterol Hepatol Bed Bench 2021 ;14(Suppl1):S10-S23

Laser Application in Medical Sciences Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

The liver plays a principal role in the human body as a metabolic and detoxifying unit. Liver diseases are the world's major health problems and affect millions of people worldwide. Early detection of liver diseases is certainly effective in timely treatment and prevention of their progression. Liver injury is associated with significant alterations in immune responses and pattern changes in various tissue-related gene expressions and cytokine production. Increasing or decreasing the specific spectrum of non-coding RNAs in different phases of liver disease can be a criterion for diagnosis. Novel diagnostic biomarkers are needed for liver diseases. Currently, micro-RNAs (miRNAs) are known to play important roles in the diagnosis of liver diseases. Circulating biomarkers such as miRNA-assisted diagnosis can conceivably be helpful for the early treatment of liver diseases. In this review, we look at miRNAs and their potential applications in liver diseases as diagnostic biomarkers were investigated.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8817748PMC
January 2021

Evaluation of miR-200c-3p and miR-421-5p levels during immune responses in the admitted and recovered COVID-19 subjects.

Infect Genet Evol 2022 03 5;98:105207. Epub 2022 Jan 5.

Basic and Molecular Epidemiology of Gastrointestinal Disorders Research Center, Research Institute for Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases Research Center, Research Institute for Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) acts as a key receptor for the spike of SARS-CoV-2. Two main microRNAs (miRs), miR-200c-3p and miR-421-5p, are considered to modulate the expression of ACE2 gene and alterations in the expression of these miRNAs may influence the outcomes of COVID-19 infection. Accordingly, we examined whether miRNAs directing ACE2 expression altered in the SARS-CoV-2 infection. 30 patients with COVID-19 included in the study. At the time of admission and discharge, the expression of miR-200c-3p and miR-421-5p, inflammatory cytokine IL-6, and regulatory T cells' expression profiles (CD4, CD25, and Foxp3) were examined using quantitative real-time PCR method. At the time of admission, the expression levels of miR-200c-3p and miR-421-5p as well as CD4, CD25, and Foxp3 significantly decreased while IL-6 expression notably enhanced. However, by the time of discharge, the expression levels of the genes were opposite to the time of admission. Moreover, Pearson correlation analysis indicated that IL-6 expression negatively correlated with Foxp3 and miR-200c-3p expressions despite miR-421-5p and miR-200c-3p positively correlated at admission time. By manipulating miR-200c-3p and miR-421-5p expressions and controlling the ACE2 level, it is plausible to modulate the inflammation by reducing IL-6 and maintenance tolerance hemostasis during COVID-19 infection.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2022.105207DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8730736PMC
March 2022

Association of SARS-CoV-2 presence in sewage with public adherence to precautionary measures and reported COVID-19 prevalence in Tehran.

Sci Total Environ 2022 Mar 23;812:152597. Epub 2021 Dec 23.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health and Safety, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Air Quality and Climate Change Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Compared to the growing body of literature on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) detection and quantification in sewage, there are limited studies reporting on correlations between the viral loads in sewage and the prevalence of infected patients. The present work is a part of the regular monitoring effort for SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater influents from seven wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Tehran, Iran, starting from late September 2020 until early April 2021. These facilities cover ~64% of the metropolis serving >5000,000 M individuals. The study set out to track the trends in the prevalence of COVID-19 in the community using wastewater based epidemiology (WBE) and to investigate whether these measurements correlate with officially reported infections in the population. Composite sewage samples collected over 16 h were enriched by polyethylene glycol precipitation and the corresponding threshold cycle (Ct) profiles for CDC 'N' and 'ORF1ab' assays were derived through real time RT-qPCR. Monte Carlo simulation model was employed to provide estimates of the disease prevalence in the study area. RNA from SARS-CoV-2 was detectable in 100% ('N' assay) and 81% ('ORF1ab' assay) of totally 91 sewage samples, with viral loads ranging from 40 to 45,000 gene copies/L. The outbreak of COVID-19 positively correlated (R = 0.80) with the measured viral load in sewage samples. Furthermore, sewage SARS-CoV-2 RNA loads preceded infections in the population by 1 to 2 days, which were in line with public adherence with and support for government instructions to contain the pandemic. Given the transient presence of human host-restricted infections such as SARS-CoV-2, these results provide evidence for assessment of the effectiveness of coordinated efforts that specifically address public health responses based on wastewater-based disease surveillance against not only COVID-19 but also for future infectious outbreaks.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.152597DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8697476PMC
March 2022

