Publications by authors named "Seyed Mohammad Moazzeni"

62 Publications

Mesenchymal stem cells induce expansion of regulatory T cells in abortion-prone mice.

Reproduction 2021 Apr;161(4):477-487

Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.

Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) is one of the most common complications of early pregnancy associated in most cases with local or systemic immune abnormalities such as the diminished proportion of regulatory T cells (Tregs). Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been shown to modulate the immune responses by de novo induction and expansion of Tregs. In this study, we analyzed the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in Treg-associated pregnancy protection following MSCs administration in an abortion-prone mouse mating. In a case-control study, syngeneic abdominal fat-derived MSCs were administered intraperitoneally (i.p) to the DBA/2-mated CBA/J female mice on day 4.5 of pregnancy. Abortion rate, Tregs proportion in spleen and inguinal lymph nodes, Ho1, Foxp3, Pd1 and Ctla4 genes expression at the feto-maternal interface were then measured on day 13.5 of pregnancy using flow cytometry and quantitative RT-PCR, respectively. The abortion rate in MSCs-treated mice reduced significantly and normalized to the level observed in normal pregnant animals. We demonstrated a significant induction of Tregs in inguinal lymph nodes but not in the spleen following MSCs administration. Administration of MSCs remarkably upregulated the expression of Ho1, Foxp3, Pd1 and Ctla4 genes in both placenta and decidua. Here, we show that MSCs therapy could protect the fetus in the abortion-prone mice through Tregs expansion and upregulation of Treg-related genes. These events could establish an immune-privileged microenvironment, which participates in the regulation of detrimental maternal immune responses against the semi-allogeneic fetus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/REP-20-0320DOI Listing
April 2021

A Randomized, Triple-blind Placebo-controlled Trial to Determine the Effect of Saffron on the Serum Levels of MMP-9 and TIMP-1 in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis.

Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol 2020 Jun 23;19(3):297-304. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Department of Biology, Damghan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damghan, Iran.

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-9 facilitates the migration of T-cells to central nervous system (CNS), while tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1(TIMP-1) inhibits the function of MMP-9. This study aimed to determine the appropriate treatment option for multiple sclerosis (MS). Forty-three relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) patients were randomly divided into two groups of 22 (group A, placebo) and 21 (group B, Saffron pill) individuals. Serum samples were collected from patients' blood before using the Saffron pills/placebo pills and then after 12 months. The serum level of MMP-9 and its inhibitor, as well as TIMP-1, were measured by ELISA kits. MMP-9 serum levels noticeably decreased in patients with MS following 12 months of treatment with Saffron pills (p=0.006) while the changes were not significant before and after 12 months of treatment with placebo pills. Although the levels of TIMP-1 increased significantly after one year treating with Saffron pills (p=0.0002), a considerable difference was not observed before and after taking the placebo pills. The study finding revealed that 12-months treatment with Saffron could have a significant role in reducing the serum level of MMP-9 and increasing the serum level of TIMP-1 in RRMS patients. Therefore, modulating the serum levels of MMP-9 as an important regulator of T cell trafficking to the CNS might be a promising strategy in the treatment of MS patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18502/ijaai.v19i3.3457DOI Listing
June 2020

Mesenchymal stem cells alter the frequency and cytokine profile of natural killer cells in abortion-prone mice.

J Cell Physiol 2020 10 9;235(10):7214-7223. Epub 2020 Feb 9.

Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.

Natural killer cells, which play a pivotal role in the establishment and maintenance of normal pregnancy, are the most abundant leukocytes at the fetomaternal interface that their subsets frequencies and cytokine profile are influential factors in the preservation of the decidual tolerogenic microenvironment. Any imbalance in NK cells' frequency and functions could be associated with pregnancy failure. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are shown to have immunomodulatory effects on NK cells and their cytokine profile. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of MSCs therapy on the cytokine profiles and subpopulations of NK cells in a murine model of recurrent pregnancy loss. Adipose-derived MSCs were injected intraperitoneally to the abortion-prone mice on Day 4.5 of gestation. The abortion rate was determined after MSCs administration and the frequency and cytokine profiles of the different subsets of NK cells were determined using the flow cytometry. Our results showed that, in abortion-prone mice, the frequency of CD49b NK cells was significantly higher than normal pregnant mice that decreased after therapy. We also demonstrated that MSCs downregulated the production of IFN-γ and upregulated IL-4 and IL-10 production by uNK cells. These findings indicate that MSCs can decrease the infiltration of CD49b NK cells to the fetomaternal interface and modulate the cytokine profile of NK cells from inflammatory to tolerogenic profile and thereby improve the tolerogenic microenvironment at the fetomaternal interface in benefit of pregnancy maintenance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcp.29620DOI Listing
October 2020

New Insights Into Implementation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Cancer Therapy: Prospects for Anti-angiogenesis Treatment.

Front Oncol 2019 28;9:840. Epub 2019 Aug 28.

Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.

Tumor microenvironment interacts with tumor cells, establishing an atmosphere to contribute or suppress the tumor development. Among the cells which play a role in the tumor microenvironment, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been demonstrated to possess the ability to orchestrate the fate of tumor cells, drawing the attention to the field. MSCs have been considered as cells with double-bladed effects, implicating either tumorigenic or anti-tumor activity. On the other side, the promising potential of MSCs in treating human cancer cells has been observed from the clinical studies. Among the beneficial characteristics of MSCs is the natural tumor-trophic migration ability, providing facility for drug delivery and, therefore, targeted treatment to detach tumor and metastatic cells. Moreover, these cells have been the target of engineering approaches, due to their easily implemented traits, in order to obtain the desired expression of anti-angiogenic, anti-proliferative, and pro-apoptotic properties, according to the tumor type. Tumor angiogenesis is the key characteristic of tumor progression and metastasis. Manipulation of angiogenesis has become an attractive approach for cancer therapy since the introduction of the first angiogenesis inhibitor, namely bevacizumab, for metastatic colorectal cancer therapy. This review tries to conclude the approaches, with focus on anti-angiogenesis approach, in implementing the MSCs to combat against tumor cell progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2019.00840DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6722482PMC
August 2019

Uterine Dendritic Cells Modulation by Mesenchymal Stem Cells Provides A Protective Microenvironment at The Feto-Maternal Interface: Improved Pregnancy Outcome in Abortion-Prone Mice.

