Publications by authors named "Seyed Reza Hosseini-Fard"

11 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Role of microbiota-derived short-chain fatty acids in nervous system disorders.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Jul 8;139:111661. Epub 2021 May 8.

Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Virology, School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

During the past decade, accumulating evidence from the research highlights the suggested effects of bacterial communities of the human gut microbiota and their metabolites on health and disease. In this regard, microbiota-derived metabolites and their receptors, beyond the immune system, maintain metabolism homeostasis, which is essential to maintain the host's health by balancing the utilization and intake of nutrients. It has been shown that gut bacterial dysbiosis can cause pathology and altered bacterial metabolites' formation, resulting in dysregulation of the immune system and metabolism. The short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), such as butyrate, acetate, and succinate, are produced due to the fermentation process of bacteria in the gut. It has been noted remodeling in the gut microbiota metabolites associated with the pathophysiology of several neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, stress, anxiety, depression, autism, vascular dementia, schizophrenia, stroke, and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders, among others. This review will discuss the current evidence from the most significant studies dealing with some SCFAs from gut microbial metabolism with selected neurological disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2021.111661DOI Listing
July 2021

The pathogenic, therapeutic and diagnostic role of exosomal microRNA in the autoimmune diseases.

J Neuroimmunol 2021 Sep 24;358:577640. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Virology, School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Exosomes are a nano-vesicle surrounded by a bilipid layer that can release from almost all cells and could be detected in tissues and biological liquids. These vesicles contain lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids (including DNA, mRNA, and miRNA) inside and on the exosomes' surface constitute their content. Exosomes can transfer their cargo into the recipient cell, which can modify recipient cells' biological activities. Recently it has been deciphering that the miRNA pattern of exosomes reveals the cellular pathophysiological situation and modifies various biological processes. Increasing data regarding exosomes highlights that the exosomes and their cargo, especially miRNAs, are implicated in the pathophysiology of various disorders, such as autoimmune disease. The current evidence on the deciphering of mechanisms in which exosomal miRNAs contributed to autoimmunity was indicated that exosomal miRNA might hold information that can reprogram the function of many of the immune cells involved in autoimmune diseases' pathogenesis. In the present study, we summarized the pathogenic role of exosomal miRNAs in several autoimmune diseases, including myasthenia gravis (MG), psoriasis, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), type 1 diabetes (T1D), multiple sclerosis (MS), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), Sjogren's Syndrome (SS), systemic sclerosis (SSc), vitiligo, and autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD). Moreover, in this work, we present evidence of the potential role of exosomal miRNAs as therapeutic and diagnostic agents in autoimmune diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jneuroim.2021.577640DOI Listing
September 2021

Role of microbiota-derived short-chain fatty acids in cancer development and prevention.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Jul 24;139:111619. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Virology, School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Following cancer, cells in a particular tissue can no longer respond to the factors involved in controlling cell survival, differentiation, proliferation, and death. In recent years, it has been indicated that alterations in the gut microbiota components, intestinal epithelium, and host immune system are associated with cancer incidence. Also, it has been demonstrated that the short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) generated by gut microbiota are vitally crucial in cell homeostasis as they contribute to the modulation of histone deacetylases (HDACs), resulting effected cell attachment, immune cell immigration, cytokine production, chemotaxis, and the programmed cell death. Therefore, the manipulation of SCFA levels in the intestinal tract by alterations in the microbiota structure can be potentially taken into consideration for cancer treatment/prevention. In the current study, we will explain the most recent findings on the detrimental or protective roles of SFCA (particularly butyrate, propionate, and acetate) in several cancers, including bladder, colon, breast, stomach, liver, lung, pancreas, and prostate cancers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2021.111619DOI Listing
July 2021

The emerging role of exosomal miRNAs as a diagnostic and therapeutic biomarker in Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.

Mol Med 2021 04 1;27(1):34. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran.

Tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), has been the world's driving fatal bacterial contagious disease globally. It continues a public health emergency, and around one-third of the global community has been affected by latent TB infection (LTBI). This is mostly due to the difficulty in diagnosing and treating patients with TB and LTBI. Exosomes are nanovesicles (40-100 nm) released from different cell types, containing proteins, lipids, mRNA, and miRNA, and they allow the transfer of one's cargo to other cells. The functional and diagnostic potential of exosomal miRNAs has been demonstrated in bacterial infections, including TB. Besides, it has been recognized that cells infected by intracellular pathogens such as Mtb can be secreting an exosome, which is implicated in the infection's fate. Exosomes, therefore, open a unique viewpoint on the investigative process of TB pathogenicity. This study explores the possible function of exosomal miRNAs as a diagnostic biomarker. Moreover, we include the latest data on the pathogenic and therapeutic role of exosomal miRNAs in TB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s10020-021-00296-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8017856PMC
April 2021

The emerging role of probiotics as a mitigation strategy against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).