Toward finding the difference between untreated celiac disease and COVID-19 infected patients in terms of CD4, CD25 (IL-2 Rα), FOXP3 and IL-6 expressions as genes affecting immune homeostasis.

BMC Gastroenterol 2021 Dec 11;21(1):462. Epub 2021 Dec 11.

Research Laboratories, Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital-IRCCS, Rome, Italy.

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is defined as an emerging infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and celiac disease (CD) is one of the autoimmune multiorgan diseases, which can be accompanied by an increased risk of viral infections. CD patients, especially untreated subjects, may be at greater risk of infections such as viral illnesses. Interleukin (IL)-6, CD4, CD25, and FOXP3 are known as genes affecting immune homeostasis and relate to the inflammation state. This study aimed to compare the expression levels of aforementioned genes in peripheral blood samples of CD and severe COVID-19 patients.

Methods: Sixty newly diagnosed CD patients with median age (mean ± SD) of 35.40 ± 24.12 years; thirty confirmed severe COVID-19 patients with median age (mean ± SD) of 59.67 ± 17.22, and 60 healthy subjects with median age (mean ± SD) of 35.6 ± 13.02 years; were recruited from March to September 2020. Fresh whole blood samples were collected, total RNA was obtained and cDNA synthesis was carried out. RNA expression levels of IL-6, CD4, CD25, and FOXP3 genes were assessed using real-time quantitative RT-PCR according to the 2 formula. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS (V.21) and GraphPad, Prism (V.6).

Results: While increased expression of CD4, CD25, and FOXP3 was observed in CD patients compared to the control group (p = 0.02, p = 0.03, and p < 0.0001 respectively) and COVID-19 patients group (p < 0.0001 for all of them), their expression levels in COVID-19 patients decreased compared to controls (p < 0.0001, p = 0.01, p = 0.007, respectively). Increased IL-6 expression was observed in both groups of patients compared to controls (p < 0.0001 for both of them).

Conclusions: Although untreated CD patients may be at greater risk of developing into severe COVID-19 if they are infected by SARS-CoV-2 virus (due to their high expression of IL-6), increased expression of anti-inflammatory markers in these patients may be beneficial for them with the ability of reducing the severity of COVID-19 disease, which needs to be proven in future studies involving celiac patients infected with COVID-19.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12876-021-02056-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8665626PMC
December 2021

A formulated poly (I:C)/CCL21 as an effective mucosal adjuvant for gamma-irradiated influenza vaccine.

Virol J 2021 10 9;18(1):201. Epub 2021 Oct 9.

Department of Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses, Pasteur Institute of Iran, P.O.Box: 1316943551, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Several studies on gamma-irradiated influenza A virus (γ-Flu) have revealed its superior efficacy for inducing homologous and heterologous virus-specific immunity. However, many inactivated vaccines, notably in nasal delivery, require adjuvants to increase the quality and magnitude of vaccine responses.

Methods: To illustrate the impacts of co-administration of the gamma-irradiated H1N1 vaccine with poly (I:C) and recombinant murine CCL21, either alone or in combination with each other, as adjuvants on the vaccine potency, mice were inoculated intranasally 3 times at one-week interval with γ-Flu alone or with any of the three adjuvant combinations and then challenged with a high lethal dose (10 LD50) of A/PR/8/34 (H1N1) influenza virus. Virus-specific humoral, mucosal, and cell-mediated immunity, as well as cytokine profiles in the spleen (IFN-γ, IL-12, and IL-4), and in the lung homogenates (IL-6 and IL-10) were measured by ELISA. The proliferative response of restimulated splenocytes was also determined by MTT assay.