Cell J 2019 Oct 15;21(3):274-280. Epub 2019 Jun 15.

Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.Electronic Address:

Objective: Dendritic cells (DCs) as major regulators of the immune response in the decidua play a pivotal role in establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. Immunological disorders are considered to be the main causes of unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortions (RSAs). Recently, we reported that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) therapy could improve fetal survival and reduce the abortion rate in abortion-prone mice, although the precise mechanisms of this action are poorly understood. Since MSCs have been shown to exert immunomodulatory effects on the immune cells, especially DCs, this study was performed to investigate the capability of MSCs to modulate the frequency, maturation state, and phenotype of uterine DCs (uDCs) as a potential mechanism for the improvement of pregnancy outcome.

Materials And Methods: In this experimental study, adipose-derived MSCs were intraperitoneally administered to abortion-prone pregnant mice on the fourth day of gestation. On the day 13.5 of pregnancy, after the determination of abortion rates, the frequency, phenotype, and maturation state of uDCs were analyzed using flow cytometry.

Results: Our results indicated that the administration of MSCs, at the implantation window, could significantly decrease the abortion rate and besides, increase the frequency of uDCs. MSCs administration also remarkably decreased the expression of DCs maturation markers (MHC-II, CD86, and CD40) on uDCs. However, we did not find any difference in the expression of CD11b on uDCs in MSCs-treated compared to control mice.

Conclusion: Regarding the mutual role of uDCs in establishment of a particular immunological state required for appropriate implantation, proper maternal immune responses and development of successful pregnancy, it seems that the modulation of uDCs by MSCs could be considered as one of the main mechanisms responsible for the positive effect of MSCs on treatment of RSA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22074/cellj.2019.6239DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6582417PMC
October 2019

Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) modulates the development of dendritic cells in a dual manner.

Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol 2019 Jun 30;41(3):455-462. Epub 2019 May 30.

a Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medical Sciences , Tarbiat Modares University , Tehran , Iran.

Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen presenting cells majorly modulated by various environmental factors. Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) is a pleiotropic cytokine from interleukin-6 family. Previous studies demonstrate that LIF is associated with several tolerogenic events; yet the exact effect of this cytokine on the generation and function of DCs was not explicitly identified. To clarify the role of LIF in DCs development, immature DCs were differentiated from mouse bone marrow (BM) in a GM-CSF and IL-4 containing medium with or without LIF. Afterwards, in maturation process, the differentiated DCs were exposed to TNF-α in the presence or absence of LIF. Immature DCs differentiated in the presence of LIF, proved a significant enhancement in the expression of MHCII, CD40, or CD86 molecules and in the antigen uptake function. LIF treatment of normal DCs while stimulating for maturation, caused a significant decrement in the expression of phenotypic markers as well as an increment in the antigen uptake function in comparison with TNF-α-only stimulated cells; however, the reduced ability for induction of allogenic T-cell proliferation proved no statistical significance. Our results can reflect a role for LIF in the generation and particularly maturation of DCs. It can be assumed that LIF rather modulates the maturation level, leading to the development of semi-mature and tolerogenic DCs. According to the high levels of LIF in immune-privileged sites like brain and uterine, it seems that the cytokine may account for the formation of local DCs that help the establishment of immunosuppressive environments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08923973.2019.1619761DOI Listing
June 2019

Comparison of The Therapeutic Effect of Syngeneic, Allogeneic, and Xenogeneic Adipose Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Abortion Rates in A Mouse Model.

Cell J 2019 Apr 18;21(1):92-98. Epub 2018 Nov 18.

Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran. Electronic Address:

Objective: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), due to their immunomodulatory functions, are an ideal candidate for the treatment of immune-related diseases. Recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) is one of the most common complications of pregnancy which in many cases is related to the immune system disorders. Our previous study has shown that the abortion rate was decreased following the syngeneic MSCs therapy in abortion-prone mice. In this study, the therapeutic effect of syngeneic, allogeneic, and xenogeneic MSCs was compared in a mouse model of RSA.

Materials And Methods: In this experimental study, MSCs were isolated from adipose tissue (ASCs) of CBA/J and BALB/c mice and human. After characterization, ASCs were injected (IP) at day 4 of gestation to female CBA/J mice following their mating with DBA/2 male mice. In the control group, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) was injected and CBA/J×BALB/c mating was also used as the normal pregnancy control. On day 14.5 of pregnancy, embryo resorption rate was determined.

Results: The abortion rate significantly decreased following the ASCs therapy from syngeneic (6.31%), allogeneic (6.54%), and xenogeneic group (12.36%) compared to ASCs non-treated group (34.4%). There was no statistical difference between ASCs treated groups, however syngeneic and allogeneic ASCs reduced the abortion rate more efficiently than xenogeneic ASC.

Conclusion: The abortion rate was significantly decreased following the intraperitoneal administration of ASCs from various donated sources in abortion-prone mice. These results indicated that the immunogenicity of allogeneic and xenogeneic ASCs is not a contradictory problem for their therapeutic effects on RSA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22074/cellj.2019.5954DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6275426PMC
April 2019

Engineered Exosomes for Targeted Transfer of siRNA to HER2 Positive Breast Cancer Cells.