Arch Virol 2021 Jul 20;166(7):1819-1840. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Department of Virology, School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

COVID-19 is an acute respiratory infection accompanied by pneumonia caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which has affected millions of people globally. To date, there are no highly efficient therapies for this infection. Probiotic bacteria can interact with the gut microbiome to strengthen the immune system, enhance immune responses, and induce appropriate immune signaling pathways. Several probiotics have been confirmed to reduce the duration of bacterial or viral infections. Immune fitness may be one of the approaches by which protection against viral infections can be reinforced. In general, prevention is more efficient than therapy in fighting viral infections. Thus, probiotics have emerged as suitable candidates for controlling these infections. During the COVID-19 pandemic, any approach with the capacity to induce mucosal and systemic reactions could potentially be useful. Here, we summarize findings regarding the effectiveness of various probiotics for preventing virus-induced respiratory infectious diseases, especially those that could be employed for COVID-19 patients. However, the benefits of probiotics are strain-specific, and it is necessary to identify the bacterial strains that are scientifically established to be beneficial.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00705-021-05036-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7980799PMC
July 2021

Evaluating the effect of a mixture of two main conjugated linoleic acid isomers on hepatic steatosis in HepG2 cellular model.

Mol Biol Rep 2021 Feb 12;48(2):1359-1370. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Hepatic steatosis is an early form of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), caused by abnormal fat deposition in the hepatocytes. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a group of positional and geometric dienoic isomers of linoleic acid that attract significant attention because of its beneficial effects on chronic diseases such as cancer, obesity, and metabolic syndrome. This study examined the influence of a mixture of two main CLA isomers (CLA-mix) on lipid accumulation and lipid metabolism-related genes using HepG2 cells treated with palmitic acid (PA) as an in vitro model for hepatic steatosis. Methods and Results: HepG2 cells were treated for 24 h: control (BSA), model (BSA + PA), and treated groups (BSA-PA + non-toxic concentrations of CLA-mix). Intracellular lipid deposition, triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC) and gene expression were measured by Oil-Red O staining, colorimetric assay kits and real-time PCR, respectively. CLA-mix at high concentrations had significantly decreased intracellular total lipid and TG deposition compared to the model group. However, none of the CLA-mix concentrations had a significant effect on the intracellular TC level. CLA-mix significantly increased the expression of some genes mainly regulated by PPARα but did not alter the expression of lipogenesis-related genes. Conclusions: These results demonstrate that high concentrations of CLA-mix protect against hepatic steatosis and play a role in regulating fatty acid oxidation and bile excretion through the PPARα pathway. It is suggested that the effect of different ratios of two main CLA isomers on the amount and ratio of bile compounds be investigated in future studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11033-021-06203-5DOI Listing
February 2021

The emerging role of microRNAs in the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Jan 13;90:107204. Epub 2020 Nov 13.

Department of Virology, School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has imposed significant public health problems for the human populations worldwide after the 1918 influenza A virus (IVA) (H1N1) pandemic. Although numerous efforts have been made to unravel the mechanisms underlying the coronavirus, a notable gap remains in our perception of the COVID-19 pathogenesis. The innate and adaptive immune systems have a pivotal role in the fate of viral infections, such as COVID-19 pandemic. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are known as short noncoding RNA molecules and appear as indispensable governors of almost any cellular means. Several lines of evidence demonstrate that miRNAs participate in essential mechanisms of cell biology, regulation of the immune system, and the onset and progression of numerous types of disorders. The immune responses to viral respiratory infections (VRIs), including influenza virus (IV), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and rhinovirus (RV), are correlated with the ectopic expression of miRNAs. Alterations of the miRNA expression in epithelial cells may contribute to the pathogenesis of chronic and acute airway infections. Hence, analyzing the role of these types of nucleotides in antiviral immune responses and the characterization of miRNA target genes might contribute to understanding the mechanisms of the interplay between the host and viruses, and in the future, potentially result in discovering therapeutic strategies for the prevention and treatment of acute COVID-19 infection. In this article, we present a general review of current studies concerning the function of miRNAs in different VRIs, particularly in coronavirus infection, and address all available therapeutic prospects to mitigate the burden of viral infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2020.107204DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7664359PMC
January 2021

Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis pathway is involved in coronary artery stenosis and restenosis.