Results: The findings showed that the co-delivery of the γ-Flu vaccine and CCL21 or Poly (I:C) significantly increased the vaccine immunogenicity compared to the non-adjuvanted vaccine, associated with more potent protection following challenge infection. However, the mice given a combination of CCL21 with poly (I:C) had strong antibody- and cell-mediated immunity, which were considerably higher than responses of mice receiving the γ-Flu vaccine with each adjuvant separately. This combination also reduced inflammatory mediator levels (notably IL-10) in lung homogenate samples.

Conclusions: The results indicate that adjuvantation with the CCL21 and poly (I:C) can successfully induce vigorous vaccine-mediated protection, suggesting a robust propensity for CCL21 plus poly (I:C) as a potent mucosal adjuvant.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12985-021-01672-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8501930PMC
October 2021

The detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in indoor air of dental clinics during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Aug 3. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health and Safety, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

In the indoor environment of dental clinics, dental personnel and patients are exposed to a risk of infection because of the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 via particles or droplets. This study investigated the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in indoor air of dental clinics in Tehran, Iran. Air sampling was done (n = 36) collecting particulate samples on PTFE filters at flow rates of 30 to 58 L/min. The samples were analyzed with novel coronavirus nucleic acid diagnostic real-time PCR kits. Only 13 out of 36 samples were positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA. Logistic regression showed that sampling site's volume, PM concentration, number of people, and number of active patient treatment units were significantly positively related with the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA. Thus, strategies to control the spread of COVID-19 should include reducing the number of infected people in dental clinics, adding filtration systems, and/or improving ventilation conditions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-15607-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8328532PMC
August 2021

Identification of plasma lncRNA-ATB levels in hepatitis B virus-related cirrhosis and non-cirrhotic chronic hepatitis B patients.

Virus Res 2021 10 28;303:198503. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases Research Center, Research Institute for Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Arabi str., Yaman Ave., Velenjak, Tehran, Iran.

Long non-coding RNA-ATB (LncRNA-ATB) which is activated by transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), is a key regulator of TGF-β signaling pathway. TGF-β plays an important role in various pathogenic processes, from inflammation and fibrosis to cirrhosis and cancer. In this study, we evaluated the plasma levels of lncRNA-ATB in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related cirrhosis and non-cirrhotic patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and investigated the clinical values. Plasma samples were collected from 44 HBV-related cirrhosis patients, 45 non-cirrhotic CHB and 75 healthy controls. Briefly, after total RNA extraction and cDNA synthesis, quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) was performed to detect plasma lncRNA-ATB levels. Results show the plasma levels of lncRNA-ATB in HBV-related cirrhosis patients were significantly higher in comparison to healthy controls (Fold change=2.60, p value=0.04). Also, we determined plasma levels of lncRNA-ATB as a specific biomarker of HBV-related cirrhosis (AUC=0.65, p value=0.03, Sensitivity 61.36%; Specificity 70.00%). In addition to, we investigated the plasma levels of lncRNA-ATB in non-cirrhotic CHB patients were significantly lower than healthy controls (Fold change= 0.33, p value=0.01). We also indicated plasma lncRNA-ATB levels were as a sensitive biomarker for diagnosis of non-cirrhotic CHB patients compared with healthy (AUC=0.66, p value=0.00, Sensitivity 71.11%; Specificity 57.78%). According to our results, circulating lncRNA-ATB has good specificity for diagnosing hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related cirrhosis and good sensitivity for diagnosis of non-cirrhotic chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.virusres.2021.198503DOI Listing
October 2021