Appl Biochem Biotechnol 2019 Jan 28;187(1):352-364. Epub 2018 Jun 28.

Department of Medical Biotechnology, Faculty of Medical Science, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O.Box:14115-331 I.R, Jalal ale Ahmad Highway, Tehran, Iran.

Exosomes are the best options for gene targeting, because of their natural, nontoxic, non-immunogenic, biodegradable, and targetable properties. By engineering exosome-producing cells, ligands can be expressed fusing with exosomal surface proteins for targeting cancer cell receptors. In the present study, HER2-positive breast cancer cells were targeted with a modified exosome producing engineered HEK293T cell. For this purpose, the HEK293T cells were transduced by a lentiviral vector bearing-LAMP2b-DARPin G3 chimeric gene. Stable cells expressing the fusion protein were selected, and the exosomes produced by these cells were isolated from the culture medium, characterized, and then loaded with siRNA for subsequent delivery to the SKBR3 cells. Our results showed that stable HEK293T cells produced DARPin G3 on the surface of exosomes. These exosomes can bind specifically to HER2/Neu and are capable of delivering siRNA molecules against TPD52 gene into SKBR3 cell line down-regulating the gene expression up to 70%. Present approach is envisaged to facilitate genes and drugs transfer to HER2 cancer cells providing additional option for gene therapy and drug delivery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12010-018-2813-4DOI Listing
January 2019

Mesenchymal stem cells therapy protects fetuses from resorption and induces Th2 type cytokines profile in abortion prone mouse model.

Transpl Immunol 2018 04 6;47:26-31. Epub 2018 Jan 6.

Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

The imbalance of Th1/Th2 cytokines is well known in recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) mouse model. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) possess potent immunoregulatory properties that could modulate the Th1 cytokine responses in benefit of Th2 types. In this study, we aimed to analyze the local and systemic balance of Th1/Th2 cytokines following MSCs therapy. Syngeneic adipose derived MSCs were administered to abortion prone mice during the implantation window. The abortion rate was determined and IL-4, IL-6, IL-12, IL-2, IFN-γ and GM-CSF gene expression was evaluated by Real-Time-PCR in decidual and placental tissues of pregnant mice at day 13.5 of pregnancy. Splenocytes of pregnant mice were co-cultured with mitomycin C treated paternal splenocytes and IL-2, IL-4, IL-10 and IFN-γ cytokines were measured in co-cultures supernatants by ELISA method. Proliferation response of female splenocytes to paternal antigens was also evaluated using the CFSE method. Our results showed a significant reduction in abortion rate following MSCs administration in abortion prone mice. We also observed a significant down-regulation of IL-2 and IFN-γ as well as up-regulation of IL-4 and IL-10 production from pregnant mouse splenocytes following MSCs therapy along with a significant reduction of splenocytes proliferation against paternal antigens. Our findings revealed that MSCs therapy increased the IL-4, IL-6, IL-10 and GM-CSF and at the same time decreased the IL-12, IL-2 and IFN-γ gene expression at feto-maternal interface. Here, we showed that MSCs therapy could modulate the systemic as well as local Th1/Th2 cytokines production along with protection of fetus from resorption in abortion prone mice. The fine balance of Th1/Th2 cytokine response could be considered as one of the possible mechanisms for fetal protection following MSCs therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.trim.2018.01.002DOI Listing
April 2018

CD40 Knocked Down Tolerogenic Dendritic Cells Decrease Diabetic Injury.

Iran J Immunol 2017 Dec;14(4):270-280

Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Malek-Ashtar University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Type-1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease in which T lymphocytes destroy insulin-producing β-cells. Control of self-reactive T lymphocytes and recovery of diabetic injury is the end point of T1D.

Objective: To investigate generation of tolerogenic dendritic cells (tolDCs) as an innovative method of diabetes therapy.

Methods: Lentivirus vector production was achieved by GIPZ mouse CD40 shRNA, psPAX2 and pMD2G plasmids DNA. Purified bone marrow derived DCs were treated with CD40 shRNA, and expression of CD40 and mRNA level were evaluated by flow cytometry and Real-Time PCR, respectively. CD40 knock-down DCs were injected into STZ-induced diabetic mice. Blood glucose; glucose tolerance test and weight were analyzed in different groups.

Results: Mice treated with CD40 shRNA transfected DCs showed considerable differences in blood glucose, glucose tolerance, and weight compared to other groups. Also cytokine assays indicated an increase in IL-13 production in the CD40 shRNA group.

Conclusion: In streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice model, administration of tolerogenic dendritic cells could improve diabetic parameters.
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http://dx.doi.org/IJIv14i4A2DOI Listing
December 2017

Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapy Prevents Abortion in CBA/J × DBA/2 Mating.

Reprod Sci 2018 08 29;25(8):1261-1269. Epub 2017 Nov 29.

1 Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.

Immunological disorders are among the main causes of recurrent spontaneous abortions (RSAs). Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been shown to modulate various aspects of immune responses. It seems that MSCs may improve the immunological conditions in immune-mediated RSA. The aim of this study is the reduction of resorption in RSA mouse model through MSCs therapy. The adipose-derived MSCs were administered intraperitoneal to pregnant CBA/J mice on day 4.5 of gestation in abortion-prone matting. On day 13.5 of pregnancy, abortion rates were calculated and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), interleukin 10 (IL-10), interferon γ (IFN-γ), and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) gene expression in deciduas were evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The level of TGF-β in serum was also determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. The obtained results showed that MSCs therapy could reduce the abortion rate significantly in test group compared to controls. MSCs therapy also caused a significant upregulation of TGF-β and IL-10 and downregulation of IFN-γ and TNF-α genes expression in deciduas. However, the levels of TGF-β didn't change in mice sera. Due to the significant decrease in abortion rate, we concluded that MSCs therapy could modulate the immune responses in fetomaternal interface and protect fetus from undesirable immune responses. So, these cells might be considered as a new therapeutic for spontaneous pregnancy loss. The local upregulation of TGF-β and IL-10 and downregulation of IFN-γ and TNF-α gene expression in decidua could be considered as one possible mechanism of immune regulation, which could protect the fetus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1933719117737848DOI Listing
August 2018

In silico designing, cloning, and heterologous expression of novel chimeric human B lymphocyte CD20 extra loop.