Gene 2021 Jan 6;765:145131. Epub 2020 Sep 6.

Iran University of Medical Sciences, Medical School, Biochemistry Department, Iran. Electronic address:

The inflammatory events related to prostaglandins may play an important role in the progression of vessel stenosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the monocyte PTGES and 15-PGDH gene expression levels and the serum 13,14-dihyro-15-keto-PGF2α value involved in PGE2 metabolism in patients with coronary artery stenosis and restenosis. Moreover, the effects of miR-520, miR-1297 and miR-34 were studied on the gene expression levels. A total of sixty subjects referred for coronary angiography including healthy controls (stenosis <5%), subjects with stent no restenosis) SNR, stenosis <5%) and subjects in stent restenosis (ISR, restenosis >70%) were participated in the study. The gene expression levels and the serum 13,14-dihyro-15-keto- PGF2α value were measured by RT-qPCR and ELISA techniques, respectively. Moreover, the effects of miRNAs on the gene expression levels were investigated by the monocyte transfection of miR/PEI complexes. The PTGES and 15-PGDH gene expression levels and serum 13,14-dihyro-15-keto- PGF2α value increased significantly (P <0.05). Based on the miR-520 and miR-34 expression levels, the miR/PEI transfection studies were confirmed significantly the gene expression changes. The monocyte PGE2 synthesis pathway is actively considered in the SNR and ISR patients and might be related to miR-34 and miR-520 functions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2020.145131DOI Listing
January 2021

SNP haplotyping technique for evaluation of MGP 5' UTR power in osteoblast cells.

Springerplus 2016 13;5(1):711. Epub 2016 Jun 13.

Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran ; Biochemistry Department, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Matrix Gla protein (MGP) is involved in calcium trafficking and arterial calcification. The aim of study was to investigate the role of three polymorphisms within the MGP gene promoter region on reporter gene (luciferase) expression level. The fragments containing rs1800799 (C/T), rs1800802 (T/C), and rs1800801 (G/A) sites were constructed and transferred into human G292 osteoblast cells using pGL3-Basic plasmid. The reporter gene expression was calculated for the high and low frequency polymorphic haplotypes (CTG and TCA, respectively). Results showed that the reporter gene expression levels are not statistically different (p > 0.3). We concluded that the investigated polymorphic sites are not able to change the gene expression pattern in human G292 osteoblast cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40064-016-2329-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4906098PMC
July 2016

Selenium and its relationship with selenoprotein P and glutathione peroxidase in children and adolescents with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and hypothyroidism.

J Trace Elem Med Biol 2016 Mar 18;34:10-4. Epub 2015 Nov 18.

Metabolic Disorders Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; H.Aliasghar Hospital, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

The essential trace element selenium (Se) is required for thyroid hormone synthesis and metabolism. Selenoproteins contain selenocysteine and are responsible for biological functions of selenium. Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) is one of the major selenoproteins which protects the thyroid cells from oxidative damage. Selenoprotein P (SePP) is considered as the plasma selenium transporter to tissues. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum Se and SePP levels, and GPx activity in erythrocytes of children and adolescents with treated Hashimoto's thyroiditis, hypothyroidism, and normal subjects. Blood samples were collected from 32 patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, 20 with hypothyroidism, and 25 matched normal subjects. All the patients were under treatment with levothyroxine and at the time of analysis all of the thyroid function tests were normal. GPx enzyme activity was measured by spectrophotometry at 340 nm. Serum selenium levels were measured by high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption. SePP, TPOAb (anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody), and TgAb (anti-thyroglobulin antibody) were determined by ELISA kits. T4, T3, T3 uptake and TSH were also measured. Neither GPx activity nor SePP levels were significantly different in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis or hypothyroidism compared to normal subjects. Although GPx and SePP were both lower in patients with hypothyroidism compared to those with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and normal subjects but the difference was not significant. Serum Se levels also did not differ significantly in patients and normal subjects. We did not find any correlation between GPx or SePP with TPOAb or TgAb but SePP was significantly correlated with Se. Results show that in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis or hypothyroidism who have been under treatment with levothyroxine and have normal thyroid function tests, the GPx, SePP and Se levels are not significantly different.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtemb.2015.10.003DOI Listing
March 2016
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