Moore swab performs equal to composite and outperforms grab sampling for SARS-CoV-2 monitoring in wastewater.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Oct 2;790:148205. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Environmental and Occupational Hazards Control Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health and Safety, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) approaches to detect SARS-CoV-2 in municipal wastewater can provide unique information on the incidence or prevalence of COVID-19 in community. However, there are several technical challenges coupled with sewage sampling for SARS-CoV-2, including intermittent shedding of viruses, sampling time, volume, and frequency. Sampling schemes thus may need to be tailored to reach out highly sensitive, accurate, and reliable results. Herein, we compared the accuracy and threshold cycle (Ct) profiles of SARS-CoV-2 in Moore swabs, composite (16-h), and grab samples taken from sewage manholes (n = 17) at the Middle Eastern city of Tehran, Iran, on two occasions (November 2020 and May 2021). Samples were concentrated by polyethylene glycol precipitation and the corresponding Ct values for CDC 'N' and 'ORF1ab' assays were derived by means of real time RT-qPCR. Overall, the Moore swabs performed equal to samples composited over 16 h for qualitative monitoring, and 34/34 (100%) were positive for SARS-CoV-2. The 'N' assay showed the highest detection frequency as compared to 'ORF1ab'. The mean Moore swab Ct profiles were more consistent with 16 h composite sampling as compared with corresponding grab samples, providing hints as to the best sampling protocol to adopt when planning a sewage monitoring campaign particularly under WBE. Furthermore, our analyses on local differences showed somewhat higher virus copy numbers in the southern areas. The experimental design of this study revealed that the Moore swab and composite samples are more sensitive than grab samples, suggesting that the collection of grab samples may be inappropriate for characterizing total number of viral RNA copies in sewage samples. Given the transiently presence of human host-restricted infections such as SARS-CoV-2 and the simplicity and affordability of Moore swab, the method is well suited for disease surveillance in resource poor regions struggling with limited capacity for clinical testing.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.148205DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8170911PMC
October 2021

SARS-CoV-2 Infection and Guillain-Barré Syndrome: A Review on Potential Pathogenic Mechanisms.

Front Immunol 2021;12:674922. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Virology, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran.

Since December 2019, the world has been facing an outbreak of a new disease called coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The COVID-19 pandemic is caused by a novel beta-coronavirus named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The SARS-CoV-2 infection mainly affects the respiratory system. Recently, there have been some reports of extra-respiratory symptoms such as neurological manifestations in COVID-19. According to the increasing reports of Guillain-Barré syndrome following COVID-19, we mainly focused on SARS-CoV-2 infection and Guillain-Barré syndrome in this review. We tried to explain the possibility of a relationship between SARS-CoV-2 infection and Guillain-Barré syndrome and potential pathogenic mechanisms based on current and past knowledge.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.674922DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8141918PMC
June 2021

The first detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the wastewater of Tehran, Iran.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Aug 18;28(29):38629-38636. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases Research Center, Research Institute for Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Arabi str., Yaman Ave., Velenjak, Tehran, Iran.

Following the official announcement of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) worldwide pandemic spread by WHO on March 11, 2020, more than 300,000 COVID-19 cases reported in Iran resulting in approximately 17,000 deaths as of August 2, 2020. In the present survey, we investigated the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in raw and treated wastewater samples in Tehran, Iran. Untreated and treated wastewater samples were gathered from four wastewater treatment plants over a month period from June to July 2020. Firstly, an adsorption-elution concentration method was tested using an avian coronavirus (infectious bronchitis virus, IBV). Then, the method was effectively employed to survey the presence of SARS-CoV-2 genome in influent and effluent wastewater samples. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was found in 8 out of 10 treated wastewater samples utilizing a reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) test to detect ORF1ab and N genes. Moreover, the rate of positivity in wastewater samples increased in last sample collection that shows circulation of SARS-CoV-2 was increased among the population. In addition, the high values detected in effluent wastewater from local wastewater treatment plants have several implications in health and ecology that should be further assessed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-13393-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7972808PMC
August 2021

Proteomic study of advanced cirrhosis based on HCV to reveal potential biomarkers.