Tumour Biol 2016 Sep 27;37(9):12547-12553. Epub 2016 Jun 27.

Molecular biology Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box: 19395-5478, Tehran, Iran.

Design and production of monoclonal antibody for the diagnosis and immunotherapy of non-Hodgkin lymphoma require a suitable CD20 antigen as an effective immunogen. In this study, a new chimeric human CD20 extra loop (hCD20EXL) protein was designed by bioinformatics tools and was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 DE3. Amino acid sequences, protein structure, immunogenicity, and other physicochemical property of potential antigens were in silico analyzed. Antigenicity, codon optimization, and other predictions of designed protein were determined by bioinformatics tools. The designed protein was heterologously expressed in E. coli and verified by SDS-PAGE and Western blot. Immunogenicity of this antigen was tested in mice, and reactivity of the antibodies was evaluated using flow cytometry. Experimental analysis confirmed the in silico prediction of the designed chimeric hCD20 in this study. Therefore, based on these results, it is suggested that the new chimeric hCD20 antigen could be an appropriate immunogen for production of monoclonal antibody in immunotherapy purposes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13277-016-5105-zDOI Listing
September 2016

Conjugated Alpha-Alumina nanoparticle with vasoactive intestinal peptide as a Nano-drug in treatment of allergic asthma in mice.

Eur J Pharmacol 2016 Nov 19;791:811-820. Epub 2016 Oct 19.

Division of Pharmacology, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands; Airways Disease Section, National Heart and Lung Institute, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, UK; Clinical Tuberculosis and Epidemiology Research Center, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (NRITLD), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease characterized by airway inflammation, bronchoconstriction, airway hyperresponsiveness and recurring attacks of impaired breathing. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) has been proposed as a novel anti-asthma drug due to its effects on airway smooth muscle relaxation, bronchodilation and vasodilation along with its immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties. In the current study, we investigated the therapeutic effects of VIP when conjugated with α-alumina nanoparticle (α-AN) to prevent enzymatic degradation of VIP in the respiratory tract. VIP was conjugated with α-AN. Balb/c mice were sensitized and challenges with ovalbumin (OVA) or PBS and were divided in four groups; VIP-treated, α-AN-treated, α-AN-VIP-treated and beclomethasone-treated as a positive control group. Specific and total IgE level, airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), bronchial cytokine expression and lung histology were measured. α-AN-VIP significantly reduced the number of eosinophils (Eos), serum IgE level, Th2 cytokines and AHR. These effects of α-AN-VIP were more pronounced than that seen with beclomethasone or VIP alone (P<0.05). The current data indicate that α-AN-VIP can be considered as an effective nano-drug for the treatment of asthma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2016.10.014DOI Listing
November 2016

Is TGFβ as an anti-inflammatory cytokine required for differentiation of inflammatory T17 cells?

J Immunotoxicol 2016 11 18;13(6):775-783. Epub 2016 Oct 18.

a Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medical Sciences , Tarbiat Modares University , Tehran , Iran.

T-Helper 17 (T17) cells are a CD4 T subset that plays a critical role in the pathophysiology of inflammatory disorders, especially chronic forms. It seems that the derivation of T17 cells from their precursors take place in inflammatory microenvironment. The role of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β as an anti-inflammatory cytokine in T17 cell differentiation is controversial. To address some of the discrepancies that exist among different studies, this study was undertaken to more clarify the TGFβ role in human T17 cell differentiation. Here, CD4 T-cells were isolated from peripheral blood samples and cultured in X-VIVO 15 serum-free medium. Purified cells were then treated with different combinations of polarizing cytokines (interleukin [IL]1-β, -6, and -23, with or without TGFβ), neutralizing anti-interferon (IFN)-γ and anti-IL-4 antibodies and polyclonal stimulators anti-CD3 and -CD28 antibodies, and then analyzed for IL-17, IFNγ, Foxp3, and CD25 expression by flow cytometry and for release of IL-17, -21, -22, and -10 into culture media by ELISA. The effects of selective inhibition of TGFβ signaling pathway on T17 cell polarization were also determined by using small molecules SB-431542 and A83-01. The current study found that a combination of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1β, -6, and -23, but not TGFβ, could be used as a cytokine combination to induce development of human T17 cells. It was also shown that TGFβ acted as a negative regulator in this regard and also led to reduced IL-17 and IL-22 production while inducing Foxp3 expression. Indeed, blocking of TGFβ signaling pathways by selective inhibitors up-regulated T17 cell differentiation. From the data here, we concluded that TGFβ down-regulates human T17 cell differentiation and that a presence of pro-inflammatory cytokines (along with IFNγ and IL-4 neutralizing antibodies) is sufficient for optimal differentiation of human T17 cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1547691X.2016.1193574DOI Listing
November 2016

Role of cytomegalovirus on the maturation and function of monocyte derived dendritic cells of liver transplant patients.

World J Transplant 2016 Jun;6(2):336-46

Mohammad Hossein Karimi, Ramin Yaghobi, Shiraz Transplant Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz 7193711351, Iran.