Gastroenterol Hepatol Bed Bench 2020 ;13(Suppl1):S113-S121

Proteomics Research Center, Faculty of Paramedical Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Aim: We aimed to carry out proteomic assessment of long-term effects of hepatitis C on liver.

Background: Cirrhosis is a condition where liver is damaged and loses its efficiency, and has the high rate of mortality in the world. Proteome profiling may help to identify important proteins and find the pathogenesis Cirrhosis is a condition where liver is damaged and loses its efficiency, and has the high rate of mortality in the world. Proteome profiling may help to identify important proteins and find the pathogenesis.

Methods: Here, by the application of two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-D PAGE), combined with (MALDI-TOF-TOF MS), proteome profile of decompensated HCV cirrhosis is determined compared to healthy matched controls. Furthermore, Cytoscape has used network analysis. The proteome comparison between two groups identified proteins with significant expression changes (p<0.05 and fold change ≥ 1.5).

Results: We found upregulation of IGHA1, C3, A1BG, IGKC and one isoform of HP. Also, lower expression of APOA4 and the other spot of HP in advanced cirrhosis patients were revealed based on HCV compared to matched controls. According to network analysis, ALB has been introduced as a key protein, which may play an important role in pathogenesis.

Conclusion: Integration of the proteomics with protein interaction data led to the identification of several novel key proteins related to the immune system that may reflect the long-term effects of hepatitis C virus on the liver, and can introduce as therapeutic targets for advanced HCV- cirrhosis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7881408PMC
January 2020

Presence of SARS-CoV-2 in the air of public places and transportation.

Atmos Pollut Res 2021 Mar 2;12(3):302-306. Epub 2021 Jan 2.

Department of Laboratory Sciences, School of Allied Medical Sciences, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

This study investigated the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in air of public places such as shopping centers, a post office, banks, governmental offices, and public transportation facilities including an airport, subways, and buses in Tehran, Iran. A total of 28 air samples were collected from the eight groups of public and transportation locations. The airborne particle samples were collected on PTFE or glass fiber filters using two types of samplers with flow rates of 40 and 3.5 L/min, respectively. The viral samples were leached and concentrated, and RNA was extracted from each. The presence of viral RNA was evaluated using novel coronavirus nucleic acid diagnostic real time PCR kits. In 64% of the samples, SARS-CoV-2 RNA (62% and 67% from the public places and transportation, respectively) was detected. Positive samples were detected in banks (33%), shopping centers (100%), governmental offices (50%), the airport (80%), subway stations (50%), subway trains (100%), and buses (50%). Logistic regression showed that number of people present during the sampling and the sampled air volume were positively associated with presence of SARS-CoV-2; while the percentage of people with masks, air temperature, and sampling site's volume were negatively related to SARS-CoV-2's presence. However, none of these associations were statistically significant. This study showed that most public places and transportation vehicles were contaminated with SARS-CoV-2. Thus, strategies to control the spread of COVID-19 should include reducing the number of people in indoor spaces, more intense disinfection of transport vehicles, and requiring people to wear masks.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apr.2020.12.016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7833664PMC
March 2021

Monitoring of rotavirus in treated wastewater in Tehran with a monthly interval, in 2017-2018.

J Water Health 2020 Dec;18(6):1065-1072

Foodborne and Waterborne Diseases Research Center, Research Institute for Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Rotaviruses are among the major causes of viral acute gastroenteritis in newborns and children younger than 5 years worldwide. The ability of rotaviruses to remain infectious in harsh environments as well as in the wastewater treatment process makes them one of the most prevalent enteric viruses. The current study aimed to determine the presence of rotavirus genomes and to analyze them phylogenetically in secondary treated wastewater (TW) samples. In total, 13 TW samples were collected from September 2017 to August 2018. Viral concentration was carried out using the absorption-elution method, and after RNA extraction and cDNA synthesis, real-time and conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were performed. A phylogenetic tree was drawn using Maximum Likelihood and Tamura 3-parameter using MEGA v.6 software. Rotavirus genomes were detected in 7/13 (53.8%) and 3/13 (23.07%) samples using reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and conventional PCR, respectively. Accordingly, phylogenetic analysis revealed G4P[8], G9P[4], and G9P[8] genotypes among the samples. The presence of rotavirus in secondary TW samples discharged into surface water emphasizes the importance of monitoring and assessing viral contamination in the water sources used for agricultural and recreational purposes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/wh.2020.112DOI Listing
December 2020

Significant changes of CD4, FOXP3, CD25, and IL6 expression level in Iranian COVID-19 patients.