Aim: To study the impact of association between cytomegalovirus (CMV) pathogenesis with dendritic cell (DC) maturation and function was evaluated in CMV reactivated liver transplanted patients in comparing with non-reactivated ones, and healthy controls.

Methods: Monocyte derived dendritic cells (MoDCs) was generated from collected ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid-treated blood samples from patient groups and controls. In these groups, expression rates and mean fluorescent intensity of DC markers were evaluated using flowcytometry technique. Secretion of cytokines including: interleukin (IL)-6, IL-12 and IL-23 were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods. The gene expression of toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), TLR4 and IL-23 were analyzed using in-house real-time polymerase chain reaction protocols.

Results: Results have been shown significant decreases in: Expression rates of MoDC markers including CD83, CD1a and human leukocyte antigen DR (HLA-DR), the mean fluorescence intensitys for CD1a and HLA-DR, and secretion of IL-12 in CMV reactivated compared with non-reactivated liver transplanted patients. On the other hand, significant increases have been shown in the secretions of IL-6 and IL-23 and gene expression levels of TLR2, TLR4 and IL-23 from MoDCs in CMV reactivated compared with non-reactivated liver transplanted recipients.

Conclusion: DC functional defects in CMV reactivated recipients, such as decrease in expression of DC maturation markers, increase in secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, and TLRs can emphasize on the importance of CMV infectivity in development of liver rejection in transplanted patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5500/wjt.v6.i2.336DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4919738PMC
June 2016

The effect of pro-inflammatory cytokines on immunophenotype, differentiation capacity and immunomodulatory functions of human mesenchymal stem cells.

Cytokine 2016 09 9;85:51-60. Epub 2016 Jun 9.

Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), as cells with potential clinical utilities, have demonstrated preferential incorporation into inflammation sites. Immunophenotype and immunomodulatory functions of MSCs could alter by inflamed-microenvironments due to the local pro-inflammatory cytokine milieu. A major cellular mediator with specific function in promoting inflammation and pathogenicity of autoimmunity are IL-17-producing T helper 17 (Th17) cells that polarize in inflamed sites in the presence of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6 and IL-23. Since MSCs are promising candidate for cell-based therapeutic strategies in inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, Th17 cell polarizing factors may alter MSCs phenotype and function. In this study, human bone-marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSC) and adipose tissue-derived MSCs (AD-MSC) were cultured with or without IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-23 as pro-inflammatory cytokines. The surface markers and their differentiation capacity were measured in cytokine-untreated and cytokine-treated MSCs. MSCs-mediated immunomodulation was analyzed by their regulatory effects on mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) and the level of IL-10, TGF-β, IL-4, IFN-γ and TNF-α production as immunomodulatory cytokines. Pro-inflammatory cytokines showed no effect on MSCs morphology, immunophenotype and co-stimulatory molecules except up-regulation of CD45. Adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation capacity increased in CD45+ MSCs. Moreover, cytokine-treated MSCs preserved the suppressive ability of allogeneic T cell proliferation and produced higher level of TGF-β and lower level of IL-4. We concluded pro-inflammatory cytokines up-regulate the efficacy of MSCs in cell-based therapy of degenerative, inflammatory and autoimmune disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cyto.2016.06.003DOI Listing
September 2016

A novel dendritic cell-targeted lentiviral vector, encoding Ag85A-ESAT6 fusion gene of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, could elicit potent cell-mediated immune responses in mice.

Mol Immunol 2016 07 3;75:101-11. Epub 2016 Jun 3.

Department of Virology, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), leading to high mortality worldwide. It is well-established that cellular immunity plays a critical role to control Mtb infection. Dendritic Cells (DCs) are potent antigen presenting cells, which play an important role to prime cell-mediated immune responses. In vivo targeting of DCs has been shown to induce both strong cellular immunity and protection against tumor challenges. The aim of the present study was not only to assess the immunizing potential of a novel DC-targeted recombinant lentivirus expressing fusion antigen Ag85A-ESAT6 of Mtb, but also to compare it with a recombinant lentivirus with broad cellular tropism expressing the same antigen in mice. The findings demonstrated that our novel recombinant DC-targeted lentivector was able to successfully transduce and express the fusion antigen Ag85A-E6 in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, a single footpad injection of targeted lentivectors could elicit strong T-helper 1 (Th1) immunity against the above mentioned antigen, as indicated by the specific high-level production of IFN-γ and IL-2 using spleen lymphocytes and lymphoproliferative responses. Despite of these promising results, more attempts are required to elucidate the protective and therapeutic efficacy of this approach in future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molimm.2016.04.014DOI Listing
July 2016

Decidual soluble factors, through modulation of dendritic cells functions, determine the immune response patterns at the feto-maternal interface.

J Reprod Immunol 2016 Apr 7;114:10-7. Epub 2016 Jan 7.

Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Dendritic cells (DCs) can acquire immunogenic or tolerogenic properties depending on intrinsic and tissue environmental factors. We aimed to determine the immunomodulatory effects of decidual soluble factors from abortion- and non-abortion-prone mice on DC functions. The decidual cell supernatants (DS) were obtained from abortion-prone and non-abortion-prone mice. Splenic DCs were treated with DS and conalbumin (as an antigen) and injected into the palms of the mice. After five days, regional lymph node cells were collected and cultured in the presence and absence of conalbumin. The proliferation of lymphocyte cells, the frequency of regulatory T cells (Tregs), and the production of IL-4 and IFN-γ were measured by [(3)H]thymidine incorporation, flow cytometry, and ELISA respectively. Our results indicated that DS from both abortion- and non-abortion-prone mice decreased the ability of DCs to induce lymphocyte proliferation and IFN-γ production, while enhanced their capacity to induce Tregs compared with non-treated DCs. Another important finding was that the immunosuppressive effects of DS from abortion-prone mice on DCs for inducing proliferative responses, developing Tregs, and producing IFN-γ by primed lymphocytes was less than DS from non-abortion-prone mice. We also found that only DS from non-abortion-prone mice could enhance the capacity of DCs to induce IL-4 production by primed lymphocytes. It can be concluded that decidua-secreted factors, by altering DC functions, can determine the pattern of immune responses at the fetomaternal interface and, subsequently, pregnancy outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jri.2016.01.001DOI Listing
April 2016

Dendritic cell based immunotherapy using tumor stem cells mediates potent antitumor immune responses.

Cancer Lett 2016 Apr 20;374(1):175-185. Epub 2016 Jan 20.

Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are demonstrated to be usually less sensitive to conventional methods of cancer therapies, resulting in tumor relapse. It is well-known that an ideal treatment would be able to selectively target and kill CSCs, so as to avoid the tumor reversion. The aim of our present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a dendritic cell (DC) based vaccine against CSCs in a mouse model of malignant melanoma. C57BL/6 mouse bone marrow derived DCs pulsed with a murine melanoma cell line (B16F10) or CSC lysates were used as a vaccine. Immunization of mice with CSC lysate-pulsed DCs was able to induce a significant prophylactic effect by a higher increase in lifespan and obvious depression of tumor growth in tumor bearing mice. The mice vaccinated with DCs loaded with CSC-lysate were revealed to produce specific cytotoxic responses to CSCs. The proliferation assay and cytokine (IFN-γ and IL-4) secretion of mice vaccinated with CSC lysate-pulsed DCs also showed more favorable results, when compared to those receiving B16F10 lysate-pulsed DCs. These findings suggest a potential strategy to improve the efficacy of DC-based immunotherapy of cancers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.canlet.2016.01.021DOI Listing
April 2016

In Vitro Generation of IL-35-expressing Human Wharton's Jelly-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Using Lentiviral Vector.

Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol 2015 Aug;14(4):416-26

Department of Stem Cells Biology, Stem Cell Technology Research Center, Tehran, Iran AND National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Tehran, Iran.

Human Wharton's Jelly-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (hWJ-MSCs) are easily available cells without transplant rejection problems or ethical concerns compared to bone-marrow-derived MSCs for prospective clinical applications. These cells display immunosuppressive properties and may be able to play an important role in autoimmune disorders. Regulatory T-cells (Treg) are important to prevent autoimmune disease development. Interleukin 35 (IL-35) induces the proliferation of Treg cell populations and reduces the activity of T helper 17 (Th17) and T helper 1 (Th1) cells, which play a central role in initiation of inflammation and autoimmune disease. Recent studies identified IL-35 as a new inhibitory cytokine required for the suppressive function of Treg cells. We created IL-35-producing hWJ-MSCs as a good vehicle for reduction of inflammation and autoimmune diseases. We isolated hWJ-MSCs based on explant culture. HWJ-MSCs were transduced at MOI=50 (Multiplicity of Infection) with lentiviral particles harboring murine Interleukin 35 (mIL-35). Expression of IL-35 in hWJ-MSCs was quantified by an IL-35 ELISA kit. IL-35 bioactivity was analyzed by inhibiting the proliferation of mouse splenocytes using CFSE cell proliferation kit. Frequency of CD4+CD25+CD127 low/neg Foxp3+ Treg cells was measured by flow cytometry. There was an up to 85% GFP positive transduction rate, and the cells successfully released a high level of mIL-35 protein (750 ng/ml). IL-35 managed to inhibit CD4+ T cell proliferation with PHA, and improved the frequency of Treg cells. Our data suggest that transduced hWJ-MSCs overexpressing IL-35 may provide a useful approach for basic research on gene therapy for autoimmune disorders.
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August 2015

Optimization of multi-epitopic HIV-1 recombinant protein expression in prokaryote system and conjugation to mouse DEC-205 monoclonal antibody: implication for in-vivo targeted delivery of dendritic cells.

Iran J Basic Med Sci 2015 Feb;18(2):145-52

Department of Virology, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran.

Objectives: Multi-epitopic protein vaccines and direction of vaccine delivery to dendritic cells (DCs) are promising approaches for enhancing immune responses against mutable pathogens. Escherichia coli is current host for expression of recombinant proteins, and it is important to optimize expression condition. The aim of this study was the optimization of multi-epitopic HIV-1 tat/pol/gag/env recombinant protein (HIVtop4) expression by E. coli and conjugation of purified protein to anti DEC-205 monoclonal antibody as candidate vaccine.

Materials And Methods: In this study, expression was induced in BL21 (DE3) E. coli cells by optimization of induction condition, post induction incubation time, temperature and culture medium formula. Some culture mediums were used for cell culture, and isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside was used for induction of expression. Protein was purified by Ni-NTA column chromatography and confirmed against anti-His antibody in western-blotting. To exploit DCs properties for immunization purposes, recombinant protein chemically coupled to αDEC-205 monoclonal antibody and confirmed against anti-His antibody in western-blotting.

Results: The optimum condition for expression was 1 mM IPTG during 4 hr cultures in 2XYT medium, and final protein produced in soluble form. Conjugation of purified protein to αDEC-205 antibody resulted in smears of protein: antibodies conjugate in different molecular weights.

Conclusion: The best cultivation condition for production of HIVtop4 protein is induction by 1 mM IPTG during 4 hr in 2XYT medium. The final concentration of purified protein was 500 µg/ml.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4366725PMC
February 2015

Shark cartilage 14 kDa protein as a dendritic cells activator.

Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol 2015 Apr 11;37(2):165-70. Epub 2015 Feb 11.

Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University , Tehran , Iran.