Gastroenterol Hepatol Bed Bench 2020 ;13(4):388-392

Basic and Molecular Epidemiology of Gastrointestinal Disorders Research Center, Research Institute for Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Aim: Evaluating the expression level of CD4 FoxP3 CD25 T cells and IL-6 in peripheral blood samples of hospitalized COVID-19 patients.

Background: COVID-19 is an emerging disease with worldwide distribution. However, there is a little data about the correlation between the disease and the host immune responses.

Methods: Whole blood samples of 30 COVID-19 patients and eight healthy people were collected during March to June 2020. Total RNA was extracted from the samples, cDNA synthesis was performed, and the expression level of targeted genes was evaluated using quantitative real-time PCR.

Results: The expression level of CD4, CD25, and Foxp3 was significantly downregulated 5-, 2-, and 3-fold, respectively, among COVID-19 patients in comparison to healthy controls (-value < 0.0001). The expression level of IL-6 represented almost 18-fold increase in COVID-19 patients compared to healthy controls.

Conclusion: Our findings indicated the expression profile analysis of CD4 FoxP3 CD25 T cells could be a potential marker for the assessment of severity of COVID-19 patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7682958PMC
January 2020

The Necessity of Stool Examination in Asymptomatic Carriers as a Strategic Measure to Control Further Spread of SARS-CoV-2.

Front Public Health 2020 30;8:553589. Epub 2020 Oct 30.

Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases Research Center, Research Institute for Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2020.553589DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7661577PMC
May 2021

Shiga toxin-producing bacteria as emerging enteric pathogens associated with outbreaks of foodborne illness in the Islamic Republic of Iran.

East Mediterr Health J 2020 Aug 25;26(8):976-981. Epub 2020 Aug 25.

Foodborne and Waterborne Diseases Research Center, Research Institute for Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran.

Background: Detection of the cause of diarrhoeal diseases is important for the management of the outbreaks.

Aims: This study investigated the prevalence of Shiga toxin-producing bacteria in stool samples of patients with diarrhoea associated with outbreaks of foodborne illness in the Islamic Republic of Iran.

Methods: A total of 532 stool and rectal swab samples from 70 sporadic outbreaks during May 2014 to August 2015 were examined for infection with Shiga toxin-producing bacteria. The isolates were examined for carriage of the virulence genes stx and stx in all isolates and eae/ehxA in Escherichia coli.

Results: E. coli, Shigella spp., Citrobacter spp., Enterobacter spp., Klebsiella spp. and other enteric bacteria were detected in 77.7% (376/484), 5.0% (24/484), 3.9% (19/484), 0.4% (2/484), 3.7% (18/484) and 9.3% (45/484) of the samples respectively. Of the 196 sorbitol-negative E. coli strains, 3 (1.5%) carried the stx gene as did 2 of the 19 (10.5%) Citrobacter strains.

Conclusion: Shiga toxin-producing Citrobacter spp. strains should be considered as a newly emerging foodborne pathogen in outbreaks.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.26719/emhj.19.102DOI Listing
August 2020

Higher prevalence of asymptomatic or mild COVID-19 in children, claims and clues.

J Med Virol 2020 11 9;92(11):2257-2259. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Department of Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.26069DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7283682PMC
November 2020

Oncolytic Newcastle disease virus delivered by Mesenchymal stem cells-engineered system enhances the therapeutic effects altering tumor microenvironment.

Virol J 2020 05 5;17(1):64. Epub 2020 May 5.