Low molecular weight components of shark cartilage are reported to have anti-tumor as well as immuno-stimulating effects. Dendritic cells (DCs) are potent antigen-presenting cells (APCs) that have a key role in establishment of anti-cancer immune response. In this study, the effect of 14 kDa protein from shark cartilage was investigated on stimulation and maturation of dendritic cells. The isolated 14 kDa protein from shark cartilage extract was added to DCs medium during overnight culture and their maturation and T cells stimulation potential was investigated. The majority of shark-cartilage-treated DCs expressed higher levels of maturation markers and were more effective in stimulation of allogenic T cells compared with non-treated DCs (p < 0.05). Our results showed that shark cartilage 14 kDa protein can potentially be used in DC-mediated T-cells stimulation and induction of desirable immune responses in clinical trials such as cancer immunotherapy. However, further studies are required to examine this proposal.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/08923973.2015.1006370DOI Listing
April 2015

Investigation of immunomodulatory properties of human Wharton's Jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells after lentiviral transduction.

Cell Immunol 2015 Feb 31;293(2):59-66. Epub 2014 Dec 31.

National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Tehran, Iran; Stem Cells Biology Department, Stem Cell Technology Research Center, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Human Wharton's Jelly-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (hWJ-MSCs) are considered as an alternative for bone-marrow-derived MSCs. These cells have immunosuppressive properties. It was unclear whether the WJ-MSCs would sustain their immunomodulatory characteristics after lentiviral transduction or not. In this study, we evaluated immunomodulatory properties of WJ-MSCs after lentiviral transduction. HWJ-MSCs were transduced with lentiviral particles. Expression of transduced and un-transduced hWJ-MSCs surface molecules and secretion of IL-10, HGF, VEGF and TGF-β was analyzed. Cell proliferation and frequency of CD4(+)CD25(+) CD127(low/neg) Foxp3(+) T regulatory cells was measured. There was no difference between the surface markers and secretion of IL-10, HGF, VEGF and TGF-β in transduced and un-transduced hWJ-MSCs. Both cells inhibited the proliferation of PHA stimulated PBMCs, and improved the frequency of T regulatory cells. These findings suggest that lentiviral transduction does not alter the immunomodulatory function of hWJ-MSCs. However, lentiviral transduction may have a wide range of applications in gene therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cellimm.2014.12.003DOI Listing
February 2015

Menstrual blood-derived stromal stem cells inhibit optimal generation and maturation of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells.

Immunol Lett 2014 Dec 18;162(2 Pt B):239-46. Epub 2014 Oct 18.

Nanobiotechnology Research Center, Avicenna Research Institute, ACECR, Tehran, Iran; Immunology Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Introduction: Menstrual blood stromal stem Cells (MenSCs) have shown promising potential for future clinical settings. Nonetheless, data regarding their interaction with immune cells is still scarce. Here, we investigated whether MenSCs could affect the generation and/or maturation of human blood monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs).

Materials And Methods: MenSCs were isolated from menstrual blood of normal women through culture of adherent mononuclear cells. Magnetically-isolated peripheral blood monocytes were differentiated toward immature DCs (iDC) and mature DCs (mDCs) in the presence or absence of MenSCs. Monocyte-derived cells were assessed for the percentage of monocyte-, iDC-, and mDC-specific markers as well as the expression of costimulatory molecules. IL-6 and IL-10 levels were also determined in supernatants of MenSC-monocytes cocultures.

Results: Optimal phenotypic differentiation of monocytes into iDCs was inhibited upon coculture with MenSCs. Moreover, higher levels of IL-6 and IL-10 were detected in these settings. Even though addition of MenSCs to iDC cultures could not prevent iDC maturation, coculture of MenSCs with monocytes from the beginning of differentiation process could effectively hinder generation of fully mature DCs.

Conclusion: This is the first study to address the inhibitory impact of MenSCs on generation and maturation of DCs. IL-6 and IL-10 could be partly held responsible for this effect. Given the central roles of DCs in regulation of immune responses, these results highlight the importance of further research on the potential modulatory impacts of MenSCs, as rather easily accessible and expandable stem cells, on the immune system-related cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.imlet.2014.10.005DOI Listing
December 2014

Maturation state and function of monocyte derived dendritic cells in liver transplant recipients.

Iran J Immunol 2014 Sep;11(3):153-65

Department of Biology, College of Basic Sciences, Tehran Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran,

Background: Dendritic cells (DCs) are potent antigen presenting cells for triggering of the immune reaction post transplantation. These cells are centrally involved in the initiation of T cell-dependent immune responses.

Objective: To compare the level of DC maturation and function in liver transplant recipients with healthy controls.

Methods: In this study, twelve peripheral blood samples were selected from six liver transplant patients and six healthy controls. After the generation of DCs from monocytes, expression levels and mean fluorescent intensity (MFI) of several DC maturation markers were evaluated using flow cytometry. Secretion of IL-6, IL-12 and IL-23 proinflammatory cytokines was determined using ELISA. Gene expressions of TLR-2, TLR-4 and IL-23 were analyzed using real-time PCR.

Results: DC expression markers including CD83 (p=0.007) and CD86 (p=0.02), as well as secretion of IL-6 (p=0.02) and IL-12 (p=0.007) by DCs were significantly increased in liver transplant patients compared with healthy controls. The MFI of CD86 (p=0.009) and HLA-DR (p= 0.005) expression on DCs was also higher in patients. The expression of TLR-2 transcripts in DCs of patients was higher than that of the controls (p=0.03).

Conclusion: Based on these findings, increased frequency of DCs expressing CD83 and CD86, higher expression of CD86, HLA-DR, and TLR-2 as well as elevated secretion of proinflammatory cytokines in DCs of liver transplant recipient's point to the more mature phenotype and active function of DCs in patients compared with controls.
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http://dx.doi.org/IJIv11i3A2DOI Listing
September 2014

Expression of activation-induced cytidine deaminase gene in B lymphocytes of patients with common variable immunodeficiency.

Iran J Pediatr 2013 Aug;23(4):451-7

Research Center for Immunodeficiencies, Children's Medical Center, Pediatrics Center of Excellence, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Objective: Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a heterogeneous disorder characterized by reduced serum level of IgG, IgA or IgM and recurrent bacterial infections. Class switch recombination (CSR) as a critical process in immunoglobulin production is defective in a group of CVID patients. Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) protein is an important molecule involving CSR process. The aim of this study was to investigate the AID gene mRNA production in a group of CVID patients indicating possible role of this molecule in this disorder.

Methods: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of 29 CVID patients and 21 healthy controls were isolated and stimulated by CD40L and IL-4 to induce AID gene expression. After 5 days AID gene mRNA production was investigated by real time polymerase chain reaction.

Findings: AID gene was expressed in all of the studied patients. However the mean density of extracted AID mRNA showed higher level in CVID patients (230.95±103.04 ng/ml) rather than controls (210.00±44.72 ng/ml; P=0.5). CVID cases with lower level of AID had decreased total level of IgE (P=0.04) and stimulated IgE production (P=0.02); while cases with increased level of AID presented higher level of IgA (P=0.04) and numbers of B cells (P=0.02) and autoimmune disease (P=0.02).

Conclusion: Different levels of AID gene expression may have important roles in dysregulation of immune system and final clinical presentation in CVID patients. Therefore investigating the expression of AID gene can help in classifying CVID patients.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3883376PMC
August 2013

Cloning, Expression, Purification and Toxicity Evaluation of Helicobacter pylori Outer Inflammatory Protein A.

Indian J Microbiol 2013 Dec 12;53(4):391-4. Epub 2013 Mar 12.

Department of Bacteriology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.

The Helicobacter pylori outer membrane proteins play an important role in pathogenesis; the outer inflammatory protein A (OipA) is one of these proteins which play the main role in the development of inflammation. In this study, purification of recombinant H. pylori OipA was performed by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. Gastric carcinoma epithelial cells (AGS cell) were treated by different concentrations of recombinant OipA for various lengths of time and cell viability was evaluated by the viability assay. Statistical analysis showed that OipA had toxic effects on AGS cells in a concentration of 500 ng/ml after 24 and 48 h, and this toxic dose was 256 ng/ml after 72 h. OipA had direct toxic effects on gastric epithelial cells and the toxicity was observed to depend on time and dose of H. pylori exposure. Attachment of H. pylori to gastric epithelial cells is a key part in the pathogenesis and enables H. pylori to damage the epithelial cells with OipA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12088-013-0383-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3779289PMC
December 2013

Ovarian stimulation affects the population of mouse uterine NK cells at early pregnancy.

Biomed Res Int 2013 17;2013:182531. Epub 2013 Nov 17.

Immunology Department, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.

The aim of this study was to determine the influence of ovarian stimulation on endometrial mouse NK cell population. For superovulation, the female adult NMRI mice were injected i.p. with 10 IU of the pregnant mare serum gonadotropin followed 48 h later by an i.p. injection of 10 IU human chorionic gonadotropin hormone. Ovarian stimulated and nonstimulated mice were mated with fertile male. The presence of vaginal plug proved natural pregnancy, and this day was considered as day one of pregnancy. Tissue samples were prepared from the uterine horn and spleen of both groups of study on 7th day of pregnancy. Serum estradiol-17β and progesterone were measured at the same time. The tissue cryosections were prepared and double stained for CD 161 and CD3 markers, and NK cells population was analyzed. Relative frequency of NK cells was significantly lower in stroma and myometrium in hyperstimulated mice compared with the control group. However, no difference was seen in percentage of NK cells in spleen. The ovarian stimulation influences the proportion of uterine NK cells and may affect the embryo implantation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/182531DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3848078PMC
August 2014

Correlation between serum zinc levels and successful immunotherapy in recurrent spontaneous abortion patients.

J Hum Reprod Sci 2013 Apr;6(2):147-51

Immunology, Asthma and Allergy Research Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Immunotherapy with paternal lymphocytes plays an important role in preventing recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) and is an effective treatment for it. This kind of treatment is performed as an immunotherapy method in several centers in the world. It attributes to the production of anti-paternal cytotoxic antibodies (APCAs) in women with RSA. Production of APCA after lymphocyte immunotherapy (LIT) in RSA patients gives them a better chance for successful pregnancy. Regarding the important effect of trace elements on the function of the immune system, we tried to investigate the correlation between serum zinc level and the success of LIT in RSA.

Materials And Methods: Serum zinc concentration was determined in two groups of RSA patients using atomic absorption spectrophotometer systems. Group (a) that responded to the paternal lymphocytes and their cross-match test was positive, and group (b) that had no response to the paternal lymphocytes immunizations and their cross-match test was negative.

Results: Serum zinc levels in group (a) patients were 74.98 ± 11.88 μg/dl, which was significantly higher than those in group (b) with the zinc concentration of 64.22 ± 9.22 μg/dl.

Conclusions: Zinc deficiency may be one of the substantial causes of negative results for LIT in RSA patients. Therefore, compensation of zinc defect before LIT can be a promising approach to improve the immune response in patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0974-1208.117170DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3778605PMC
April 2013

Does nitric oxide generated by dendritic cells contribute to the low incidence of GVHD after cord blood transplantation?

Iran J Immunol 2013 Sep;10(3):190-2

Department of Immunology, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran, e-mail:

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http://dx.doi.org/IJIv10i3A8DOI Listing
September 2013