Department of Virology, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated malignancy remain a main cause of cancer in men and women. Cancer immunotherapy has represented great potential as a new promising cancer therapeutic approach. Here, we report Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as a carrier for the delivery of oncolytic Newcastle disease virus (NDV) for the treatment of HPV-associated tumor.

Methods: For this purpose, MSCs obtained from the bone marrow of C57BL mice, then cultured and characterized subsequently by the flow cytometry analysis for the presence of cell surface markers. In this study, we sought out to determine the impacts of MSCs loaded with oncolytic NDV on splenic T cell and cytokine immune responses, caspase-3 and -9 expression, and myeloid and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) by histological and immunohistochemical studies in the tumor microenvironment (TME).

Results: Our findings proved that MSCs possess both migratory capacity and tumor tropism toward transplanted tumor tissue after peritumoral administration. Tumor therapy experiments indicated that oncolytic NDV delivered by MSCs-engineered system significantly reduces tumor growth, which is associated with the enhancement of E7-specific lymphocyte proliferation, CD8+ T cell cytolysis responses, and splenic IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-12 responses compared with control groups. Moreover, the treatment upregulated the concentration of apoptotic proteins (caspase 9) and increased infiltration of tumor microenvironment with CD11b + myeloid and Gr1 + MDSCs cells.

Conclusions: Our data suggest MSCs carrying oncolytic NDV as a potentially effective strategy for cancer immunotherapy through inducing splenic Th1 immune responses and apoptosis in the tumor microenvironment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12985-020-01326-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7201980PMC
May 2020

Evaluation of the antitumor immune responses of probiotic Bifidobacterium bifidum in human papillomavirus-induced tumor model.

Microb Pathog 2020 Aug 20;145:104207. Epub 2020 Apr 20.

Department of Virology, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

As of present, a number of studies have shown anti-cancer effects of different strains of probiotics, but the precise host immunological mechanisms of these antitumor effects remain unclear. Thus, the aim of current study was to investigate the preventive-therapeutic effects of oral versus intravenous administration of probiotic Bifidobacterium bifidum on immune response and tumor growth of C57BL/6 mice bearing transplanted TC-1 cell of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related tumor, expressing HPV-16 E6/E7 oncogenes. Our major findings are that the intravenous or oral administration of Bifidobacterium bifidum effectively induces antitumor immune responses and inhibits tumor growth in mice. Compared to oral route only, intravenous administration of probiotic Bifidobacterium bifidum into tumor-bearing mice leads to the activation of tumor-specific IL-12 and IFN-γ, lymphocyte proliferation, CD8 cytolytic responses that control and eradicate tumor growth. These observations meant intravenous administration of probiotics is an effective anticancer approach through modulation of the immune system. The potential of probiotic Bifidobacterium bifidum as an immunomodulator in the treatment of cervical cancer could be further explored.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2020.104207DOI Listing
August 2020

Association of Interleukin-17 gene polymorphisms with susceptibility to chronic hepatitis B virus infection and clearance in Iranian population.

Microb Pathog 2020 Jul 12;144:104195. Epub 2020 Apr 12.

Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases Research Center, Research Institute for Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) approximately infects 350 million people. Interleukin-17 (IL-17) as a pro-inflammatory cytokine, have been found to modulate the immune system in infectious and inflammatory diseases. Recently, the influence of genetic changes like single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) on expression rate and function of cytokine has been widely investigated. This study was performed to determine any possible association between four IL-17 SNPs (rs2397084, rs763780, rs2275913 and rs10484879) and chronic HBV infection. A total of 466 samples were recruited and studied including 199 chronic patients, 172 healthy controls and 95 spontaneous clearance individuals between genotype and allele frequencies. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood cells and Polymerase Chain Reaction Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was used to determine the SNPs genotypes. Genotypes frequencies for rs10484879 were 63.8% CC, 31.7% AC, 4.5% AA in chronic group, 54.7% CC, 36.6% AC, 8.7% AA in control and 63.2% CC, 33.7% AC, 5.8% AA in cleared samples. The AC genotype for rs10484879 was significantly associated with a decreased risk of HBV chronicity (Pvalue = 0.031, OR = 2.699, 95%CI: 1.097-6.639). The genotype and allele frequencies of rs2397084, rs763780 and rs2275913 did not show significant difference between chronic HBV patients and healthy controls. Indeed, there is no significant difference between clearance and chronic patient's genotypes in four SNPs. Our results suggest that IL-17A rs10484879 single nucleotide polymorphism genotype is probably associated with susceptibility to HBV chronic infection, while no significant differences in IL-17 rs2397084, rs763780 and rs227591 distribution were found between HBV patients and spontaneous clearance individuals and control participants.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2020.104195DOI Listing
July 2020

Risk factors of transmission and natural history of chronic hepatitis B infection in Iranian patients.

Gastroenterol Hepatol Bed Bench 2019 ;12(Suppl1):S149-S155

Foodborne and Waterborne Diseases Research Center, Research Institute for Gastroenterology and Liver diseases, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Aim: To investigate routes of transmission, demographic characteristics, and frequency of different phases of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) in 2000 Iranian patients.

Background: Knowledge about the most frequent risk factors of CHB and its different phases is very important for optimal prevention and management policy making.

Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 2000 HBsAg positive patients who were referred to Taleghani Hospital from 2011 through 2018 were enrolled. ELISA method was employed to detect serological markers of CHB. Taking into account the HBV DNA and ALT levels and HBeAg status, the patients were classified in four groups, according to AASLD 2017 guideline.

Results: Male and female patients had nearly equal frequencies in our study and 82.5 % of them aged more than 20 years. A great number of our patients (95%) were HBeAg negative and the most frequent risk factors of HBV infection were positive periodontal and family history (40.3% and 24.9%, respectively). The majority of our patients were inactive carriers (63.35%), while s mall number of them were in the immune tolerant group (2.15 %).

Conclusion: Immune tolerance phase group had the minimum number of members in our study and most of them were above 20 years old. This can be due to the mass vaccination of neonates since 1993. Most of CHB patients were in inactive carrier group. Although it is recommended not to treat these patients, performing periodic liver function tests and disease severity assessment is warranted, especially in patients above 40 years old
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7011058PMC
January 2019

Comparative study on guidelines in determining HBV phases in Iranian patients.

Gastroenterol Hepatol Bed Bench 2019 ;12(Suppl1):S145-S148

Foodborne and Waterborne Diseases Research Center, Research Institute for Gastroenterology and Liver diseases, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the different phases of chronic Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection with different values for normal ALT.

Background: For many years, the upper limit of 40 IU was considered normal for ALT for both sexes, but in recent years this value is challenged and some guidelines have lowered their limit.

Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 2000 HBsAg positive patients who were referred to Taleghani Hospital, Tehran, Iran, from 2011 through 2018 were classified in four groups according to American Association of the study of the liver disease (AASLD), European Association of the study of the liver (EASL) /Asian-Pacific Association of the study of the liver (APASL) and American Collage of Gastroenterology (ACG) guidelines. The frequency of each group based on 3 different guidelines was compared.

Results: In HBeAg positive patients (n=100), the percentage of immune tolerance phase was 43% according to AASLD cutoff for normal ALT (35 IU for men, 25 IU for women), while it was 68% and 28% with regard to EASL/APASL and ACG (30 IU for men, 19 IU for women) cutoffs respectively. In HBeAg negative patients (n=1900), 66.68% were inactive carriers according to AASLD, but the percentage changed to 82.89% and 52.42% considering EASL/APASL and ACG values, respectively.

Conclusion: Using ACG and to a lesser extent AASLD cutoff for ALT, many patients shift from immune tolerance and inactive carrier state into the immune active phase. Thus, more patients are candidates for treatment or intensive workup to determine the extent of liver damage.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7011065PMC
January 2019
-->